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twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 8 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Binomial Nomenclature


Each species is assigned a 2
-
word name


First word is the genus & second word is species


Example: Canis familiaris


Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)


7 Levels of Order


Kingdom


Phylum


Class


Order


Family


Genus


Species

Kingdoms or Domains


Kingdoms




Monera


Bacteria


Protista


Fungi


Animalia


Plantae

Domains (Kingdoms)


In this model, K. Monera is split into 2 kingdoms


K. Monera is separated into:


Domain Archaebacteria


Domain Eubacteria


Other Domain: Eukarya


Consists of K. Fungi, K. Plantae, K. Animalia



Also, much of K. Protista has been classified into 1 of
the other 3 kingdoms


What are the other 3 kingdoms called?

3 Domains

1.
Archea


Extremeophiles


Halophiles


Thermophiles


Methanogens


2.
Bacteria (Eubacteria)


Gram
-
Positive


Chlamydia


Cyanobacteria


Spirochetes

3
rd

Domain
-

Eukarya


Eukaryotes



Superkingdom that incorporates 4 of the kingdoms
from the kingdom model


Protista


Fungi


Plantae


Animalia

3 Domains Compared

Feature

Archae

Bacteria

Eukarya

Membrane
-
bound
organelles

NO

NO

YES

Peptidoglycan in
Cell Walls

NO

YES

NO

Introns

Some

NO

YES

Antibiotic
Sensitivity

NO

YES

NO

Domains vs. Kingdoms

Domains vs. Kingdoms (Page 2)

Questions


In the Kingdom classification, how many kingdoms
are there?


5




What are the names of the Kingdoms?


Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia


In the Domain classification, how many Domains are
there and what are they?


Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

Fill in the Table
-


Feature

Archae

Bacteria

Eukarya

Membrane
-
bound
organelles

Peptidoglycan in
Cell Walls

Introns

Antibiotic
Sensitivity

Kingdom Monera


Prokaryotes


Unicellular (Single
-
celled) organisms that lack
membrane
-
bound organelles and nuclei


Divided by


1. Domain


2. Nutritional Classification


3. Reactivity with Oxygen


Domain Classification


Nutritional Class

AUTOTROPHS

1.
Photoautotrophs


Photosynthetic autotrophs


Like plants


Light energy


Energy (ATP)


Carbon dioxide


organic compounds (Glucose)


2.
Chemoautotrophs


Inorganic substances


Energy (ATP)


Carbon dioxide


organic compounds (Glucose)



Nutritional Class (Page 2)

HETEROTROPHS

3.
Photoheterotrophs


Light energy


Energy (ATP)


Get carbon from consuming other organisms


3.
Chemoheterotrophs


Get both carbon & energy from consuming other
organisms



Reactivity with Oxygen


Whether they must react with O2, must be in absence
of O2, or they can be in absence or not of O2



Obligate aerobe


Require O2 for respiration


Obligate anaerobe


O2 is a poison to them


Facultative anaerobe


Prefer to use O2,






but don’t need to use it to live


Nutritional Class & O
2

Reactivity


Which of the 3 classifications is appropriate for
humans?


Heterotroph


What would you call something that uses light for
energy, but must obtain carbon in an organic form?


Photoheterotroph


Aerobes would do what form of catabolism?


Aerobic respiration


What about anaerobes?


Fermentation or Anaerobic respiration

Bacteria’s Roles


Decomposers



recycle dead organic manner


Pathogens



organisms that cause disease


Nitrogen Fixation


Atmospheric N2


NH4


ONLY way to fix nitrogen into organic systems


Play a vital role in
genetic engineering


E. Coli is used to manufacture human insulin


Bacteria’s Roles (Page 2)


Symbionts

in the gut


Manufacture vitamins


Digest cellulose


Digest Food



Bioremediation



remove pollutants



Used in production of
cheese

Symbiotic Roles


Symbiotic


relationships with other species


Mutualism



Both symbionts benefit


Pollinators & Flowering plants



Commensalism



One organism benefits other is
unharmed


Fern growing in the shade of a tree



Parasitism



One benefits at the expense of another

Bacterial Sex

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