PowerPoint Presentation - Faculty Web Pages

twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

187 εμφανίσεις

Genetically Modified Animals and
Drug Production

An EMPACTS Project for Biology 1544

Northwest Arkansas Community College



Melissa
Mathison

Meredith Reynolds

Magdalena Carranza

Chantel

Litton

Amy
Saferite



The purpose of this EMPACTS project is for Biology 1544 students at
Northwest Arkansas Community College to better understand the
material given throughout the semester.




This presentation varies in our research concerning genetically
modified animals producing pharmaceutical drugs. It contains
information on the generalities of the genetically modified animals
producing these drugs, the benefits and disadvantages of animals
being used, and information on FDA regulations.




(These specifically include farm animals/mammals that produce eggs and milk such as cows, chickens, and goats. Several varyin
g
articles in
our research were used in gathering the information instead of seeing it firsthand, due to the fact there was no farm or comp
any

that
genetically modifies animals in the Northwest Arkansas area. However, all research is valid.)

Purpose of EMPACTS Projects

An Introduction: Generalities over Genetic Engineering of
Animals to Create
P
harmaceutical Drugs

There are many pharmaceutical drugs used today to
treat illnesses that have come from genetically
modified animals, or transgenic animals. This is
slowly becoming a common way to create drugs that
we otherwise could not create due to lack of a
certain modification we could find elsewhere to
create the drug or costly expenses. Expensive
meaning it could cost the government millions of
dollars because of the lack of effectiveness without
animal modification and would also be expensive for
patients. “Many therapeutic proteins for the
treatment of human disease require animal cell
specific modifications to be effective, and at the
present time they are almost all produced in
mammalian cell
-
based bioreactors” (
Eeneenam
,
pg.2).



The process of genetically modifying an animal usually
starts with combining certain fragments of DNA
together in a laboratory, known as recombinant DNA.
Then it is put into the animal which can pass on the
recombinant DNA to the offspring. These animals
contain an additional protein from the constructed DNA
needed to create the drug.




Genetic modification is best in mammals; According to
Dr.
Eeneenam

of the University of California,
genetically engineered mammals/animals may provide
an important source of these protein drugs, because
the production of recombinant proteins in the milk,
blood, or eggs of transgenic animals present a much
less
-
expensive approach to producing therapeutic
proteins in animal cells. Many drugs are produced from
milk, blood, or eggs from animals; mainly cows,
chickens, pigs, and goats.

An Introduction: Generalities over Genetic Engineering of
Animals to Create Pharmaceutical Drugs

Recombinant

DNA

Fixed DNA that has combined fragments
of DNA put together in a laboratory for a
desired use

Transformation

The transformation of the DNA being
fixed by the recombinant, which
genetically modifies the animal

Genetically modified,
engineered, or transgenic

animal

The combination of both the animals
own genes and the recombinant DNA
produces an animal with a newly made
combination of genes to produce a
specific type of DNA.

Gene Vector

Plasmid or virus

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Drugs given to patients to treat an illness
or disease

Therapeutic

proteins

Protein in the drug which targets the
illness or disease in order to cure it

IMPORTANT TERMS TO
REMEMBER

Methods We Used

We did online research on certain animals, mainly farm
animals such as cows, chickens, and goats, and finding
information on the drugs produced from them and the
processes of genetically modifying them. We also added
the generalities of engineered animals to better explain the
topic given, with the added information on the ethical and
moral views of genetically modifying animals for drug
reasons and the FDA regulations. However, there was one
concern during this project because of the fact there is no
near
-
by area that works on the processing of genetically
modified animals producing pharmaceutical drugs. We also
attempted to reach certain companies and institutes, such
as
Hermitech

Inc. and Roslin Institute in the UK by email,
but they were unavailable. This research paper was part of
a project to better understand the material being learned in
class throughout the semester. This included cell
reproduction, mitosis, meiosis, genetics, etc. which is
somewhat put into the EMPACTS projects.

The Basic Process of Genetic Engineering

Many animals are being used to produce
pharmaceutical drugs, mainly milk and egg producing
animals such as chicken, goats, and cows. The
common way to genetically modify animals is a
certain process performed in the
laboratory


1.
The gene of interest is isolated on a strand of
DNA

2.
DNA is cut at specific points by restriction
enzymes. The enzymes recognize certain
sequences of bases on the
DNA strand and cut
where those sequences appear.

3.
The cut DNA joins with a vector, which may be a
virus or part of a bacterial cell called a plasmid.
The vector carries the gene of interest into the
organism that will produce the protein
.

4.
Transformation occurs when the gene carried by
the vector is incorporated into the DNA of another
organism where it initiates the action desired



(
Unfortunately, the letters are too small to read in step 4. but with further research, it states that drugs can be
produced also in E
-
coli bacteria or plants. However, with animals, it is much more efficient.

The Basic Process of Genetic
Engineering (continued)

1.
Plasmid removed from E
-
coli cell

2.
The Plasmid is opened by a special
enzyme

3.
DNA coding for human drug is
inserted in the opened Plasmid.

4.
Recombination


Plasmid closed by
another special enzyme

5.
Introduction of Recombined Plasmid
into E
-
coli host cell.

6.
Host cell divides into new cells
identical to the original. The
implanted DNA induces the cell to
produce the drug.

Examples of Drugs Made from Genetic
Engineering of Animals



ATryn


Insulin


Lactoferrin

(Breast Milk
Supplement


Anti
-
Cancer Drugs


Erythopoietin

ATryn

DRUG

ANIMAL

USED

GENETIC
MODIFICATION ( all
relate to the figures
at the beginning of
the presentation)


WHO/WHERE

PRODUCED

ATryn

Goats

Genetically modifying
the goats to produce
milk with the anti
-
blood thinning
protein, Antithrombin,
from their mammary
glands to fight blood
clotting diseases.

“Currently, there are
㌰ 杯慴s 扥楮朠
敮杩湥敲敤e楮
䍨C牬瑯測
M慳a慣桵s整瑳t瑯
produce the anti
-
blood clotting drugs
called
ATryn

in their
milk”( par. 4)

ATryn


Goats are one of the first animals to be used in the
genetic engineering process.


Biotech Therapeutics currently owns a farm in
Charlton, Massachusetts.


30 goats are currently being used to make the anti
-

blood clotting protein, Antithrombin, on this farm.


Antithrombin is produced from the mammary glands
of transgenic goats, and harvested from their milk.


In 2009, GTC
-

Biotherapeutics

Ovation
Pharamceuticals

Inc. announced that the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) had approved
ATryn

(Antithrombin
Recombiant
) for the prevention of
blood clotting in
A
ntithrombin deficient patients.


Choosing to genetically engineer goats to produce the
drug is an efficient method and useful because
Antithrombin is hard to come by or is simply not
available.


After
furthur

clinical trials, this is expected to be
available in the
pharamacy

by 2012.

Video on
ATryn

Lactoferrin

& Insulin

DRUG

ANIMAL USED

GENETIC

MODIFICATION (
all relate to the figures at
the beginning of the
presentation)


WHO/WHERE

PRODUCED

INSULIN

COWS

Insulin, used to treat

diabetes,

is produced in the cows milk
by genetic engineering. Mainly
the low or high amounts of
substance needed to produce
insulin in our bodies is
inserted into the enzyme of
the animal, then put into their
cells. This is for genetic
engineering in general, but
this is specifically stated for
Insulin.

Hermitech
, Inc. in Sioux
Falls, South Dakota

LACTOFERRIN

(Breast Milk
Supplement)

COWS

The milk was specifically
designed to have
lactoferrin

produced.
Recombiant

DNA
targets lysosome from the
breast milk and modifies it in
the cow which gives a more
nutritional boost for infants

Hermitech
, Inc. in Sioux
Falls, South Dakota.

And even China

Lactoferrin

& Insulin

Most common from genetically modified
cows are
lactoeferrin
, breast milk
produced from cows in the form of a
supplement, and insulin. Normal human
milk from a mother given to the baby is
nutritional, but from genetically modified
cows , there is more of a “nutritional
boost”. So it is much healthier for the
baby.
Lysozome
, which fights bacteria
and improves infants immune system in
their few days of life, can be found in
genetically modified cows, which has
properties of breast milk. Researchers
believe human milk from cows could be a
better alternative than baby formula.
Insulin can also be made from genetically
engineering cows. Insulin is more strong
and beneficial this way. Insulin is used to
treat diabetes.

This figure
better
explains
genetically
engineering
of Insulin

.
After completing the new specially designed DNA,
the scientists will plan a certain action desired, such
as signally telling the protein where to go to make
the insulin, lysosome,
lactoferrin
, etc. Recently, there
have
been various places working on this production
in cows. “Whether developing treatments for
antibiotic
-
resistant infections or producing new drugs
to help defend against bio
-
terrorism,
Hematech
, Inc.
is utilizing the latest advances in technology to help
fight diseases. The company, headquartered in
Sioux Falls, South Dakota, is currently developing
cattle that can efficiently produce human antibodies.
The genetically altered cattle, known as TC
Bovine™, will be used for the production of large
quantities of polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies
are expected to help in the treatments of viral or
bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders and other
medical conditions occurring in humans.”(
Hermatech

Inc.) These medical conditions include
organ transplant rejection, cancer, autoimmune
diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Lactoferrin

& Insulin

Cows from
Hermitech

Inc. farm

DRUG

ANIMAL USED

GENETIC

MODIFICIATION
( all
relate to the figures at the
beginning of the
presentation)


WHO/WHERE
PRODUCED

Anti
-
Cancer Drugs
(currently

in the
process of making).

Chickens

The anti
-
cancer drug
is produced in the
chickens eggs.

To

ensure the desired
protein was only
produced in the egg,
they linked the
human therapeutic
protein gene with the
chicken Ovalbumin
gene, which is only
found in the egg
white part of an egg

Roslin Institute in the
United Kingdom is
currently working on
the processing of
genetically modifying
chickens to produce
drug to treat cancer.

Anti
-
Cancer Drugs

Anti
-
Cancer Drugs

Chickens are also being used in the process of
producing pharmaceutical drugs. A specific area
found was the Roslin
Institute in
UK. They have
started genetically modifying chickens to produce
cancer drugs, which contain lifesaving, immune
system proteins in their eggs for cancer patients. Not
all of the eggs that are laid contain the protein
needed for the drug. Only about four percent of these
eggs actually contain this protein but a single egg laid
contains enough protein to treat a handful of cancer
patients for one year. This is a very cheap and
efficient method of making pharmaceutical drugs.
Normally this process would take a very long time.
Using chickens to produce this drug makes it faster
than any other method of drug
manufacturing

Chickens at Roslin Institute in UK

Anti
-
Cancer Drugs

.
This particular method does not transmit the
bird flu virus. Chickens are also being GM to
treat lung, cervical, and breast cancer.
Chickens naturally produce proteins.
Genetically modifying makes the protein value
increase.
As said in the table, “to
ensure the
desired protein was only produced in the egg
they linked the therapeutic protein gene with
the chicken Ovalbumin Gene which is only
found in the egg white part of an egg
.”
The
drug is currently in clinical trials. There is some
concern as to whether the drug is
pure, but
there is high hopes that these drugs will be
regulated soon and sold in pharmacies.

Erythropoietin


DRUG

ANIMAL

USED

GENETIC MODIFICATION (
all relate

to the figures at
the beginning of the
presentation)

WHO/WHERE

PRODUCED

Erythropoietin


Sheep, cows, or any
mammal



“EPO is a glycoprotein
(protein
-
sugar conjugate) that
serves as the primary
regulator of red blood cells
(erythrocytes) in mammals”
⡒楴Ee爩.

oeco浢楮in琠akA
楳o污瑥s 瑨t hu浡n gene
e特瑨牯ro楥瑩渠and 楳⁰ 琠楮瑯
瑨t 浡浭a氠瑯⁴a牧r琠a 牥r
浯d楦楥i and be瑴e爠ve牳楯n映
e特瑨牯ro楥瑩渠


Still in the process of
producing by animal

灨慲浥牳
” at possible
medical laboratories.
Research was done to find a
location of where this process
is currently happening but
there was no findings at this
time.


Erythropoietin (
Epoetin

Alfa or EPO)


Many mammals are being genetically
engineered to produce Erythropoietin, like
sheep or cows.
EPO
is used to treat anemia
or given to patients after chemotherapy.
“EPO is a glycoprotein (protein
-
sugar
conjugate) that serves as the primary
regulator of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in
mammals” (Ritter). Recombinant DNA
isolates the human gene erythropoietin and is
put into the mammal to target a more
modified and better version of erythropoietin.
EPO
is a natural substance produced from
the kidneys in our bodies but transporting the
gene to a mammalian animal, such as a
sheep, causes a large quantity and quality of
the drug.


Recombinant DNA of EPO

Erythropoietin (
Epoetin

Alfa or EPO)


“Erythropoietin [
epoetin

alfa

(
Epogen
, Procrit)]
is used in many installation
-
fitting clinic. The
most common use is in people with anemia
associated with abnormal function
(dysfunction) kidney. When the kidneys are not
functioning properly, they produce less than
normal amounts of erythropoietin, which can
lead to the production of red blood cells are
low, or anemia. Therefore, by replacing
erythropoietin with an injection of
erythropoietin from a genetically engineered
animal, anemia associated with kidney disease
may be treated” (World of Health
).



Many athletes, such as cyclists and runners,
use EPO because the increasing number of
red blood cells can increase oxygen capacity
and produce improved physical activity.
Creating Erythropoietin through genetic
engineering, it is much more efficient than
what humans can produce alone.


Concerns on Genetically Modifying Animals

A lot of people,
mainly animal
-
rights
activists, are
concerned about
genetically modifying
animals to create
therapeutic
pharmaceutical
drugs.


What are they concerned about??


transference of diseases
by taking the
drug



the
morals and ethics
concerning the welfare of
the animals


the confusion between
cloning and genetically
engineering

Concern: Confusion
b
etween Cloning
and Genetically
E
ngineering

The idea of clones appears in the concerns
in these animals because it is such a
widespread controversy.
Many people feel
that cloning is harmful for the animals.
However, unlike
clones which are
“supposed to be genetically identical to
animals that already exist, genetically
engineered animals have DNA
from
other
organisms, often other species, inserted into
their genome” (Northwestern University).
Since the DNA is already made, it is safe.


The goal to use animals for human
needs has been a long
-
term goal
for many scientists. Not only does it
“have vast potential for patients, but
also that it can be carried out
without harm to the animals”
(Washington Post).




Martin Stephens, the vice president for
animal research issues at the Humane
Society, acknowledges that the
technique of this drug production does
not harm the goats
but still feels
troubled by the development. He says
that it “represents a dark cloud on the
horizon in that we would rather not see
more uses of animals drummed up”
(Washington Post).


Some also
have negative feelings
over
the animals
welfare because
of the fear these animals may end
up just being used for breeding so
the recombinant DNA is passed
on to the offspring. Transgenic
animal research is still subject to
existing regulations governing
animal research
.

Concern
:
The Morals
and
Ethics Concerning
the
Welfare
of the
Animals



Peers feel like genetically engineering
animals to produce drugs could hurt
the animals, but this is usually
monitored very closely to keep this
from happening to patients so
fortunately, this is a safe process

There is also an added concern with cows & chickens,
because the fear of transference of diseases through
drugs, such as mad cow disease and bird flu. However,
there are so many clinical trials the animals and the
drugs go through that this is not common at all. So
therefore, it is safe to use. Plus, scientists genetically
engineer these animals to keep them from producing
these diseases and becoming immune, so this should
not be a concern.

Concern: Transference of Diseases

Genetically modifying animals to produce pharmaceutical drugs will slowly become a common and
efficient way to treat diseases. Not only because it is safe, based on the regulations of the FDA, it
also is beneficial for the economy because of the inexpensive processing. It also can provide
drugs/treatment for a lot more patients, because animals can produce a larger amount than humans
using genetic engineering.

Concerning
the future, it can lead to progress in medical science and maybe eventually a
cure for cancer. The FDA has regulated many of the drugs produced, basing on the fact if
the drug is safe and effective. They also keep in mind the ethical concerns of the
community.

It is pertinent that the community keeps in mind the idea of using animals for
the better good because it can help the overall health of the common people
at an affordable cost and efficient timing.

CONCLUSION



That’s all
Folks!

OUR SOURCES

Jones, By Hilary. "Chicken Eggs Make Human Drugs | COSMOS Magazine." COSMOS Magazine | The Science of Everything. Web. 07 Nov
. 2
011.

<
http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/966/chicken
-
eggs
-
make
-
human
-
drugs
>.


Lavine
, G. (2009). FDA approves first biological product derived from transgenic animal. American Journal Of Health
-
System Pharmacy, 6
6(6), 518.

doi:10.2146/news090023
. EBSCO
.


"Scientists Develop Genetically Modified Cow That Produces 'human' Breast Milk | Mail Online." Home | Mail Online. Web. 07 No
v.
2011.

http
://
www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article
-
1372836/Scientists
-
develop
-
genetically
-
modified
-
cow
-
produces
-
human
-
breast
-
milk.html


Pollack, Andrew. "F.D.A. Approves Drug From Gene
-
Altered Goats
-

NYTimes.com." NY Times Advertisement. 06 Feb. 2009. Web. 07 Nov
. 2011.

<
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/07/business/07goatdrug.html
>.


"Genetically Modified Cows Produce Milk Akin To Human Milk | Popular Science." Popular Science | New Technology, Science News
, T
he Future Now.

Web
. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011
-
04/genetically
-
modified
-
cows
-
produce
-
milk
-
human
-
qualities
>.


"FDA OKs Drug from Genetically Altered Animals
-

Health
-

Health Care
-

Msnbc.com." Msnbc.com
-

Breaking News, Science and Tech
News, World

News
, US News, Local News
-

Msnbc.com. Web. 07 Nov. 2011. <http://
www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29054736/ns/health
-
health_care/t/fda
-

oks
-
drug
-
genetically
-
altered
-
animals/>.


Eeneenam
,
Alison
. "Genetically Engineered Animals: An Overview." Http://agribiotech.info/details/AlisonGE%20Animalssent%20to%20web%2002.pdf.

Department
of Animal Science University of California, Davis, 22 June 2008. Web. 7 Nov. 2011
.


"Bio
-
10
--
Pharmaceutical Production from Transgenic Animals." Office of Biotechnology: Iowa State University. Web. 07 Nov. 2011.

<
http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/biotech_info_series/bio10.html
>.


Ritter, Steve. "Erythropoietin." Acs.org. Chemical & Engineering News. Web. 10 Nov. 2011.


http
://
pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325erythropoietin.html


"Genetic Modification." Making the Modern World. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. (no author)


<
http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/biology>