greenrevolution_final.pptx - GeogRoxs2009IHES3

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Done by: Derrick Toh (31)


Dylan Fones Jin Kheng (4)


Lee Yiliang (13)

Class: 3S2

The definition


Green revolution


Application of science and technology to
increase crop productivity. Includes technological advanced
techniques like genetic engineering etc.


Countries undergoing Green Revolution


Mexico



Chile



Brazil



Argentina



Algeria


Tunisia



Nepal


China


India


Pakistan




Sri Lanka



Bangladesh



Indonesia



North Korea



Myanmar



Thailand



Vietnam



Philippines



Malaysia


Changes in agriculture in Asia since the
onset of the Green evolution

1961

2000

Cereal production

309 million tones

962 million tonnes

Irrigated area

86 million hectares

176 million hectares

Tractors used

0.2 million

5 million

Fertiliser

consumption

2 million tonnes

70 million

tonnes

This table shows the change in agriculture in Asia by the end of
the 20
th

century when 70% of wheat areas and 74% of rice
areas were sown with HYVs.

Change in rate of growth of rice production in
countries


Since the early 1990s, the rate of growth of food grain production has
begun to slow down and in the 21
st

century the rate of population
growth in a number of Asian countries is threatening to overtake the
increase in food production.

The problem


Population growth globally is much faster than the increase
in production of food. India is one case.


By the year 2000, the population in India will have reached
1 billion people and rise in food production must be at least
by 40% to meet the demands of the people.


However, most of the India’s land has limited potential.

The rationale of Green Revolution


It includes techniques like genetic engineering to produce higher yielding
varieties (HYVs) of crops and animals, mechanization, pesticides, herbicides,
chemical fertilisers and irrigation water. This maximizes yield per hectare
and output per farmer.


HYVs is the flagship of Green Revolution.



During 1967
-
8, India adopted Mexican Rice IR8 which had short stalk and a
larger head than traditional ones, and yielded twice as much grain.
However, large amounts of water and nitrogen are needed.



Up to 55% of India’s crops are HYVs. 85% of the Philippines’ crops are HYVs.
However, only 13% of Thailand’s crops are HYVs. This is because Thai rice is
of high quality and the techniques remain unchanged to preserve her
status.

Adoption of HYVs

Adoption rate of HYVs (%)

1

100

Time

0

2

3

Rich poor gap

Large farmers

Small farmers

1 Fast adoption by farmers
with plentiful land and/ or
money. Land is used as
security to buy seeds,
irrigation pumps,
fertilisers, pesticides, HYVs
and so on, hence small
farmers cannot benefit at
first.


2 Adoption by smaller
farms caused by:
government
-

backed
agricultural development
projects, new seeds
targeted for more
environments and
continued population
pressure creating extra
demand for more food.


3 Diffusion of new
techniques to most
farmers. Widespread
adoption.

Challenges and problems


Higher cost of production


HYV’s of rice seeds and fertilizers etc cost
money. Adoption of machinery as new
technology will also raise cost of production.



Poorer farmers are unable to afford a higher
cost of production while the richer ones can.

Challenges and problems


Widening income gap


Rich farmers can afford HYV’s seeds, power
pumps for irrigation etc. Thus their yields
increase and in turn income. However, there
are many poor farmers in Asia and cannot
afford new technology. Their yields remain
low or may even decrease.

Challenges and problems


Over irrigation



Over irrigation by careless farmers results in
water logging and salinity which ruin crops.
This problem has destroyed more than 3
million hectares of farming land in North
India.

Challenges and problems


Pollution


A lot of fertilizers and pesticides are used to
ensure high yields. These contaminate the
soils and are washed away by heavy rain into
groundwater and rivers, polluting the water.

Challenges and problems


Prices affected by demand


The price of rice falls when there are high
yields. When there is a surplus, farmers have
to sell the crops at a reduced price.

Solutions


Continual research on development of HYV’s
for seeds on different rice growing
environments.


Eg
. Research in India on rice varieties that can
give high yields in rain fed areas to benefit
those who cannot afford irrigation facilities.

Solutions


Governments have set up banks and co
-
operatives for providing loans at low interest
rates to farmers.


These loans will allow farmers to buy better
inputs.


Officers are also sent out to train farmers to
use modern technology correctly.


Solutions


Better provision and storage facilities


It is important to keep rice surplus in good
condition for sale later. This will improve their
income.

Case studies


India


In India, government investment on
technology encouraged a huge growth in
agriculture


Increase use of hybrid seeds and HYV


Reliance on machinery


Increase of fertiliser consumption


Use of animals for agricultural power decreased

Case Studies


India



Before
Green Rev.

After Green
Rev.

Wheat
production

10 million
tonnes

73 million
tonnes

Wheat per
hectare

851kg/ha

2607kg/ha

Irrigation

32%(wheat)

37%(rice)

88%(wheat)

52%(rice)

Malnutrition

39%

20%

Case Studies


India


Problems


At the beginning of the 21
st

century


Infertile land


Salt build up due to uncontrolled irrigation


Chemical fertilisers


Water pollution in rivers


Over use of groundwater


Insufficient water resource for future yields



Case Studies


Philippines


Rice HYV and cross bred hybrids with shorter
stems were introduced.


Shorter stems


More energy goes to developing grain


Less likely to fall over


Easier to harvest by machinery

Case studies


Philippines

Before Green
Rev.

After Green Rev.

Riceproduction

4 million tonnes

15 million tonnes

Wheat per
hectare

2.5 tonnes/ha

3.68 tonnes/ha

Irrigation

0.9 million ha

2.8 million ha

Malnutrition

39%

20%

Case Studies


Philippines


Problem


Population pressure led to


Decline in farm size


Lower output per farm


Less income


Less growth and improvement for population

Case Studies


Africa


The green revolution had little success in Africa


Problems in Africa


Lack of irrigation potential and infrastructure


Political instability, corruption


Hybrids of rice and wheat not staple crops


Climate conditions


Availability of water


Soil types


Terrain and Relief

References


http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/css/330/three/images/GreenRevolutionCurse OrBlessing.jpg


http://www.indiadaily.org/page/61


Quiz1st.com


http://www.jic.ac.uk/science/CropGen/images/crop
-
gen.jpg


http://waterfiltercanada.com/images/Water_purifiers_waterdroplet_0000.jpg


http://www.instablogsimages.com/images/2007/07/11/cr_india
-
population
-
1_18.jpg


http://www.baileybridge.net/geographybridge/indiabridge/images/india_population_graph.gif


http://www.straitstimes.com/STI/STIMEDIA/image/20080402/ST_IMAGES_LJPILE.jpg


supplydemand.gif (GIF Image, 268x217 pixels)


pollution.jpg (JPEG Image, 276x300 pixels)