Genetically modified cats - nicholbio

twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Nick Yeager

Scientist


The term Genetically modified organism comes
from plants or crops created for human
consumption using the latest molecular biology
techniques. The plants have been modified in the
laboratory to enhance desired traits.


Think of modifying a cat, this cat could be infused
with the DNA of a lion for survival instincts, a tiger
for jumping, and a cheetah for speed, this cat
would be like a super cat having only the desired
qualities of the best cats of the wild while having
the stomach of a housecat and only eating cat food.


Genetic engineering is the most effective
way to make plants with the right traits very
rapidly. Plant geneticists can isolate a gene
responsible for drought tolerance and insert
the gene into a different plant, the new GMO
will gain drought tolerance as well. Not only
can genes from any plant be used but genes
from non
-
plant organisms as well.


Some of the 40 plants included in these are;
Tomatoes, Cantaloupes, Soybeans,
Sugarbeets, Corn, and Cotton. Not all of
these plants are available in the
supermarket. Although most plants in stores
is not genetically modified the vegetable oil
and cereals contain a small percentage of
genetically modified ingredients.


Some advantages of having GMO’s are Pest
Resistance, Herbicide tolerance, Disease
resistance, cold tolerance, drought
tolerance, nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and
phytoremediation.


Unintended harm to other organisms, Reduced
effectiveness of pesticides, gene transfer to non
-
target species. Human hazards include;
allergenicity, and many other unknown effects on
human health.


Getting GM food to the market is a lengthy
and costly production and the agribiotech
companies wish to ensure a profit in return,
most genetically engineered plants have
been patented, though consumers are
worried that the patented plant seeds will
skyrocket in price.

Sierra Hanes


Since December 2002, the law in Australia
requires that food labels must show if food
has been genetically modified or contains
genetically modified ingredients, or whether
GM additives or processing aids remain in the
final food product.


National authorities pass a risk assessment on
all the genetically food on the market.




The USA In 1986 it was determined that there
was no need to make new laws to regulate
genetically modified food


Genetically modified food has to follow the
same US laws as the health, safety, efficacy,
and environmental impacts of similar
products derived by more traditional
methods.



Food regulatory authorities require that GM foods
receive individual pre
-
market safety assessments
prior to use in foods for human consumption. The
assessments have to have this information:

1.

I
nformation on how the GM plant was developed

2.
nucleic acid data that characterizes the genetic
change

3.
composition and nutritional data of the novel food
compared to the original non
-
modified food

4.
potential for new toxins

5.
and potential for being an allergen


A huge part in the regulation of GMF.


It ensures that the food and drugs for both
humans and animals are safe.



In some countries GM foods are not regulated
yet.


Although, countries with the provisions for
GM foods also regulate GMO’s in general,
taking into account health and environmental
risks.


ConAgra was a company that has been sued
due to selling a line of Wesson oils that were
advertised as 100% natural and later found
that they were using genetically modified
ingredients in the oils.


Doing that violated California’s false
advertising and unfair competition laws and
business codes.



The
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

(FIFRA)
(EPA);


The
Toxic Substances Control Act

(TSCA) (EPA);


The
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

(FFDCA) (FDA and EPA);


The
Plant Protection Act

(PPA) (USDA);


The
Virus
-
Serum
-
Toxin Act

(VSTA) (USDA);


The
Public Health Service Act

(PHSA)(FDA);


The
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act

(DSHEA) (FDA)


The
Meat Inspection Act

(MIA)(USDA);


The
Poultry Products Inspection Act

(PPIA) (USDA);


The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (USDA); and


The
National Environmental Protection Act

(NEPA).

Sociologist

What do the people think?


More than 650 meetings were held around
the country.



Out of 37,000 people, 54% said they never
want to see GM crops grown in the country



18% said they would find the crops
acceptable if there was no risk of cross
-

contamination.



The other 13% said they wanted more
research.

What the critics are saying


Critics say that the problem with the idea of
GM crops being grown is the company’s that
will be growing them will only be concerned
about gaining a profit and will not care if the
food is hazardous.



All critics mainly agree on these three main
concerns: environmental hazards, human
health risks, and economic problems.

People’s quotes on GM crops



Craig Cormick, from the federal government
agency Biotechnology Australia, said
“Research indicated that only half of
Australia would accept GM food”.



Professor Philip James said "The perception
that everything is totally straight forward
and safe is utterly naive. I don't think we
fully understand the dimensions of what

we're getting into."

People’s quotes on GM crops


Dr Geoffrey Clements says "The genetic
modification of food is intrinsically
dangerous. It involves

making irreversible changes in a random
manner to a complex level of life

about which little is known. It is inevitable
that this hit
-
and
-
miss

approach will lead to disasters. It must
disrupt the natural intelligence

of the plant or animal to which it is applied,
and lead to health
-
damaging

side
-
effects."


Conclusion


In conclusion, more people in the world are
against GM foods. The reasons for this are
because of environmental risks, health risks,
and economic risks.