Genetic Engineering

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μέρες)

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Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

MICHAEL D. JOHNSON

CHAPTER 20

DNA TECHNOLOGY AND
GENETIC ENGINEERING

PowerPoint
®

Lecture Slide Presentation by
Robert J. Sullivan
, Marist College

Human Biology

Concepts and Current Issues

Second Edition

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

DNA Sequencing

Figure 20.1

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Primers



DNA Polymerase

DNA Sequencing: DNA Structure

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Gel Electrophoresis

Figure 20.2

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Recombinant DNA Technique

Figure 20.3

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Recombinant DNA: Cutting, Splicing, Copying
DNA



Restriction Enzymes


DNA Ligases



Plasmids

Laboratory Modified DNA

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Figure 20.4

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Transgenic Bacterial Uses


Insulin


Human Growth Hormone


Erythropoeitin


Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)


Vaccines

Genetic Engineering: Transgenic
Organisms

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Transgenic Plants


Increased resistance to freezing


Longer shelf life


Increased Vitamin A


Edible Vaccines


Human Proteins, i.e., albumin

Genetic Engineering: Transgenic
Organisms

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Concerns


“Frankenfoods”


Plant disease susceptibility

Transgenic Plants

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Bigger challenges


No plasmid use


Cloning more difficult


Successes


Bovine growth hormone for faster animal growth


“gene farming”

Transgenic Animals

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Genetic Map

Figure 20.10.1

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Genetic Map

Figure 20.10.2

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Obstacles


Transplant into “right” cells


Into reproductive cells?

Gene Therapy: Hope of the Future

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Vectors Transfer Genes to Human
Cells

Figure 20.11

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Retroviruses


Liposomes


Direct DNA injection

Vectors Transfer Genes to Human
Cells

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.


Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Success


Cystic Fibrosis


Cancer Research

Gene Therapy Successes