Careers in Plant Breeding - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

160 εμφανίσεις

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL, CONSUMER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA
-
CHAMPAIGN

Preparing for Careers in
Genetic Crop Improvement at the
Illinois Plant Breeding Center

Rita
Mumm, PhD

Director, The Illinois Plant Breeding Center

Associate Professor, Quantitative Genetics and Plant Breeding

November 2011

Plant Breeding….


Is the science of applying genetic principles to
improve plants for human use


Impacts the life of every individual because it
involves the creation and manipulation of
economically important traits in plants used for
food, animal feed, fuel, fiber for clothing and wood
products, and landscape aesthetics


Has been enormously successful!


The Grand Challenge


World population estimated at >9B by 2050


Increased meat consumption in emerging
economies as the standard of living increases


No appreciable change in available crop land


Falling water tables globally


Climate change will increase risk



Crop yields must increase 2
-

to 3
-
fold by
2050 to meet the projected global demand
for food, feed, fiber, and fuel

The cycle of creating and exploiting
genetic variation in cultivar improvement

Create useful genetic
variation

Exploit genetic variation to
achieve genetic gain toward
targeted goals

The cycle of creating and exploiting
genetic variation in cultivar improvement

Create useful genetic
variation

Exploit genetic variation to
achieve genetic gain toward
targeted goals


Biotechnology


Prediction


Genomics
-
assisted
selection


e.g. via molecular markers


Analytics


Phenomics

Define genetic specificity
underlying phenotypic
expressio
n

Multiple disciplines come into play
to create improved cultivars

Conventional

Breeding
Genetics: Quantitative, Population

Plant breeding methods

Selection theory

Statistics & experimental design

Knowledge

of germplasm

Phenotypic

evaluation

Agronomy/Botany

Plant Physiology

Plant

Biology

Soil Science

Pathology

Entomology


Molecular Biology

Biochemistry

Molecular genetics

Genomics

Transformation & tissue culture

Sequencing

Molecular marker technologies

Gene cloning






Data Management,


Analysis, Display

Bioinformatics

Information Technology

Information Management

Computer programming

Simulation & Modeling

Statistical and mathematical theory




Engineering


Profiling equipment


Analytics e.g. grain


composition


Robotics


Nanotechnology


Largest players in agricultural seeds,
biotechnology, and chemicals


Monsanto


DuPont / Pioneer Hi
-
Bred International


Syngenta


Dow AgroSciences


BASF


Bayer CropScience

World’s 10 largest seed companies
account for 67% of $26.7B market



Company

2007 Seed Sales ($B)

Monsanto (US)

$4.964

DuPont (US)

$3.300

Syngenta (Switzerland)

$2.018

Limagrain

(France)

$1.226

Land O’Lakes (US)

␠〮0ㄷ

䭗匠⡇敲浡my)

␠〮0〲

䉡ye爠⡇er浡my)

␠〮0㈵

卡歡瑡S⡊慰慮)

␠〮0㤶

DLF
-
Trifolium

(Denmark
)

$ 0.391

Takii

(Japan)

$ 0.347


* From ETC Group, Jan 2008; www.etcgroup.org

Acute shortage of plant breeders


Eight US universities that routinely contribute the
majority of new MS/PhD graduates are now
producing only about 2/3 of the plant breeders needed
to fill jobs in seed industry


Need was estimated at ~110 per year. However, there
may be additional need beyond this estimate as 3
major seed companies have recently announced plans
to
double

research outputs by 2013!


Quality of education also key. In addition to broad
base of knowledge, need exposure to meaningful
research problems, business environment,
collaborative approach, international dimension





Illinois Plant Breeding Center

Its Mission….


Educate future generations of plant breeders
(
i.e.

those involved in all areas related to cultivar
improvement and seed product development)
and provide on
-
going support through
continuing education


Conduct contemporary research that fosters
education goals in terms of relevance, quality,
impact at the Illinois/US/global levels, and
multi
-
disciplinary team orientation

Illinois Plant Breeding Center

Its Vision….


Become the premier institution in the US supplying skilled
and innovative plant breeders to the seed industry and the
public sector


Represent a new paradigm in plant breeding education


Become the national model for education and research in
plant breeding

Its Commission….


Demonstrate ‘genomics in action for food, feed, fuel, and
flora’


Blaze the trail for use of new genomic information in crop
improvement including the development of new tools


Research specializations include…


Biofuels


Nutritional aspects of food/feed


Genetic regulation


Production stability/sustainability: yield, biotic
and abiotic stress


Genotype by environment interaction: genomic
to phenotypic levels


Climate change


New sources of useful genetic diversity


Improved efficiency of plant breeding systems


The Illinois Plant Breeding Center


The
Illinois Plant Breeding Center

is a virtual
center, recognizing that cultivar improvement
requires a range of knowledge and expertise across
scientific disciplines for innovation and
implementation


28 world class faculty plus emeritus scholars
specializing in


Plant breeding


Genomic aspects


Computational aspects


Agronomics




Illinois powerhouse

Widely recognized as world class


UIUC ranked #15 among public universities*
and #47 nationally by US News & World Report
(2011)


UIUC ranked #25 in the world by The Academic
Ranking of World Universities (2010); 18
th

world
rank in Life and Agriculture Sciences (2010)


UIUC ranked #3 nationally by WSJ, based on
corporate recruiters of undergraduates


See
http://illinois.edu/

for more accolades


Illinois powerhouse (cont)

Rich campus
-
wide resources, including


Institute of Genomic Biology


National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)


Roy J. Carver Biotechnology Center


Center for Advanced
Bioenergy

Research


Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship


Center for
Nanoscale

Science and Technology


UI Library System


National Soybean Research Laboratory


Germplasm banks: maize, soybean


Ag Experiment Station, greenhouse facilities


Building value for students


Financial support for education


31 fellowships specifically for graduate
students in crop improvement,

Corporate Supporters include;


Monsanto


Pioneer


Dow
AgroSciences


Illinois Corn Marketing Board


Other fellowship opportunities


Research assistantships

Building value for students


Enhancing curriculum


3 New Plant Breeding courses available


2 Courses are under development


Significant upgrades to 3 existing courses


Expanding capacity


2 new faculty members added for bioenergy crop
genetics, genomics and plant breeding


Professional development opportunities


Degree recognition


Alum status




Building value for students


Expanded opportunities to interface with
industry


Research collaborations


Immersion experiences


Mentors from industry


Guest lectures, lunch time discussions, etc with
industry scientists / leaders


Benefits


Understand the R/D/C process


Experience corporate cultures and values


Visibility with potential employers



Careers in plant breeding, whether in an
industrial or an academic setting….


High demand


High tech


Highly innovative


High impact


High compensation


Inclusive


Global opportunities


GREAT JOB!


For More Information


Contact


Wendy White, Assistant Director,
Illinois Plant Breeding


wgwhite@illinois.edu

217
-
244
-
0484


Plantbreeding.illinois.edu





“The greatest service which can be rendered
any country is to add a useful plant to its
culture...”




-

Thomas Jefferson





US president and agronomist