Biotechnology 2009.pptx

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Biology 2008
-
2009

Technology:

the application of scientific advances to
benefit humanity


Biotechnology:
The use of
living organisms
or their
products (example:

milk
) to make or modify a new
substance.


During this biotechnology unit we will be using the
knowledge we have built about chemistry and biology
to discover new uses for living organisms. Some of this
information may be uncomfortable to hear about. I
ask that you learn with an open mind, but use your
values and judgments to better understand the
current scientific culture.

Genetic
Tranformation


how the genes from one living organism can be transferred to another living
organism


why genetic transformation is being done


pros and cons of genetic transformation


pGlo

Lab: Genetically Transformed
E.Coli

Bacteria



Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)


why organisms are genetically modified


examples of organisms that are genetically modified


pros and cons to genetically modified organisms



Cloning


how is a living organism cloned


examples of organisms that are being cloned


pros and cons of cloning any living organism



Genetic Transformation







The Genetic Creation of Glowing Bacteria

Genetic Transformation
:
Change caused by genes; inserting
the genes from one organism into another organism



Green
Flourescent

Protein (GFP):

The protein created in the jellyfish when the gene for
bioluminescence (glowing) is
expressed



Plasmid
:

Circular

piece

of

DNA

in

a

bacterial

cell
;

can

be

passed

from

one

bacteria

to

another

easily
;

usually

contains

genes

for

traits

beneficial

to

survival
.




LB
:

Luria

Broth
;

food

for

the

bacteria

so

that

they

can

multiply

quickly

(clone

themselves)



Antibiotic:

drug that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria


Ampicillin
:

A type of antibiotic that destroys
E.Coli

under
normal conditions


pGLO
:
GFP gene & Antibiotic Resistance gene


Arabanose
:

Sugar that “turns on” the GFP gene


You will recognize the flow chart below which represents protein synthesis (gene
expression). Complete flow chart #1 and then use this information to complete
flow chart #2.




1. DNA


RNA


protein



Genetic Characteristic (Trait)




2. DNA


RNA


GFP


bioluminescence (glowing)


Materials

7 sterile loops



1
petri

dish (LB)

6 sterile pipettes


2
petri

dishes (LB/Amp)

2 small collection tubes


1
petri

dish (LB/Amp/
Ara
)

1 floating foam



antibacterial soap

1 sharpie



masking tape

Ice bath




Warm water bath (42^C)

Incubator (37^C)



Safety


Wash hands thoroughly before and after lab.


Wash hands immediately after any handling of the bacteria.


Report any spills to the teacher immediately.


Dispose of all contaminated loops, pipettes, and collection tubes in the
designated trash cans.


For additional information about
E.Coli

refer to the supplemental poster.

Pre
-
Lab Questions


1. To genetically transform an entire organism, you must insert the new
gene into every cell in the organism. Would a bacteria or a human be
easier to genetically transform?
bacteria


2. List two examples of why bacteria are more easily transformed than a
human.


1.
Single celled; only need to change the DNA of one

organism to change its traits.


2.
Multiply quickly so that we can see a result quickly

Predictions


Four Petri dishes will be used to grow bacteria under different
conditions. There will be abbreviations on each Petri dish to help explain
the conditions under which the bacteria will be grown.


What does each abbreviation mean?



LB:
Luria Broth (bacteria food)



Amp:
Ampicillin

(antibiotic that destroys
E.Coli
)



Ara
:
Arabanose

(sugar that turns GFP gene on)



+
pGLO
:
Contains GFP gene and Antibiotic Resistance Gene



-
pGLO
:
Does not contain “new” genes; regular

bacteria


Petri Dish

Explanation of

Conditions (Petri Dish
Contents)

Hypothesize growth on
Petri
dishes


Grow?

Glow?

Observation of Petri
dishes after several
days


Grow?

Glow?

+pGlo/LB/Amp

*GFP & Antibiotic
Resistance Gene

*Luria Broth
(bacteria food)

*Ampicillin (antibiotic)

+pGlo/LB/Amp/Ara

* GFP & Antibiotic
Resistance Gene

* Luria Broth (bacteria
food)

* Ampicillin (antibiotic)

* Arabanose

-
pGlo/LB/Amp

* No new genes

* Luria Broth (bacterial
food)

* Ampicillin (antibiotic)

-
pGLO
/LB

* No new genes

* Luria Broth (bacterial
food)

GMOs : Genetically Modified Organisms

Computer Exploration

Objectives!



Define GMOs and Genetic Engineering


Identify 7 steps to
G
enetic
E
ngineering


Provide examples of how Genetic Engineering is being used


Identify GMO foods and why they have been genetically altered


Identify one Pro and one Con for Genetically Modified Organisms


Extra Credit: Computer simulation of Selective Breeding vs.

Transgenic Manipulation


Making a Clone (in 6 easy steps!)


Step One:

An egg cell (female gamete) is collected and the nucleus
containing the genetic information for that organism is removed
.














Egg Cell

Egg
Cell without a nucleus


Step Two:

A cell is collected from the organism you
wish to clone and the nucleus is removed.









Skin Cell




Step Three:

The nucleus from the adult skin cell is
placed in the empty egg cell










Skin Cell




Empty Egg Cell




Step Four:

Add a “ZAP” of electricity to “jump start” the egg
into developing. In a few short days, the cells will have
divided into several cells through mitosis. This stage of
development is called an embryo.

Step Five:

The embryo is implanted into a surrogate
mother who will allow the clone to develop inside of their
body.

Step Six:

In a few short months, a baby is born!



Who will the baby look like? Circle one…


Donor of Egg Cell, Donor of Nucleus (skin cell), Surrogate Mother

The Clone Age


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