II. TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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II. 1. Communications Advances


The

development

of

the

telephone

Since

Alexander

Graham

Bell

invented

the

telephone

in

1876
,

it

has

become

a

cornerstone

of

modern

life

by

offering

nearly

instantaneous

connections

around

the

world
.

The

first

two
-
way

voice

conversation

was

transmitted

across

the

Atlantic

Ocean

in

1926
,

and

commercial

telephone

service

(using

radio)

began

between

New

York

and

London

in

1927
.

AT&T

launched

international

telephone

service

in

1935
.

Transoceanic

phone

service

was

began

to

be

handled

by

submarine

cables

in

1956
,

and

since

1962
,

by

communications

satellites
.

Today’s

chemical

engineers

have

brought

us

from

copper

wire

to

fiber

optics,

from

switchboards

to

satellites,

and

from

party

lines

to

the

Internet
.

Wireless

communications

Cellular

phones

and

pagers

depend

on

printed

and

integrated

circuits,

advanced

materials,

and

miniaturization

techniques

enhanced

by

chemistry
.

AT&T

Labs

developed

mobile

car

telephones

in

the

1940
s,

but

they

were

unpopular

due

to

a

lack

of

communications

channels
.

The

1980
s

brought

a

big

breakthrough

when

wireless

communications

were

divided

into

a

series

of

cells

that

automatically

switched

callers

as

they

moved

so

that

each

cell

could

be

reused
.

Cellular

phones

quickly

became

popular
.

Chemistry

has

also

played

a

role

in

the

development

of

rechargeable

lithium
-
ion

batteries

for

cellular

phones
.


Facsimile

technology

and

xerography


Although

the

German

inventor

Arthur

Korn

transmitted

the

first

pictures

electronically

in

1902
,

the

first

functioning

fax

machine

debuted

in

1924
.

It

adapted

telephone

circuits

for

picture

transmission

using

telephotography
:

A

photography

transparency

was

scanned

into

electrical

signals

that

indicated

the

shades

of

the

image
.

This

data

was

transmitted

by

telephone

onto

a

receiving

sheet

of

photographic

negative

film

and

then

developed

in

a

darkroom
.

In

1949
,

a

xerographic

copier

was

introduced

that

allowed

an

exact

replica

of

an

image

to

be

made
.

Chemical

innovations

in

facsimile

technology,

including

new

toners

and

inks,

advanced

paper

technology,

and

organic

photoreceptor

technology,

were

introduced

in

the

1970
s
.


Laser

and

fiber

optics

The

pure

glass

fibers

that

now

provide

the

infrastructure

to

carry

information

via

laser
-
produced

light

is

a

revolutionary

technical

achievement
.

Chemical

researchers

invented

the

first

optical

fiber

in

1970
.

Fiber

optics

were

soon

fabricated

and

installed

as

integrated

components
.

The

first

lightwave

system

to

provide

voice,

data,

and

video

service

over

a

network

was

installed

in

1977
.

Today,

a

single

fiber
-
optic

cable

can

transmit

millions

of

phone

calls,

data

files,

and

video

images
.

Telephotography


Switchboard


II.
TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION
S

II.

TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND

COMMUNICATION
S

Evolution

of

computers

Chemical

engineering

has

fueled

the

computing

revolution

and

continues

to

make

computers

faster,

more

powerful,

and

more

affordable
.

In

1939
,

the

first

electronic

computer

is

invented

at

Iowa

State

University
.

Programmable

calculators

with

binary

numbers

and

Boolean

logic

began

to

appear

in

the

1940
s
.

In

1946
,

ENIAC,

the

first

electronic

digital

computer,

went

into

operation,

and

the

first

minicomputer

debuted

in

1962
.

In

1971
,

the

Intel

Company

introduced

its

popular

4004

4
-
bit

microprocessor

for

consumer

use

and

the

personal

computer

market

exploded
.

Today,

innovation

continues

in

transistors,

silicon

chips,

integrated

components,

data

storage

devices,

and

advanced

materials
.

Semiconductor

technology

Chemistry

makes

it

possible

to

transform

silicon

and

germanium

into

semiconductors

to

power

today’s

computers,

appliances,

and

communication

devices
.

Semiconductors,

as

opposed

to

metals,

are

a

class

of

materials

that

increase

their

conductivity

at

elevated

temperatures
.

These

semiconductors

are

further

treated

to

create

an

excess

or

lack

of

electrons
.

Computer

chips

and

integrated

circuits

are

made

from

semiconducting

materials
.

Semiconductors

enable

electronic

components

to

be

smaller,

faster,

and

more

energy
-
efficient
.

Chemists

in

the

semiconductor

industry

provide

quality

control

of

components,

optimization

processes,

troubleshooting,

and

innovations

in

microelectronic

devices
.


Silicon

chips

and

integrated

circuits

In

1947
,

researchers

John

Bardeen,

William

Shockley,

and

Walter

Brattain

demonstrated

that

the

flow

of

electricity

through

silicon

could

be

selectively

controlled
.

The

subsequent

creation

of

silicon

chips,

integrated

circuits,

and

microprocessors

make

possible

today’s

high
-
speed,

efficient

computers
.

Silicon

chips

(
1961
)

consist

of

transistors,

resistors,

capacitors,

and

memory

chips

built

in

layers

on

silicon

wafers,

then

exposed

to

a

multi
-
step

chemical

process
.

In

1967
,

the

first

hand
-
held

calculator

is

built

using

an

integrated

circuit,

a

small

electronic

device

which

contains

many

transistors

and

other

electronic

components
.

In

the

1980
s,

integrated

circuits

are

applied

to

computers
.

J
ohn von

Neumann and
the ENIAC


II.2. Computer Technology

ENIAC

An n
-
type semiconductor
(excess of electrons)


A p
-
type semiconductor
(lack of electrons)


II.
TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION
S

II.
3
. Computer Technology

Monitor

and

display

technologies

Dramatic

improvements

have

been

made

in

computer

display

technology

in

recent

years
.

High
-
resolution

color

graphics

screens

are

mainly

based

on

the

television’s

cathode

ray

tube
.

Alternate

display

technologies

include

flat
-
screen

displays

for

laptop

and

notebook

computers
.

Liquid

crystals

displays

(LCD)

based

on

organic

chemicals

were

invented

in

1969
.

S u b s e q u e n t

d e v e l o p m e n t s

i n c l u d e

t h i n
-
f i l m

t r a n s i s t o r s

l i q u i d

c r y s t a l

d i s p l a y s

in

which

each

picture

elements

is

driven

by

its

own

individual

transistors
.

Chemists

have

developed

liquid

crystal

materials,

color

filters,

polymer

alignment

layers,

molded
-
plastic

light

distribution

sheets,

and

plasma

display

technology
.

Information

storage

Information

must

be

recorded

so

that

it

can

be

retrieved

at

a

later

time

if

it

is

to

be

used

and

manipulated

fully
.

Chemical

innovations

ensure

that

recording

media

is

high
-
quality,

easy
-
to
-
use,

and

inexpensive
.

Breakthroughs

in

recording

capabilities

(higher

resolution,

faster

speed,

and

color),

photographic

films,

magnetic

audio

recordings,

and

digital

imaging

have

also

brought

advances

in

recording

devices
.

In

1955
,

Reynold

Johnson,

an

American

inventor

and

computer

pioneer,

developed

the

first

disk

drive

to

store

computerized

data
.

Many

subsequent

advances

have

been

made,

especially

with

computer

disks,

magnetic

tapes,

and

CD
-
ROMs

(
1984
)
.


Communications

s
atellites

Until

the

1960
s,

voice

communications

between

North

America

and

other

continents

were

very

expensive
.

In

1962
,

Telstar,

the

world’s

first

active

communications

satellite,

was

sent

into

orbit
.

Chemistry

provided

the

structural

materials

(metal

alloys,

plastic,

and

other

advanced

materials),

computer

and

electronic

components,

and

the

fuel

technology

necessary

to

launch

these

satellites
.

Communications

satellites

played

a

major

role

in

expanding

both

international

and

domestic

long

distance

calling

and

television

transmission

until

the

1990
s
.

Today,

communications

satellites

play

an

increasing

role

in

television

transmission,

including

direct

broadcasts

to

home

satellite

dishes

with

digital

television
.


GPS satellites
on orbit


Manufacturing of GPS
satellites


II.

TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND

COMMUNICATION
S

Movies

In

1927
,

The

Jazz

Singer

became

the

first

feature
-
length

movie

with

synchronized

singing

and

dialogue
.

By

the

late

1930
s,

the

firm

Technicolor

had

refined

its

processes

and

the

first

color

features

became

a

big

draw
.

The

chemistry

of

film

required

a

series

of

breakthroughs

involving

basic

materials,

chemical

solutions,

and

exposure

to

light
.


Television

In

1926
,

the

Scotsman

John

Logie

Baird

displayed

television

publicly

for

the

first

time

using

a

mechanical

television

system,

the

Nipkow

disc,

patented

in

1883
.

By

1927
,

Philo

T
.

Farnsworth

had

transmitted

the

first

television

image

using

a

cathode

ray

tube

(invented

in

1897
)
.

The

next

twenty

years

was

the

era

of

the

vacuum

tube

in

electronics,

and

chemistry

contributed

the

unique

materials

for

electrodes

and

control

elements

within

the

tube
.

By

the

1950
s,

many

innovations

were

made,

including

the

integrated

circuit

(
1958
)
.

The

following

decades

brought

solid
-
state

imaging

devices,

miniaturization,

and

various

electronic

improvements
.

Photography

Photography

and

film

technology

enable

us

to

record

the

most

important

experiences

and

people

in

our

lives
.

Chemistry

developed

the

film

for

all

types

of

cameras

with

breakthroughs

involving

basic

materials,

different

chemical

solutions,

and

exposure

to

light
.

Battery

improvements

have

also

contributed

to

the

popularity

of

the

camera,

including

the

1950
s

alkaline

manganese

batteries

for

small

cameras

with

built
-
in

flash

unit
.

Being

able

to

manipulate

film,

electronics,

and

batteries

led

to

the

1963

introduction

of

Eastman

Kodak’s

popular

Instamatic

camera

with

film

cartridge,

which

sold

over

50

million

by

1970
.


The Nipkow disc and its
inventor Paul Nipkow in the
year of patenting


II.
4
. Entertainment Developments


II.
TECHNOLOGY MILESTONES IN INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION

II.
5
. Innovations in Electronics


Evolution

of

consumer

electronics


Electronic

materials

and

microelectronic

devices

are

the

heart

of

countless

modern

products,

such

as

CD

players,

televisions,

computers,

digital

cameras

and

wireless

devices
.

From

vacuum

tubes

to

transistors

to

integrated

circuits,

chemical

engineers

have

made

electronics

smaller,

more

powerful,

energy
-
efficient,

and

cheaper
.

New

materials,

processes

for

producing

highly

purified

materials,

and

processes

for

building

semiconductors

have

resulted

in

components,

such

as

transistors

and

integrated

circuits,

which

can

be

assembled

into

complex

electronic

circuitry

to

provide

new

capabilities

for

a

wide

range

of

electronic

devices
.


Advanced

synthetic

materials

Consumer

electronics,

cellular

phones,

and

personal

computers

rely

on

tough,

durable,

non
-
conducting

plastics

to

protect

sensitive

electronic

components
.

Plastics

are

essential

in

electronic

applications

because

of

their

insulating

properties
;

the

flow

of

electrons

that

make

up

electrical

currents

cannot

readily

penetrate

plastics’

molecular

structures
.

By

manipulating

the

structures

of

molecules

and

creating

new

ones,

chemists

and

engineers

produce

new

materials

that

are

both

strong

and

flexible
.

These

advances

have

improved

impact

resistance,

reduced

the

total

weight

of

equipment,

and

reduced

the

cost

of

consumer

goods
.


Transistors

It

was

the

tiny,

reliable

electronic

component

called

a

transistor

that

enabled

the

marriage

of

computers

and

communication

more

than

any

other

single

development
.

In

1947
,

John

Bardeen,

Walter

Brattain,

and

William

Shockley

invented

the

transistor,

and

it

gradually

replaced

the

bulky,

fragile

vacuum

tubes

that

had

been

used

to

amplify

and

switch

signals
.

The

transistor

and

the

subsequent

integrated

circuits

(that

contain

millions

of

transistors)

served

as

the

foundation

for

the

development

of

modern

electronics
.

By

1954
,

the

wildly

popular

transistor

radio

was

introduced,

and

by

1958
,

an

American

electrical

engineer,

Seymour

Cray,

had

developed

a

transistorized

computer
.

The inventors of
transistor