1604 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES,VOL.50,NO.7,JULY 2003
Ballistic Transport in High Electron
Mobility Transistors
Jing Wang,Student Member,IEEE,and Mark Lundstrom,Fellow,IEEE
Abstract A general ballistic FET model that was previously
used for ballistic MOSFETs is applied to ballistic high electron
mobility transistors (HEMTs),and the results are compared
with experimental data for a sub50 nm InAlAsInGaAs HEMT.
The results show that nanoscale HEMTs can be modeled as an
intrinsic ballistic transistor with extrinsic source/drain series
resistances.We also examine the ballistic mobility concept,a
technique proposed for extending the driftdiffusion model to
the quasiballistic regime.Comparison with a rigorous ballistic
model shows that under low drain bias the ballistic mobility
concept,although nonphysical,can be used to understand the
experimental phenomena related to quasiballistic transport,
such as the degradation of the apparent carrier mobility in short
channel devices.We also point out that the ballistic mobility
concept loses validity under high drain bias.The conclusions of
this paper should be also applicable to other nanoscale transistors
with high carrier mobility,such as carbon nanotube FETs and
strained silicon MOSFETs.
Index Terms Ballistic transport,high electron mobility transis
tors (HEMTs),mobility,semiconductor device modeling.
I.I
NTRODUCTION
A
S the channel lengths of integrated circuit transistors con
tinue to shrink to the sub50 nmregime,there is more and
more interest in device behavior and performance at the ballistic
limit [1][4].In silicon MOSFETs,due to the relatively lowmo
bility of the inversion layer electrons (
at room
temperature),the device performance is still below 50% of its
ballistic limit [5].On the other hand,high electron mobility tran
sistors (HEMTs),which have extremely high electron mobility
(
at roomtemperature),should operate near
the ballistic limit [2],[6].Understanding ballistic transport in
sub50 nmHEMTs [7],[8] is,therefore,important for both de
vice modeling and for the explanation of experimental results
[6].
In the ballistic or quasiballistic regimes,the conventional
device equations based on the driftdiffusion theory are not
valid,and consequently a new theory of ballistic transistors is
needed.Natori first developed this theory for silicon MOSFETs
[1],and it has been extended to a general ballistic model [9],
[10].Recently,Shur has also introduced the concept of ballistic
Manuscript received February 5,2003;revised May 5,2003.This work was
supported by the Defense University Research Initiative in Nanotechnology
funded by the Army Research Office and monitored by Dr.D.Wooland,and
by the MARCO Focused Research Center on Materials,Structures,and De
vices,which is funded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,in part by
MARCO under Contract 2001MT887 and DARPA by Grant MDA972011
0035.The review of this paper was arranged by Editor C.P.Lee.
The authors are with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
Purdue University,West Lafayette,IN47907 USA(email:jingw@purdue.edu).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TED.2003.814980
mobility in order to capture ballistic effects in short channel
HEMTs while retaining a driftdiffusion formalism [6].The
motivation of this approach is to retain a familiar description of
devices,but mobility is not a physically meaningful concept in
the quasiballistic regime.Our objective in this paper is not to
take a position on whether or not the ballistic mobility concept
should be used but,rather,to clarify when it does and does not
work.We first apply a rigorous ballistic model to HEMTs and
compare the results with experimental data for a sub50 nm
device [7].The comparison shows that modern HEMTs can be
modeled as a ballistic device with series resistances.We then
compare the results of the ballistic mobility method with those
of the rigorous ballistic model to examine the validity of the
ballistic mobility method.We find that it can be used under low
drain bias,but not,in a short channel HEMT,under high drain
bias.
II.G
ENERAL
B
ALLISTIC
FET M
ODEL
The general ballistic FET model is a simple analytical model
that correctly captures quantum confinement,twodimensional
(2D) electrostatics,and biascharge selfconsistency in ballistic
FETs [9],[10].It generalizes Natoris model [1] by treating
2Delectrostatics and by properly treating the twodimensional
(1D) electrostaticseven in the quantum capacitance limit
(where the gate insulator capacitance is much greater than
the semiconductor (or quantum) capacitance [2],[9],[11]).
Fig.1 summarizes the essential aspects of the general ballistic
model.It consists of three capacitors (
,
and
),which
represent the effects of the three terminals (the gate,source and
drain) on the potential at the top of the barrier [9].The height
of the potential barrier between the source and drain is
WANG AND LUNDSTROM:BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN HEMTs 1605
Fig.1.Illustration of the essential features of the general,ballistic transistor
model.
is the source Fermi level and
is the drain Fermi level.
Fig.2.Comparison of the simulated ballistic
with experimental data.
The solid lines are for the intrinsic ballistic device,the dashed lines are for the
extrinsic device (with extrinsic source/drain series resistances
) and the circles are for experiment data (obtained from[7,p.1696,
Fig.6(b) ],
,
).
continues until convergence is achieved after which the drain
current is readily evaluated from the known populations of the
and
states.For a detailed discussion of the model,see
[9].In this work,we extended the model to include electrons
in multiple subbands,because the channel layer of sub50nm
HEMTs [7],[8] is usually much thicker than that of 10nmscale
silicon MOSFETs or carbon nanotube transistors,for which the
onesubband assumption adopted in [9],[10] is adequate.
Using the general ballistic model,we simulated a recently
reported 30nm InPbased InAlAsInGaAs HEMT [7].(The
Matlab script for the calculation is available from the authors.)
The currentvoltage curves are plotted in Fig.2.We treated the
intrinsic device as a ballistic transistor with a 13nmthick In
AlAs gate insulator layer and a 15nmthick InGaAs channel
(see [7,p.1694,Fig.1] for details of the device geometry);ex
trinsic series resistances of
is the sheet electron density at the beginning of the
channel and other symbols have their common meanings.On
the other hand,the ballistic drain current can be obtained from
[14] (see [14,eq.6,p.483],with the backscattering coefficient
) as
(4)
where
is the unidirectional thermal
velocity of nondegenerate electrons,and the term in brackets
is the unidirectional thermal velocity under general con
ditions.The function
is the FermiDirac integral
and
,where
is the source Fermi level and
is the first subband level
for electrons at the beginning of the channel.Under low drain
bias
,
,so (4) can be simplified as
(5)
1606 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES,VOL.50,NO.7,JULY 2003
By equating (3) and (5),we can define a nonphysical ballistic
mobility
(6)
Under nondegenerate conditions,
,so
,which is the same as Shurs ex
pression in [6].(Note that Shur expressed his results in terms
of the thermal average speed
,where
is the Fermi velocity of electrons.Fi
nally,by inserting (6) into (3),we can use the conventional de
vice equations to calculate the ballistic current under low drain
bias.(Note,however,that this derivation is valid under lowdrain
bias only.)
B.Examination of the Validity of the Ballistic Mobility Method
1) Device Structure and Methodology:In this section,
we compare the results of the ballistic mobility method with
those of the general ballistic model described in Section II.
The device structure is an intrinsic,ballistic,singlegate
AlGaAsGaAs HEMT with a 10nmthick gate insulator.
(In a ballistic simulation,the current is independent of the
channel length.) For simplicity,we assume that the body of the
device is thin enough so that the onesubband approximation
can be adopted.(Since the main purpose for this part of the
work is to compare the two transport models,the onesubband
assumption simplifies the calculation and enables us to make
a clear comparison between the two models.) We also assume
that there is no series resistance and no 2Delectrostatic effects
(i.e.,DIBL).This ideal device structure is simulated by both
methods under low and high drain biases,respectively.In the
ballistic mobility simulation,the conventional device equations
[13] with velocity saturation are adopted,and the effective
mobility is equal to the ballistic mobility since this is a ballistic
simulation.
In the conventional device equations,the channel electron
density is given by
,where
is
the threshold voltage.In this case,
,
where
is the gate insulator capacitance and
is the semi
conductor (or quantum) capacitance [9][11],which is equal to
at zero temperature for the onesubband assumption (here
is the density of states for the confined 2D electron gas in
the channel).In the calculation of the ballistic mobility using (6)
we need to know the degeneracy factor
,
which can be extracted from the results of the general ballistic
model.
2) Low Drain Bias:Under low drain bias,we define the
channel conductance as
(7)
which is plotted versus gate voltage in Fig.3.Fig.3 shows that
the ballistic mobility method agrees quite well with the general
ballistic model for the calculation of the ballistic channel con
ductance under low drain bias,as expected from the derivation
in Section IIIA.
Fig.3.Simulated channel conductance for the ballistic AlGaAsGaAs HEMT.
The solid line is from the ballistic mobility (BM) method,and the circles are
fromthe general ballistic (GB) model.The threshold voltage used in the ballistic
mobility method is extracted fromthe results of the general ballistic model.
Fig.4.Simulated
curves for the ballistic AlGaAsGaAs HEMT.
The dashed lines are from the ballistic mobility (BM) method,and the solid
lines are fromthe general ballistic (GB) model.The saturation velocity used in
the ballistic mobility simulation is equal to the unidirectional thermal velocity
and the threshold voltage used in the ballistic mobility method is extracted
from the results of the general ballistic model.
Another question we consider is whether Mathiessens rule
[as in (2)] can be used in the quasiballistic regime (where there
is some scattering and the physical mobility
WANG AND LUNDSTROM:BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN HEMTs 1607
Fig.5.Simulated saturation current versus channel length curves for the
quasiballistic (the real,physical mobility has finite value,
) AlGaAsGaAs HEMT.
The saturation current
is estimated by the conventional device equation with (a) the physical mobility
and the ballistic saturation velocity
(solid line).
(b) The effective mobility calculated from (2) and the ballistic saturation
velocity
(dashed line).(c) The physical mobility and the saturation velocity
in bulk GaAs (
at
[18]) (solid line with
circles).
ballistic mobility approach works under low drain bias,but
why does it fail under high drain bias?
Current is the product of charge and velocity.Under lowdrain
bias,the velocity is proportional to the electric field (which is
proportional to the drain bias).The ballistic mobility method
works well since it gives the proper relation between the ve
locity and electric field,as derived in Section IIIA.Under high
drain bias,however,the electron velocity saturatesboth in the
ballistic regime [17] and when scattering dominates.In the bal
listic regime,the saturation velocity (under high drain bias) can
be evaluated from (4) as
(8)
On the other hand,in the conventional equations,the saturation
current can be expressed as [13]
(9)
where
,and
is the maximum deple
tionlayer capacitance.When the channel length,
,approaches
zero (or the physical mobility
(10)
Thus,by replacing the bulk saturation velocity
with the
unidirectional thermal velocity
,we can use a conventional
equation to estimate the ballistic limit of the satura
tion current,as shown in Fig.5.The use of the ballistic mobility,
which is derived under low drain bias,will lower the mobility
unphysically under high drain bias and consequently underesti
mate the saturation current.
Fig.5 shows the saturation current calculated by the conven
tional equation at different channel lengths.With the use of the
physical mobility
1608 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES,VOL.50,NO.7,JULY 2003
V.S
UMMARY
In this paper,we applied a rigorous ballistic FET model (pre
viously used for ballistic MOSFETs) to ballistic HEMTs and,
by comparing the results to experimental data for a sub50nm
HEMT,we showed that modernday HEMTs can be described
as an intrinsic ballistic device with extrinsic source/drain series
resistances.In contrast,silicon MOSFETs operate at less than
one half of the ballistic limit because of the low inversion layer
mobility.We also extended Shurs ballistic mobility method to
the degenerate case and examined its validity by comparing it to
the rigorous ballistic model.We observed that the ballistic mo
bility method is valid when the drain bias is low.Consequently,
it can be a good way for us to understand the degradation of the
measured apparent mobility in short channel HEMTs as well as
other transistors with very high carrier mobility,such as carbon
nanotube FETs and strained silicon MOSFETs.Unfortunately,
the straightforward extension of traditional FET models to the
ballistic/quasiballistic regime through the use of a nonphysical
ballistic mobility fails for high drain bias.Since modernday
HEMTs operate near the ballistic limit,it will be important to
develop circuit models that behave properly in the ballistic limit.
A
PPENDIX
From the scattering theory of the MOSFET [15],there is a
simple relationship between the drain current in the presence
of scattering and its ballistic limit.Under low drain bias and
nondegenerate conditions
(A1)
where
is the meanfreepath for carriers,and
is the channel
length.Under nondegenerate condition,according to the Ein
stein relation,the electron mobility is
,where
is the diffusion coefficient.Using these expres
sions,we find
(A2)
Using (6) for the ballistic mobility under nondegenerate con
dition
we find
(A5)
so
(A7)
The relationship between the meanfreepath
and the phys
ical mobility
(A8)
By inserting (A8) into (A7),we obtain
WANG AND LUNDSTROM:BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN HEMTs 1609
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with an ultrahigh
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Jing Wang (S03) was born in China in 1979.
He received the B.E.degree from the Department
of Electronic Engineering,Tsinghua University,
Beijing,China,in 2001.Currently he is pursuing the
Ph.D.degree student with the School of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,Purdue University,West
Lafayette,IN.
His research interests center on the theory and
simulation of nanometer scale electronic devices,
which includes the modeling and design of nanoscale
MOSFETs and postCMOS transistors,as well as
the transport theory for HEMTs.
Mark Lundstrom (S72M74SM80F94)
received the B.E.E.and M.S.E.E.degrees from the
University of Minnesota,Minneapolis,in 1973 and
1974,respectively.
He joined the faculty of Purdue University,West
Lafayette,IN,upon completing his doctorate on the
West Lafayette campus in 1980.Before attending
Purdue,he was with HewlettPackard Corporation,
where he worked on integrated circuit process
development and manufacturing.He is the Scifres
Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer
Engineering at Purdue University,where he also directs the NSF Network
for Computational Nanotechnology.His current research interests center
on the physics of semiconductor devices,especially nanoscale transistors.
His previous work includes studies of heterostructure devices,solar cells,
heterojunction bipolar transistors and semiconductor lasers.During the course
of his Purdue career,he has served as Director of the Optoelectronics Research
Center and Assistant Dean of the Schools of Engineering.
Dr.Lundstrom is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the recip
ient of several awards for teaching and researchmost recently,the 2002 IEEE
Cledo Brunetti Award and the 2002 Semiconductor Research Corporation Tech
nical Achievement Award for his work with his colleague,S.Datta,on nanoscale
electronics.
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