Poverty Awareness

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Poverty Awareness

South Carolina

Cross Cultural Conference

Mr. James T. Darby, Jr.

Executive Director

Santee
-
Lynches Regional Council of Governments


Generational Poverty and Situational
Poverty are Different




“Generational

poverty

is

defined

as

being

in

poverty

for

two

generations

or

longer
.

Situational

poverty

exists

for

a

shorter

time

and

is

caused

by

circumstances

like

death,

illness,

or

divorce
.







Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas


“The

environment

of

generational

poverty

(two

generations

or

more)

requires

that

an

individual

become

reactive,

sensory
-
based

(physical)

and

dependent

on

non
-
verbals

as

a

primary

information

source

because

those

three

things

help

one

survive

the

environment
.





Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas

Comparison of Rural and Urban Tax
Base Millage Value Against S.C. Median

Rural county
120,000
130,000
140,000
150,000
160,000
170,000
Year
Dollar amount
Rural county
S.C. median
Rural county
140,000
155,260
160,548
164,582
162,803
145,990
S.C. median
125,252
129,198
138,316
143,976
142,221
151,515
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Urban county
75,000
125,000
175,000
225,000
275,000
325,000
375,000
425,000
Year
Dollar amount
Urban county
S.C. Median
Urban county
264,000
271,000
294,000
343,000
352,000
413,000
S.C. Median
125,252
129,198
138,316
143,976
142,221
151,515
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Source: S. C. Association of Counties

Threshold

Counties (4)

Average 22.3%

Persistent Poverty

(12)

(34)

Average 12.7%

Other


“Two

nations,

between

whom

there

is

no

intercourse

and

no

sympathy
;

who

are

as

ignorant

of

each

other’s

habits,

thoughts,

and

feelings

as

if

they

were

dwellers

in

different

zones,

or

inhabitants

of

different

planets
;

who

are

formed

by

a

different

breeding,

are

fed

by

a

different

food,

are

ordered

by

different

manners,

and

are

not

governed

by

the

same

laws



the

rich

and

the

poor
.


1845 , Benjamin Disraeli

British Prime Minister and author

Source
:


The

Impact

of

Poverty
:

The

Poor

Among

Us
;

Leslie

Cantu,

Senior

Staff

Writer


The

Item
,

October

8
,

2006


Projected Under 18, 65 & Over
Population (2030)


Under

18

Population

Under

18

Percent

of

Total

Population

65

&

Over

Population

65

&

Over

Percent

of

Total

Population

Percent

Difference

Under

18

and

65

&

Over

Georgia

3,146,624

26.2%

1,907,837

15.9%

10.3%

North

Carolina

3,080,611

25.2%

2,173,173

17.8%

7.4%

South

Carolina

1,143,807

22.2%

1,134,459

22.0%

0.2%

Source
:

U
.
S
.

Census

Bureau

Projections


The U.S. labor force totaling 165 million
people in the year 2021, will not include
any child born in 2006 or later. It will,
however include nearly 100 million people
who
today

are already out of school and at
work. About two
-
thirds of these workers
are likely to be part of the active workforce
at least through the next decade.




Source
:

Tough

Choices

or

Tough

Times

National

Center

on

Education

and

the

Economy,

2007
.


48.1%
21.4%
35.0%
20.4%
45.5%
26.1%
35.5%
17.7%
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
35.0%
40.0%
45.0%
50.0%
Clarendon
Kershaw
Lee
Sumter
Note: White percentages are for White Non Hispanic Population
Percent of Persons 25 Years & Over Without a
High School Diploma by Race (Santee-Lynches Region)
African-Amer
White

“African

Americans

today

can

serve

as

secretary

of

state,

CEO

of

a

major

corporation,

president

of

an

Ivy

League

university,

chief

surgeon

at

a

major

hospital
.

But

their

access

to

positions

of

power

and

prestige



and

to

well
-
paying

jobs

in

general



will

be

limited

if

they

typically

leave

high

school

with

an

eighth
-
grade

education
.


No Excuses, Closing the Racial Gap in Leaving
, Abigail Thernstrom and Stephan Thernstrom

Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2003

High School Non
-
Completers

S. Carolina

Clarendon
County

Lee County

Sumter
County

Three
-
County
Area

16,648

169

122

524

815

For

purposes

of

this

report,

we

have

used

the

South

Carolina

Kids

Count

definition

of

non
-
completer/dropout
:

eighth

grade

students

not

enrolled

in

grade

12

four

years

later
.

33.5%
47.3%
41.7%
35.6%
30.0%
0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
35.0%
40.0%
45.0%
50.0%
Source: SC Kids Count 2003
USA
S.Car.
Sumt er
Lee
Clarendon
HIGH SCHOOL NON-COMPLETION - 2003
Dropout Percentages for South Carolina,
Clarendon County, and Lee County


31.8
33.7
55.2
42
39.5
54.7
24.5
35.9
55.6
28
26.1
26.7
35.6
33.5
47.3
0
20
40
60
White Male
AA&O Male
White Female
AA&O
Female
Total
Source: S.C. Kids Count Report 2003
S. Carolina
Clarendon
Lee
AA&O

=

African
-
American

and

Others


According to author Ruby K. Payne, ‘being
poor brings out a survival mentality, and
turns attention away from opportunities
taken for granted by the middle class and
wealthy.’

Source:

A Framework for Understanding Poverty; Payne, Ruby K.

Aha! Process, Inc. News, Highland, Texas


“The

environment

of

generational

poverty

(two

generations

or

more)

requires

that

an

individual

become

reactive,

sensory
-
based

(physical)

and

dependent

on

non
-
verbals

as

a

primary

information

source

because

those

three

things

help

on

survive

the

environment
.





Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas


“Planning

is

key

to

the

tasks

that

get

finished

and

to

the

control

of

impulsivity
.

Even

more

importantly,

brain

research

indicates

that

the

primary

filter

for

what

gets

noticed

by

the

mind

is

closely

correlated

with

the

goals

of

the

person
.

So

when

there

is

no

planning,

there

are

no

goals
.

Emotional

need

or

association,

then,

determines

activities
.






Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas


“Being

proactive

(ability

to

plan),

verbal

(use

of

specific

language)

and

abstract

(ability

to

represent

the

sensory)

are

all

learned
.

They

can

be

taught
.

Many

students

who

are

assigned

to

special

education

are

from

poverty

and

cannot

do

these

three

things
.

Rather

than

teach

these

things,

educators

tend

to

assign

the

student

to

a

different

placement
.






Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas



“To survive in the school and work
environment, one needs to be
proactive, verbal and abstract.”










Source
:

No

Child

Left

Behind
:

How

do

you

Develop

Intellectual

Capital

in

Children

from

Poverty

Payne,

Ruby

K
.;

Founder

of

aha!

Process,

Inc
.

News,

Highland,

Texas

The Region’s Population is Aging

Clarendon, Kershaw, Lee and Sumter Counties

56,726
55,229
57,949
65,224
74,893
66,610
14.997
18,013
22,411
30,536
36,379
44,604
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
18 Yrs & Under
55 Yrs & Over
There

is

also

a

racial

dimension

to

the

potential

lack

of

sufficient

young

workers

to

replace

the

aging

workforce
.

While

the

African
-
American

population

accounts

for

44
.
2
%

of

the

region’s

total

population,

they

account

for

55
%

of

the

region’s

youth

18

years

and

under
.

Source: US Census Bureau


1950
-
2000 Census

Aging Population (cont.)

County Median Age by Race


Census 2000

Population

Clarendon Co.

Kershaw Co.

Lee County

Sumter Co.

Black

31.7 Years

35.0 Years

31.5 Years

30.7 Years

White

43.3 Years

38.5 Years

42.3 Years

36.2 Years

Combined

Average

37.0 Years

37.4 Years

35.7 Years

35.2 Years

The

African

American

portion

of

the

area’s

population

is

significantly

younger

than

the

White

population
.

Therefore,

African

Americans

will

make

up

a

disproportionately

larger

share

of

the

future

labor

force

available

to

fill

the

jobs

vacated

by

retiring

workers
.

This

will

require

a

much

greater

commitment

on

the

part

of

the

minority

youth,

local

educators

and

business

leaders

to

insure

that

these

young

people

are

fully

prepared

to

meet

this

situation
.

WEIGHING THE COSTS

INCARCERATION
-

VERSUS
-

EDUCATION

1 Adult Inmate


1 Juvenile


1 Student

Incarcerated


Incarcerated

Educated

In State



In State


In State


$41.52/day



$135/day


$21.26/day

$15,156/year


$49,275/year

$7,759/year


THE DIFFERENCES

Juvenile/Student





Adult Inmate/Student

Cost per day more than




Cost per day nearly double

six times expensive




(1.95 times as expensive)

Sources: S.C. Department of Corrections, S.C. Department of Juvenile Justice,

S. C. Department of Education


Ranking of State Incarceration Rates
-- S.C. 6th highest in U.S. --
824
703
682
655
587
538
488
361
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
La.
Texas
Miss.
Okla.
Ala.
S.C.
U.S. Avg.
N.C.
Rates per 100,000 residents
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics 2005 report, U.S. Department of Justice

“No more applause for
predicting rain,

only for building arks”

Don Carstensen

Interim Vice President

Workforce Development Division

American College Testing system (ACT)

From speech at 2007 Southeastern WorkKeys Conference Charleston, SC