Microsoft Power point Presentation Achievement Gap, by Epryl

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5 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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The Achievement
Gap

Closing the Gap

Fact:


All of the districts in the Pittsburgh
and surrounding areas, which
report scores for the African
American subgroup, are
experiencing gaps in achievement
scores between whites and
blacks.

Fact:


Gaps between averages for whites
and blacks range from 18% to
38%

Fact:


According to the No Child Left
Behind Act, All subgroups are
expected to rise to 100%
proficient.

NOT A FACT:


African
-
Americans are
intellectually inferior to the white
race and will never achieve equity
in scores.

Today’s Agenda:


What is the Achievement Gap?


Why Should I Be Concerned?


What Causes the Gap?


What Are the Effects of the Gap?


What Can We Do About the Gap?

What Can We Do About
the Gap?


Split into groups


Each group will discuss one question,
finding ways to address it within the
context of their own classrooms.


Create a visual or other means of
presenting findings.


Present to whole group.

What is the
Achievement Gap?


(
www.ers.org/otsp/otsp3.htm
)


“When educators talk about the “achievement
gap,” they are usually referring to the fact that
poor minority students, as a group, score
lower on student achievement measures than
do middle
-
class non
-
minority students…etc.
However, the term “achievement gap” means
different things to different people.”

What is the
achievement gap?


Gaps in achievement between whites
and any other dissagregated group


African
-
american, Hispanic, Native
American, Special Education…


Focus today is on African
-
American/low
socioeconomic backgrounds

What is the
Achievement Gap?


According to the School Matters
website, schoolmatters.com, the
following slides are statistical
NCLB data for local area districts


What do you notice?

A Sample of Inner
-
City School District’s 2004
NCLB Data: AYP Reading Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
School District 1: 2004 AYP Reading
Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
School District 2 NCLB Data: 2004 AYP Math
Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
School District 3 NCLB Data: 2004 AYP Math
Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
School District 4: 2004 AYP Reading
Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
School District 5 NCLB Data: 2004 AYP Math
Proficiency

0
20
40
60
80
District
PA
White
Black
Economically
Disadvan.
Students with
Disabilities
Why Should I Be
Concerned?


Taking measures to ensure equitable quality
education for all students is the right thing to do.



[document] developed by the Research Practitioner
Council and approved by the Governing Board of the
Minority Student Achievement Network in June 2003



“Eliminating the gap is not only the right thing to do, but
it is essential to ensure the future of our
democracy…etc. Because achievement is not innately
determined, children will achieve when they are
effectively taught how to learn…”


Why Should I Be
Concerned?


According to Daggot, the minority
population of today is tomorrow’s
majority population. Without adequate
education, they will be unable to find
good paying jobs. If they are not
earning high enough pay, they cannot
contribute adequately toward social
security.

Why Should I Be
Concerned?


Without adequate contributions
toward social security, the fund will
run out.


When we are ready to retire, there
won’t be enough money to fund
our social security retirement.

Why Should I Be
Concerned?


Self
-
Improvement as a
Teacher/Professional


Striving for Excellence


Making a Difference in the Lives of
All Children


It’s the Law!



(
www.whitehouse.gov/news/reports/no
-
child
-
left
-
behind.html
) The No Child Left Behind Act
mandates the improvement in academic
performance of disadvantaged students. “States
must develop a system of sanctions and rewards
to hold districts and schools accountable for
improving academic achievement…
Consequences for schools that fail to educate
disadvantaged students will first receive
assistance, and then come under corrective
action if they fail to make progress. If schools fail
to make adequate yearly progress for three
consecutive years, disadvantaged students may
use Title 1 funds to transfer to a higher
-
performing
public or private school, or receive supplemental
educational services from a provider of choice.”

Causes of the “TAG”:


Parental Influences


Socio
-
economic factors


Cultural factors


Prejudice / racism


School environment


Student attitudes


Teacher Factors

Parental Involvement:


Single Parent Family


Two or more jobs


Lack of caring


Lack of involvement knowledge


Lack of involvement invitation


Personal/Special reasons

Socio
-
Economic
Factors


Low
-
parent income contributes to low
educational resources at home


Broken family structure is influence in
unstable environment…leads to
concerns that are lower on Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs than the level,
“Need to Know” which is a major
motivational state of being for a child to
want to learn.

More social factors:


Surrounded by friends with same
parental/economic background


More social factors:


If the student is within a different
cultural learning environment than his
own, feelings of “will I fit in?” and the
need to be part of a group may
supersede learning. According to
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the need
to belong and feel loved supersedes
the Need to Know stage.

Cultural factors:


(
www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat
119.shtml
) Interview with Dr. Ruby K. Payne,
author of
A Framework for Understanding
Poverty



“Teachers often come from vastly different
social and economic classes than their
students, which can lead to culture clashes in
the classroom.”

Prejudice/Racism:


Cultural attitudes and racism also play
a part in the achievement gap.


…etc., some minority students perceive
that the majority culture sees them as
less capable and expects little of them.
These students may not try in school,
since they believe they won’t succeed
anyway.

More prejudice/racial
factors:


Some researchers believe minority
students may maintain low levels
of achievement purposely to avoid
“acting white” and gain the
approval of their peers…

More cultural factors:


“…etc., behavior of some low income
students might seem wrong to teachers
from middle
-
income backgrounds, but
made sense in the context of students’
lives.”



“Misconceptions about low
-
income
students and a middle
-
income frame of
reference can hamper the education of
students in poverty.”

School Environment:



There are many factors in the school
environment that contribute to the
achievement of minority students.


Ownership


Belongingness


Feelings of being singled out, or
prejudiced against


Feelings that punishment for a
circumstance is always worse for
African Americans

More student
-
environmental factors:


Feelings that doing well means “acting white”


Use of students culture in the context of
learning


(are cultural names used in both written or
verbal examples?)


(are there representations of and from
minority students in academic text, school art,
and library books?)


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

(http://www.awa.com/norton/figures/fig1703.gif)

School Environment


If a student has to concentrate
more on his or her fear of being in
school situations, or if he or she
feels a lack of belongingness, it
will be more difficult to focus on
learning.

Teacher Factors:


(
www.ers.org/otsp/otsp3.htm
)



“…etc., teachers often have low expectations
of these students, leading them to have low
expectations for themselves.



In some cases, there is a belief that the
mainstream culture is the standard, and
therefore, better. When there is no use of the
minority culture’s environment, students will
feel that it must be unimportant to the
teacher.”

More teacher factors:


(
www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/ma
y97/articles5.html
)


“...etc., they often have teachers
who give them less academic
attention and are unprepared to
address their diverse cultural
needs.”

More teacher factors:


www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/a
rticles5.html
)


“African American student achievement
may suffer because school staff
misread or use inappropriate teaching
strategies that do not capitalize on
students’ culture orientations or
learning styles.”

More School Factors:


(
www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/articles
5.html
)



“Students do not shed their cultural skins at
the school door. Many schools have difficulty
trying to create a school culture that
incorporates diverse cultural orientations. For
example, many Black students are more
socially interactive in the classroom than
White students whose behavior more closely
fits the White, middle
-
class school norm for
appropriate classroom behaviors.”

More Teacher Factors:


“Teachers may view students in special
educations programs or in the lower
-
academic tract, where students of color
are overrepresented, as having less
intellectual ability.”

(
www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/art
icles5.html
)

More Teacher Factors:


“Teachers often expect more from
middle
-
class students.”


“Teachers tend to reject students
who they perceive as overly active
and distractible” [sic].

Racism:


[document] developed by the Research
Practitioner Council and approved by the
Governing Board of the Minority Student
Achievement Network in June 2003


“Racism within schools continues
to be a significant barrier to
student achievement.”

What will happen if “TAG”
continues to exist?


(
www.pbs.org/closingtheachievem
entgap/debate_minding.html
)


“...etc., the test score gap is large
enough to have important social
and economic consequences.”

What will happen if “TAG”
continues to exist?


(
www.ucc.org/justice/action/w061202.htm
)



“Achievement gaps are a life
-
limiting tragedy
for the children who have been left behind.
They are also tangible evidence of
institutional racism and social alienation in
America’s public schools.” If the Achievement
Gap continues to exist, as well as the factors
that support its existence, it will continue to
perpetuate many race
-
related problems that
exist today.

So what? What can we do?


It is important to remember that the
Achievement Gap is due to factors that
helped support it. While some of these
factors include socioeconomic and
cultural factors,
the school related
factors, such as student attitude,
school atmosphere, teacher
expectations, and prejudice/racism

are factors that are within the control of
the school district, its programs, and
employees.


Ahhh… There is a rainbow…


And we can help put it there…

What can we do about the
Achievement Gap?


(
www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat1
19.shtml
)


Dr. Ruby Payne says that some strategies that
we can employ to help make lessons more
relevant and understandable for children of all
social classes are:


What can we do about the Achievement Gap?


Build relationships of mutual respect
with students



Use direct teaching processes. This
means that you are very specific in the
steps and procedures needed to do
something.



Use “Mental” modes.

What else can we do about the Achievement Gap?


(
www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/articles5.
html
)


“Understand the role of prejudice, bias, and
stereotyping in their lives.”


“Use the unique abilities, skills, talents, and
strengths of all students to expand and extend
their learning and achievement, using in
culturally appropriate ways questioning
strategies, critical thinking, and the application
of knowledge.”


“Take advantage of social skills that children
typically bring to the classroom.”


“…etc., ensure equitable academic attention by
developing a system for calling on students.”

What else can we do about the Achievement Gap?


(
www.nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/articles5.html
)



Take advantage of social skills that
children typically bring to the
classroom.”



“…etc., ensure equitable academic
attention by developing a system for
calling on students.”

What else can we do about the Achievement Gap?


(
www.edletter.org/past/issues/2001
-
mj/gap.shtml
)


One school district, Fort Wayne,
“implemented diversity training for staff,
developed school improvement plans
with the input of representative groups
across age and racial lines, and
revised curriculum to include better
representation of the cultural
contributions of people of color.”

What else can we do about the Achievement Gap?


Use of a student attitude survey
will help determine if a need exist
in the area of school atmosphere.

What else can we do about the Achievement Gap?


(
www.pbs.org/closingtheachievementgap/debate_mindi
ng.html
)



“The most promising school
-
related
strategies for reducing the black
-
white
test score gap seem to involve
changes like reducing class size,
setting minimum standards of
academic competency for teachers and
raising teachers’ expectations for low
-
performing students.”

Resources…


Resource: Education World. Wire Side Chats. How
Understanding Poverty Can Help Low
-
Income Children Learn.
Internet Explorer. April 15 2005.


http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat119.shtml



Resource: Educational research Service. What Can Schools
Do to Reduce the Achievement Gap? ERS On the Same Page
Series. Internet Explorer. April 23, 2005.


http://www.ers./otsp/otsp3.htm



Resource: KY Department of Education. Background on
Closing the Gap. Internet Explorer. April 23, 2005.


http://www.education.ky.gov/KDE/Instructional+Resources/Closi
ng+t he+Gap/Background
...


Resource: State Education and Environment Roundtable.
Closing the Achievement Gap. Using the Environment as
an Integrating Context for Learning. Internet Explorer.
April 17, 2005.


http://www.seer.org/pages/GAP.html



Resource: NW Regional Educational Laboratory. Closing
the Achievement Gap Requires Multiple Solutions.
Internet Explorer. April 17, 2005.


http://nwrel.org/cnorse/infoline/may97/article5.html



Resource: document. “What is the Relationship Between
Race and Achievement in Our Schools? Minority Student
Achievement Network Statement of Purpose. Adopted
June 2003.

More resources…

More resources…


Resource: Harvard Educational Letter. Research
Online. Past Issues. Closing the Gap One School at a
Time. Internet Explorer. April 17, 2005


http://edletter.org/past/issues/2001
-
mj/gap.shtml



Resource: United Church Press. A reflection on
academic achievement gaps in public schools. June 12,
2002. Internet Explorer. April 17, 2005


http://www.ucc.org/justice/action/w061202.htm



Resource: PBS. The Debate. Minding the Gap.
Internet Explorer. April 17, 2005


http://www.pbs.org/closingtheachievementgap/debate_m
inding.html


More resources…


Resource: Bridging the Gap. A Champaign
-
Urbana Town Hall
Meeting. Internet Explorer. April 23, 2003.


http://www.will.uiuc.edu/community/townhall/whatisgap.htm



Resource: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Internet Explorer.
April 24, 2005.


http://chiron.valdost.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html