Examples of question - PAHO/WHO

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Social Network Analysis

3
-

1

Session 3

-

The importance of asking the
right question

Manila, Philippines

28
-
30 April 2008



Steeve Ebener, WHO

Social Network Analysis

3
-

2

Content

1.

Which question to ask ?

2.

The purpose

3.

The context

4.

Type of questions

5.

Type of answers

6.
The impact of the question
on the result

7.

Examples of question

Social Network Analysis

3
-

3

Which question to ask ?


The crux of the social network analysis


as
in any kind of research or survey


is
getting the bounded network questions
right

Can be a real art

Depend on the purpose and the context of
the survey


There are no hard and fast sets of questions.

Social Network Analysis

3
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4

The purpose

Part of the visual framework

Extracted from Burkhard, R. 2005a

The question(s) will also be influenced
by the knowledge type you want to
analyse and the recipient of the results

What do you want to learn from the project?

Social Network Analysis

3
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5

The context


Different contexts and types of network,
including:


Communities of practice;


Leadership networks;


Innovation networks;


Learning and change networks.

Anklam

Type of questions


Known network: specific


How often are you contacting this person
when you have a problem in your work ?


Unknown network: nominative


who are you contacting when you have a
problem in your work ?

Social Network Analysis

3
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6

Type of answers


Whenever possible, offer quantitative
measures instead of measures that can
require interpretation.

For example:

Anklam


Quantitative:

Yes, No, Never/I don’t
know this, person, Once a month, Once
every other week, Once a week, More
than once a week, Daily or the name of a
person


Qualitative:

Very infrequently,
infrequently, Somewhat Infrequently,
Somewhat, Frequently, Frequently, Very
Frequently

Social Network Analysis

3
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7

The impact of the question

Different questions asked to a
same set of peoples will give a
different result !

Example: Who you ask for answers to
straightforward questions ?

Cross R., Borgatti
S.P. & parker A.
(2001): Beyon
answers:
Dimensions of the
advice network.
Social Networks
23(3): 215
-
235

Borgatti

Social Network Analysis

3
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8

Different questions asked to a
same set of peoples will give a
different result !

Example: Who you see to help you think through
issues ?

Cross R., Borgatti
S.P. & parker A.
(2001): Beyon
answers:
Dimensions of the
advice network.
Social Networks
23(3): 215
-
235

The impact of the question

Borgatti

Social Network Analysis

3
-

9

Question wording issues


Some words, like "Friendship", do
not mean the same thing to
everyone


especially across national cultures


Some issues might be very
sensitive in some cultures


could be useful to have ethnograph
y

part
of the project

The question defines the
boundaries of the network

The impact of the question

Social Network Analysis

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10

Ethnographic sandwich


Ethnography at front end helps
to...


Select the right question to ask


Word the question appropriately


Create enough trust to get the questions
answered


Ethnography at the back end
helps to...


Interpret the results


can sometimes use respondent as
collaborators

The impact of the question

Social Network Analysis

3
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11

Examples of question

Anklam

Organizational setting

Social Network Analysis

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12

Anklam

Can be converted into nominal questions:


Who makes you save the biggest amount of
time each month because of information or
advice you receive from him/her ?

Organizational setting

Examples of question

Social Network Analysis

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13

Other examples:


Named up to 5 people you discuss
important matters with ?


Who do you get your information from ?


who are you communicating with ?


who do you trust the most in your work ?


...


Examples of question

Social Network Analysis

3
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14

What about you ?


Think of a context which applies to your
own area of work:


Communities of practice;


Leadership networks;


Innovation networks;


Learning and change networks


...


of a purpose:


improving information flow


reducing disease spread


...

of a possible question

Examples of question

Social Network Analysis

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15

Context/

Actors

Purpose

Question

Community of practice/Health
IT professionals

Exchange ideas /
implementation activities

Who do you contact for IT
related problems ?

Philippines health information
network

Harmonize and integrate
health information systems in
the Philippines

Who do you usually get data
from ?

Medical and health librarian
network

Improve information sharing
and cooperative acquisitions

From which library did you
receive a request from these
past 3 months ? (same with
sent)

Human resources for health
network/Several actors

harmonize the policies on
health workforce. Does this
network works

Which organizations did they
consult when preparing a
specific policy ? / Which
institution contributed to this
policy ?

Local health system network

Provide technical advice or
support to local government

Which organization do you
seek advice from ? specify
clinical, management, public
health, health system

Record section of the DOH
/issuance bill board

Improve the content of the AIS

Where do you get the DOH
policies you need from ? Name
3 offices in the DOH where...?

Social Network Analysis

3
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16

Who are the 3 persons in this room you work the most with ?


Number of years you have been working with her/him


Cecile de Luna


3


Ruby Serrano


Irene Hizon


/


5


8


3


5


8


3


1


3


1

Icebreaker


part 2

2

Social Network Analysis

3
-

17

Who you see to help you think through issues ?


Cecile de Luna


3


Ruby Serrano


Irene Hizon


/


5


8


3


5


8

Icebreaker


part 3

3


/