THE WORKING FOR WATER PROGRAM

tubacitychiropractorΔιαχείριση

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

47 εμφανίσεις




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE




THE WORKING FOR WATER
PROGRAM

JH Venter

Department of
Agriculture

South Africa




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

AIS : The damage and threat


1 000 introduced plant species became
naturalised, 200 are invasive


use 3.3 billion cubic metres more water than
indigenous vegetation


waste 7% of our water resources



Cost South Africa R600 million a year over 20
years


Loss of Biodiversity: Up to a 1/4 of RSA’s plant
species




Loss of life, damage to land and property
through high intensity fires.





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

The Government of South
Africa's Department of Water
Affairs and Forestry created a
conservation program called
Working for Water
in 1995





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE


MISSION



The
Working for Water

programme will control invading alien
species, to optimise the potential use of natural resources,
through a process of economic empowerment and
transformation.

In doing this the programme will leave a legacy of social equity
and legislative, institutional and technical capacity.





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE


Objectives


Enhance water security


Improve ecological integrity


Restore productive potential of the
land


Invest in marginal sectors to
improve quality of life


Develop economic benefits from
wood land, water and trained
people





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Integrated approach


Various Departments


Research and Academic Institutes


Partners/sponsors in the Private Sector


International partners

Results:


More than 40 000 jobs

were

provided.


Projects in all the

provinces.

Clearing invading alien plants.




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Mechanical and Chemical Control


Basal bark


Hand pull


Ring barking


Frill


Cut stump treatment


Stem injection




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE


Bio Control




Savings of

20
-
30% could be
achieved if biocontrol
methods are used for
woody species.





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Is biological control safe?



Is

only

released

once

it

has

been

proved

as

sufficiently

host
-
specific
.



Tested

and

approved

biocontrol

agents

do

not

pose

a

threat

to

our

own

crops

or

indigenous

vegetation,

or

to

those

of

neighbouring

countries
.



No

cases

of

changing

their

host

plant

affinities
.




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Track record

Since 1913,

95 species of biocontrol agents

have been introduced into SA

to control 48 weed species.

No unpredicted host switches

have occurred yet.




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Is biocontrol effective?


do not completely
exterminate populations
of their host plants



small populations of
biocontrol agents that
persists will disperse onto
re growth or newly
-
emerged seedlings of the
weed



sustainable control
method






DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Advantages of biocontrol



environmentally friendly,


self
-
perpetuating or self
-
sustaining


cost
-
effective


does not disturb the soil


does not create large empty areas where other invaders
could establish.


allows natural vegetation of the area to recover gradually in
the shelter of the dying weeds.


all levels of biocontrol improve the chances for
rehabilitation of the cleared area





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Legislation


The Agricultural Pests Act


The Conservation of Agricultural Resources
Act


National Environment Management Act


Environment Conservation Act


Draft National Biological Diversity Act


National Water Act


National Veld and Fire Act






DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Agricultural Pests Act, 1983 (Act No. 36 of
1983)



The main purpose is to prevent the introduction of
agricultural pests and organisms associated with
agriculture.


Control the importation of biocontrol agents


The Directorates Plant Health (DPH) the NPPO,


South African Agricultural Quarantine Inspection
Services (SAAFQIS)




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Official International trade


Controlled by the NPPO


Agricultural Pests Act, 1983 (Act No. 36 of 1983)


National and International regulations, standards and
agreements






DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Plant import


Plants imported on permit system


Declared weeds and invaders are prohibited


Risk assessment show potential new weeds


Weeds and potential weeds are regarded as pests as per
IPPC definition






DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Import of biological control agents


Biocontrol imported per permit


Background info is required


Panel of experts review application, do risk assessment


Approved organism imported


Species specificity tests done


Host specificity test plus other research





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Biocontrol import


Application for release to NPPO


NPPO review plus sent to panel of experts


Release can continue and biocontrol agent are mass
reared for implementation




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Act

43

of

1983
,

Conservation

of

Agricultural

Resources

Act,

1983

was

proclaimed

to

provide

for

control

over

the

utilisation

of

the

natural

agricultural

resources

of

the

Republic

in

order

to

promote

the

conservation

of

the

soil,

the

water

sources

and

the

vegetation

and

the

combating

of

weeds

and

invader

plants
;

and

for

matters

connected

therewith
.



In

March

2001

regulation

15

and

16
,

dealing

specifically

with

declared

weeds

and

invader

plants,

were

promulgated

in

the

Government

Gazette

Number

22166
,

thus

bringing

the

number

of

declared

weeds

and

plants

to

a

total

of

198
.



CONSERVATION OF AGRICULTURAL
RESOURCES ACT (CARA)





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

REGULATION 15
-

CATEGORY 1

15A

-
Deals with combating Category 1
plants

Declared weeds

Importation and cultivation is prohibited




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

15
B


-

Deals

with

the

combating

of

Category

2

plants
.


These

plants

have

a

commercial

or

utility

value,

and

are

only

allowed

to

occur

under

certain

conditions

and

with

special

permission
.


CATEGORY 2




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE



15C

-

Deals with the combating of Category 3 plants.

These are plants with an ornamental value, and are allowed to
be kept growing if under controlled circumstances and no more
trading or propagating is allowed



CATEGORY 3




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

15
D

-

Deals

with

the

designation

of

biological

control

reserves

for

the

breeding

of

biological

control

agents
.



15
E

-

The

different

methods

for

control

are

stated

here
.

The

need

for

follow
-
up

actions

is

emphasised

.

Any

action

taken

to

control

category

1
,

2
,

and

3

plants

shall

be

executed

with

caution

and

in

a

manner

that

will

cause

the

least

damage

to

the

environment
.




CONTROL MEASURES




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism


National Environment Management Act


Environment Conservation Act


Draft National Biodiversity Act




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry


National Water Act


National Veld and Fire Act






DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Implementation by Working for Water


Work flow for implementation


WFW policy for clearing land


WFW herbicide policy


Standard implementation documents


Annexure to implementation documents




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

The Biological Control Implementation (BCI)

programme in WfW :




National BCI officer (Penny Gillespie)


PPRI, 1999


Six regional BCI officers


WfW



Ensure all available BC agents
distributed throughout range


Facilitate incorporation of BC into
WfW clearing programmes


Initiation and structure




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Researchers:


Brief BCI officers on biology of agent


Supply them with starter culture


Supply info and photos for agent brochure


Involved with releases


Detailed post
-
release monitoring

Distribution of biocontrol agents

BCI officers:


Mass
-
rear agents


Release agents in co
-
operation with researchers


Monitor for establishment in co
-
operation with researchers


Produce agent brochures





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE


1. Mass
-
rearing in regional BCI

centres


On potted plants in shade houses


In insectaries on cut stems


2. Field collecting, once insects has
established on biocontrol reserve
sites


3. Insects laying their eggs on
immature fruit or seeds of large
woody trees cannot be mass
-
reared in lab


field
-
collected
seasonally



Sources of insects for redistribution




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Protection of released agents


Legislation recognises biocontrol, protects effective BC sites


Allows important BC agent nurseries to be registered as
“biocontrol reserves”


protected from clearing


Undertaking signed between land user and DoA




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Lessons learnt



Importance of co
-
operation between researchers and BCI
officers


Selection criteria for regional BCI officers: skills in field &
technical information transfer


Value of large agent releases





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Research Unit

of WfW


Bio control


Social Development


Hydrology


Ecology


Resource economics


Research publications





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Sustainable Development through WfW


Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Livelihoods



Training

(Business management, chainsaw operation, etc)


Maintaining and restoring ecosystem integrity



Sustainable Consumption and Production





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Seeking to create entrepreneurial
support through secondary
industry development

It offers opportunities for

women, the youth and the disabled

Involves the community




DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

The 2000/2001 Year report


23 998 people employed in the programme.


54% of the workers are women.


26% of the workers are youth.


92% of the budget spent within the financial year.


70 660 hectares of invading alien plants cleared.


180 736 hectares of follow
-
up clearing undertaken.


20 wetlands undergoing rehabilitation work.


313 projects, across all nine provinces
.





DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Special Thanks


Hélette Prinsloo (
LUSM

)


Hildegard Klein (ARC PPRI Rietondale)


Fiona Impson (ARC PPRI Stellenbosch)


Simone Noemdoe (Working for Water)