The Lower Litani River Basin

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Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources

Lebanon Case Study

The Lower Litani River Basin

Earth Link and Advanced Resources Development (ELARD)

in cooperation with

The Lebanese National Center for Remote Sensing (NCRS)

Malta

October 28
-
29, 2004

Environmental and Water Resources

Management Consultants

Lebanese National Center for

Remote Sensing

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Lebanon Case Study

OUTLINE


Introduction


Integrated Water Resources Management


Description of Case Study


Key Stakeholders


Main Water Uses and Users


Driving Forces


Water issues and challenges


SWOT analysis


Data requirements and constraints


Conclusions

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Lebanon Case Study

INTRODUCTION


This case study will be prepared by
ELARD
, a regional
consulting firm in the fields of environmental and water
resources management based in Lebanon, in cooperation
with the Lebanese National Center for Remote Sensing
(
NCRS
)

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OBJECTIVES OF IWRM


To
conserve water
through a more efficient allocation of
the resource and protection of its quality;


To
solve conflicts

among competing uses and users;


To account for the social, economic and environmental
value of water
;


To increase the
participation of communities

and the
private sector

in decision
-
making and financing.

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STRESSES

Population growth, industrial, agricultural and touristic development,
environmental and ecological needs, climate change, lack of awareness

Primary Effects

Deteriorated
Water Quality

Increased

Water
Demand

Less Water of Adequate
Quality Available

Smaller Increase in
Water Supply

Secondary Effects

Increased conflicts

More complex management
and insufficient capacity of
institutions

Increased needs by
local communities

Need for costly
investments

Stakeholder participatory

approach for

conflict resolution

-

Institutional and legal

development

-

Capacity building

-

Private sector

participation

-

Community

Involvement

-

Capacity Building

Private Sector

Participation

Water Quality

Management

Water Demand

Management

Water Supply

Management

Economic

Instruments

Economic

Instruments

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DESCRIPTION OF CASE STUDY


The

Lebanon

case

study

covers

the

lower

Litani

River

Basin



It

is

part

of

the

area

that

has

been

recently

liberated

from

Israeli

occupying

forces



It

is

therefore

prone

to

extensive

development,

hence

important

stresses

on

water

resources

are

anticipated

and

conflicts

among

different

users

likely

to

occur


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Lebanon Case Study

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Lebanon Case Study

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Lebanon Case Study

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Lebanon Case Study

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THE STAKEHOLDERS


Public

Authorities

/

agencies


MoEW

(Ministry

of

Energy

and

Water)


South

Lebanon

Water

and

Wastewater

Establishment


LRA

(

Litani

River

Authority)


MoE

(Ministry

of

Environment)


MoPWT

(Ministry

of

Public

Works

and

Transport)


MoPH

(Ministry

of

Public

Health)


MoA

(Ministry

of

Agriculture)


MoSA

(Ministry

of

Social

Affairs)


Lebanese

Meteorological

service


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THE STAKEHOLDERS (cont’d)


Research bodies


NCSR, NCRS


Universities


Local communities


Municipalities


NGOs


Private Sector / users


Farmers, COOPs


Industries


Consultants, water resources experts, water utility companies (?)


International Organizations


UNIFIL, USAID

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Water Uses and Users


Irrigation / farmers



Domestic use/ local communities



Industrial use



Tourism / recreational



Environmental flow


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Driving Forces


Population growth (new developing area)


Change in land use and development strategies


Technological change


Environmental needs


Climate change


Socio
-
economic conditions


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Water Issues and Challenges


Inadequate legal and institutional frameworks with
proper enforcement mechanisms


Lack of know
-
how of "Decision
-
makers"


“Non
-
coordination" among institutions


Lack of proper "pricing" framework


Lack of "dissemination" of information to different
stakeholders

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Water Issues and Challenges (cont’d)


Lack of human resources capable of addressing water
management issues


Lack of participatory structures with active community
involvement


Lack of sound environment for private sector
participation


Lack of sufficient data on quantities, quality, demand,
climate, etc. (lack of monitoring data)



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SWOT ANALYSIS

Strengths


Availability of groundwater


Presence of major surface water courses


Presence of Litani River Authority that manages
major irrigation projects


Limited industrial activities


Acceptable level of urbanization


Feasibility study for water supply in the area
already prepared

Weaknesses


Peak demand for irrigation occurs during summer
when water is least available


Old water supply infrastructure leading to
excessive losses


Lack of wastewater management infrastructure


Lack of adequate monitoring data for proper
assessment of water resources


Insufficient level of awareness and knowledge of
best management practices in agriculture


Inadequate water pricing and lack of economic
incentives for efficient water use and less
polluting practices


Opportunities


Interest

from international funding sources in the
development of the new liberated south leading to
potential financial assistance that can be used in
water resource management activities/projects



Trend towards privatization


Threats


Attraction of new investments that could pose a
stress to water resources if not properly planned


Sensitivity to geo
-
political context that hinders
economic development


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Data Needs / Constraints

Monitoring Need

IWRM Trinity

Component

Comments

Meteorological data

Water supply

Data on precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, temperature, wind speed
and direction are important to assess the water resources and
perform accurate water balances; data on snow cover is also very
important and is completely non
-
existent; meteorological data is
limited in the area and poses a severe limitation to reliable water
resources management plans

Surface water gauging data

Water supply

Water demand

The LRA maintains a network of river limnigraphic stations that are
used to measure rivers flow; it is important to upgrade this
network to include more stations along the different rivers to be
able to track upstream diversions and monitor river discharge,
which is important in water balance estimations

Groundwater level

Water supply

Water demand

Groundwater level is not systematically monitored; such data is very
important to assess the level of water exploitation and monitor
groundwater use

Water consumption

Water demand

Metering systems should be instituted for different water uses including
domestic and agriculture; this would represent a first step towards
controlling
water losses
, and moving towards a water pricing
mechanism that would encourage
water savings

Surface water and groundwater
quality

Water quality

There is no systematic monitoring of surface or groundwater quality in
the country;

Effluent monitoring and
compliance monitoring

Water quality

Compliance monitoring is very important to secure water quality; while
standards were developed for effluents discharge in water bodies,
little has been done to ensure compliance to these standards

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CONCLUSIONS


Data needed for optimisation of water resources is not
readily available


There are also numerous challenges beyond technical
ones towards a sustainable water resources management
in the area (legal, institutional, economic, social)


This case study should serve however as an important
example / model to be replicated in other river basins in
the country

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Thanks to all those who have put
so much effort to organize this
kick
-
off meeting (great job!)

Questions are welcome...