Natural Resources: finding the right balance - IE

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Natural resources: finding the
right balance


FROM CONCEPTS TO REALITY

Cecilia Tortajada


Managing a Changing Planet

Instituto de Empresa ie Business School



Madrid

16 November 2007


“Sustainable Development:



Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of the future generations to meet
their own needs”



World Commission on Environment and


Development, 1987

“…
to be effective, measures to preserve natural resources
should be taken at the earliest possible moment
simultaneously with economic development
…”



United Nations General Assembly, 1962

“…the recognition of environmental issues is an aspect of
widening of this (economic development taking into
consideration preservation of natural resources)
development concept…”



The Founex Report, 1971





States

should

adopt

an

integrated

and

coordinated

approach

to

their

development

planning

so

as

to

ensure

that

development

is

compatible

with

the

need

to

protect

and

improve

the

human

environment

for

the

benefit

of

their

population






Stockholm Declaration, 1972 (Principle 11)




A new kind of development is needed because it is
essential to relate development to the limitations and
opportunities created by the natural resource base to all
human activities.



It is also required because it is now clear that past patterns
of development in both developed and developing
countries have been characterized by such serious
environmental damage that they are simply not
sustainable.




M. Tolba, 1976



The

most

pressing

objective

of

environmental

management

is

to

meet

basic

human

needs

within

the

potentials

and

constraints

of

environmental

systems,

including

natural

resources
.




Environmental

management

brings

two

new

dimensions

to

the

development

process
:

it

broadens

the

concept

to

include

environmental

quality,

and

it

expands

it

in

time

to

include

development

over

the

long
-
term

on

a

sustainable

basis
.





M. Tolba, 1976







all

Governments

and

peoples

of

the

world

to

discharge

their

historical

responsibility,

collectively

and

individually,

to

ensure

that

our

small

planet

is

passed

over

to

future

generations

in

a

condition

which

guarantees

a

life

in

human

dignity

for

all

.




10
th

Anniversary Stockholm

Nairobi Declaration, 1982



New processes and methods of governing



Changed conditions or ordered rule



Actions and inactions of all parties transparent and


accountable


It embraces the relationships between governments and
societies (including laws, regulations, institutions and
formal and informal interactions) which affect all the ways
in which governance systems function, stressing the
importance of involving more voices, responsibilities,
transparency and accountability of formal and informal
organisations associated in any process







Governance

Umbrella concept with multiple definitions


It is not synonymous with government

It is a complex process that considers multi
-
level
participation beyond the State, where decision
-

making includes not only public institutions, but
also private sector, organised civil society and
society in general.





Governance

It refers to a process of governing which requires:


Participation, Consensus orientation

Strategic vision, Responsiveness

Effectiveness, Efficiency,

Accountability, Transparency

Equity, Rule.





Governance


Water governance considers the political, economic and social processes
and institutions by which governments, civil society and the private sector
make decisions about how best to use, develop and manage water
resources.



It includes mechanisms and institutions through which
all

involved
stakeholders, including citizens and interest groups, articulate their
priorities, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate
their differences.



UNDP, Water governance for poverty reduction.

Key issues and the UNDP response to MDG, New York, 2004
.


Water Governance

Does it just appear?



Overall conditions and enabling environment must
be appropriate


Parties should be agreeable to collective decision
making


Effective and functional organisations must be
developed


Policy, legal and political frameworks should be
suitable for specific goals

Water Governance

Water Governance



Complexity of Participation



Governing issues are neither public nor private: they
are shared


Diffusion of governing activities at all levels


Creation of social
-
political structures and processes
to stimulate communication between
all

actors
involved


Creation of common responsibilities to solve societal
problems or create societal opportunities
(institutions/norms)


Water Governance



I
ntegration of views and

Interdependence of actors



Coordination


uncertainty and loss of autonomy


Cooperation


mutual interests


Decision
-
making processes


Willingness of members of formal and informal
groups and society to collaborate, participate, learn
and interact




MEXICO CITY METROPOLITAN AREA


SINGAPORE






Finding the right

balances

Mexico City Metropolitan Area



Area of 4,925 km
2


1,484 km
2
in Mexico City


3,441 km
2
in State of Mexico




0.3% of land and 22
-
25% of


population


16 boroughs of Mexico City


34 municipalities of State of


Mexico




45% of commercial, services


and industrial activities




32% of the GDP



Population density, Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

Water needs, Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

9 million people in Mexico City

(95.3% have access to water)

14 million in State of Mexico

(84.2% have access to water)



364 l/person/day in Mexico City

230 l/person/day in State of
Mexico




290 l/person/day


(including industries, services,


unauthorized uses and leakages


of 30
-
40%)





Sources for drinking water for the Metropolitan Area

(m
3
/s)

M
exico City

S
tate of
Mexico

T
otal

%

I
NTERNAL


SOURCES

20.0

25.2

45.2

68.5

W
ells

19.0

24.8

43.8

66.4

R
ivers and

springs

1.0

0.4

1.4

2.1

EXTERNAL
SOURCES

14.8

6.0

20.8

31.5

C
utzamala

9.9

5.0

14.9

22.6

L
erma

4.9

1.0

5.9

8.9

TOTAL

34.8

(52.7%)

31.2

(47.3%)

66.0

100.0

Source: DGCOH, 1997; CAEM, 2002
.

External sources of water

Lerma River

1942



4 m
3
/s



1965
-
1976


14 m
3
/s






6 m
3
/s

Cutzamala System


1982


4 m
3
/s


1985


6 m
3
/s


1993


9 m
3
/s $ 23 million/
m
3


1997


14 m
3
/s



Water has to be transferred from more than 150 km away,
pumped to a height of more than 1000 m. It requires 102
pumping stations, 17 tunnels and 8 km of canals, becoming a
very energy
-
expensive operation


2800

1600

2600

2400

2200

2000

1800

Elevation (msl)

Colorines Dam, P.P. 1

Valle de Bravo Dam, P.P. 2

P.P. 3

P.P. 4

Chilesdo Dam, P.P. 5

Villa Victoria Dam

Water Treatment Plant

P.P. 6

Dam

Pumping plant (P.P.)

Piezometric line

De las Cruces Mountains

Tuxpan Dam

El Bosque

Dam

Zitácuaro

City

Ixtapan del Oro

Dam

Colorines

Dam

El Tule Dam

Valle de Bravo Dam

Chilesdo

Dam

Villa Victoria

Dam

Temascaltepec River

Toluca City

Mexico City

Emiliano Zapata Tank

Tank No. 3

Pericos

Tank

Sta. Isabel Tank

Stabilization Pond

Donato Guerra

Teuhtli Tank

Cerro Gordo

Tank

La Caldera

Tank

Coacalco Tank

Barrientos

Tank

Water Treatment

Plant

Source:
Tortajada, 2003.

Cutzamala System
-

Cost

Only the construction of Cutzalama system

($1300 million) was higher than the national
investment in the entire public sector in Mexico in
1996, including:




education ($700 million)



health and social security ($400 million)



agriculture, livestock and rural development


($105 million)



tourism ($50 million) and



marine sector ($60 million).



Source:
CNA,

1997
.

Groundwater
abs
traction

from the a
quifer



Abstraction of 45
-

48 m
3
/s


Natural recharge rate
-

20 m
3
/s
Overexplotation
-

25
-
28 m
3
/s


Lowering of the water table
and land subsidence at the rate
of 10
-
40 cm/year in some parts
of the city


Abstraction of water (m
3
)/subsidence

in Mexico City


Damages to the infrastructures for water supply and sewerage systems


Construction of costly pumping systems to remove rainwater and

w
astewater

from the City


Degradation of groundwater quality

Source: Lesser
&

Cortés
, 1998.

Subsidence in Mexico City

City centre, 10 cm

Airport, 20
-
25

cm


Source: Mazari
-
Hiriart

et al.,
2001
.

Problems...

Flooding




D
ifference

in

levels

between

some

parts

of

the

City

and

the

collectors




I
nability

of

the

overall

system

to

pump

all

the

water

out

of

the

City

in

rainy

season





D
ue

to

the

subsidence

of

the

City,

downtown

is

7

m

below

the

highest

point

of

the

Gran
d

Canal,

which

makes

it

difficult

for

the

water

to

be

pumped

out

of

the

area




Problems...

Pollution

of

groundwater




Faecal

coliforms




Bacterias

such

as

Aeromonas,

Pseudomonas,

Staphylococcus

and

Vibrio

in

the

southern

and

eastern

part

of

the

City



Helicobacter

pylory,

related

to

ulcers

and

stomach

cancer

in

the

aquifer

in

the

area

of

Xochimilco

and

in

water

of

Cutzamala

before

being

treated
.




Wastewater discharges (m
3
/s)

USE

MEXICO CITY

STATE OF MEXICO

CONCESSIONS

VOLUME
DISCHARGED

CONCESSIONS

VOLUME
DISCHARGED

TOTAL

31

745.48

689

6.81

23.63 m
3
/s

0.2159 m
3
/s



23.85 m
3
/s

45
-
50 m
3
/s

Irrigation of 90,000 ha in the Mezquital Valley

Subsidence in D
.
F
. and Infrastructure problems

1910

Mexico City

Tequisquiac Tunnel

1950

Grand Canal

Slope 19 cm/km

Gravity Sewage System

Slope 12 cm/km

Pumping Sewage System

1970

1990

Slope

0

䥮I敲捥ptors

䍥湴r慬a䑥数⁄牡楮慧e

S汯l攠e〠0洯歭

偵mp楮g⁓敷慧攠卹獴敭

Pu浰楮i⁓敷慧攠Sy獴敭

Federal District

2

3

4

5

6

6.8

7.2

8

10

3

4

5

6.8

6

2

6.2

3

4

5

5

4

3

Source:
National Research Council,

1995.

STRATEGY FOR WATER

MANAGEMENT FOR

MEXICO CITY, 1992


Water supply

Financial self
-
sufficiency

Metered service

Programme on leakages detection

PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES,
1994

Zone

COMPANY

PARTNERS

AREAS

NUMBER OF

CONNECTIONS

A

SAPSA

ICA

CIE. Generale des
eux

Banamex

Gustavo A. Madero

Azcapotzalco

Cuauthemoc

298,557

B

IASA

Brittingham

Severn Trent

Benito Juarez, Coyoacan,
Iztacalco and Venustiano
Carranza

257,825

C

TECSA

Bufete Ind.

Lyonnaise

Bancomer

Iztapalapa, Tlahuac,
Xochimilco and Milpa
Alta

327,408

D

AGUAMEX

Gutza

Northwest water

Tlalpan, Magdalena
Contreras, Alvaro
Obregon, Cuajimalpa and
Miguel Hidalgo

263,789

Source:

CADF, 1994.



ACTIVITIES


1.
SERVICE TO CLIENTS: METERS, READING,
DISTRIBUTION OF BILLS, COLLECTION OF FEES,
INFORMATION OFFICES.


2.
HUMAN RESOURCES AND SYSTEMS (QUALITY
CONTROL).


3.
TECHNICAL SERVICES: STATISTICS OF USERS
AND NETWORKS, REPLACEMENT OF METERS.


4.
OPERATIONS: MAINTENANCE OF METERS AND
PIPES (LEAK DETECTION AND REPAIR).








RESULTS



UPDATE LIST OF USERS AND CONNECTIONS


COMPUTARIZED SYSTEM (USERS, CONNECTIONS,
METERS INSTALLED, CONSUMPTION, BILLS,
COLLECTION OF FEES, DEBTS).


PROGRAMME ON LEAKES DETECTION.


NO EXCEMPTIONS (EDUCATION AND HEALTH
SECTOR).


DISCOUNTS: RETIRED PESONNEL HAS ONE
-
YEAR
RENEWABLE DISCOUNTS. PEOPLE FROM DISTANT
PLACES WITH NO REGULAR SERVICE.







E
fficiency indicators for drinking water management
in Mexico City

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

VOLUME OF
DELIVERED WATER

(MILLION OF m
3
)



686.6


690.6


691.9


720.2


752.8


752.2


USERS WITH BILL

(THOUSANDS)


1,477.5


1,620.2


1,644.0


1,681.1


1,7020.0


1,769.1


NO. OF BILLS FOR
METERED SERVICE

(THOUSANDS)



725.6


1,260.6


1,408.3


1,505.1


1,552.8


1,582.7


CHARGED WATER
(
BILLION PESOS
)


1.1


1.5


2.1


4.6


2.8


3.2


B
ILLED WATER
(
B
ILLION

PESOS)


1.7


2.4


2.7


7.2


3.5


3.8




MEXICO CITY METROPOLITAN AREA


SINGAPORE






Finding the right

balances

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Unaccounted for Water, Singapore, 1990
-
2004

154
156
158
160
162
164
166
168
170
172
174
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Domestic water consumption, 1995
-
2005

Year


0,0
5,0
10,0
15,0
20,0
25,0
30,0
35,0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Average monthly bill, inclusive of all taxes (in S$) 1980
-
2005

Year

$

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Number of accounts served per staff

FINAL REFLEXION

(Prison of Socrates, Athens)

Natural Resources: finding the right balance...



Route
-

desired direction:


Security (water, food, energy, ecosystems...), adaptivity,
welfare…


Actor:


Society, stakeholders, administration, individuals,
households, traditional communities, corporations...


Instruments:


Technology, governance, capacity building, leadership,
management, organisation, communication, coordination,
awareness...


Rules:


Moral codes, laws, customary laws, commitments, human
rights, participation...


Externalities:


Globalisation, climate change, demography (migrations,
urbanisation, aging), diseases, health, political changes...

Varis, O., and A. Press, 2006.

The concept of
Development

Modified from:

Maxwell, S. 1996. Food security: a post
-
modern perspective.
Food Policy

21: 155
-
170.


Modern
sector
1980s

Modern sector 200
0
s

Modern sector
20
2
0
s

Underlying
reality

Simple

U
niform

Complex

D
iverse

?

?

Objectives

Growth

M
acro

Development

M
icro

?

?

Research
appr
oach

Measure

Survey

Reductionist

Deduction

Abstract models

Aggregate

Listen

Participat
e

Holistic

Induction

Complex reality

Disaggregate

?

?

?

?

?

?

Planning
approach

Plan

Model

Top
-
down

Centralize

Enable

Interact

Bottom
-
up

Decentralize

?

?

?

?

Implementati
on

Blue
-
print

Role culture

Standardization

Process

Task culture

Flexibility, innovation

?

?

?


Natural Resources: finding the right balance...


Desired direction (route):


Security (water, food, energy, ecosystems...),
adaptivity, welfare…


Actor:


Society, stakeholders, administration, individuals,
households, traditional communities, corporations...


Instruments:


Technology, governance, capacity building, leadership,
management, organisation, communication,
coordination, awareness...


Rules:


Moral codes, laws, customary laws, commitments,
human rights, participation...


Externalities:


Globalisation, climate change, demography (migrations,
urbanisation, aging), diseases, health, political
changes...

Interconnections

Non
-
predictabilities

New dynamics

Unconventional links

Out of the box

Non
-
linearities

Varis, O., and A. Press, 2006.