International Environmental Law - Caricom

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Introduce

basic

concepts

about

the

environment



Environment
;



Scope

of

Environmental

Management
;



Administration

of

Environmental

Management
;


Sustainable

Development
;



The

Branches

of

Environmental

Law

including

Caribbean

Community

Environmental

Law
;

and



Role

of

UNEP

in

developing

Environmental

Law
.

Why

definition

is

important
!



Establishes

the

Philosophical

Basis

of

any

legislation

drafted

and

implemented

to

protect

the

environment
.



Indicates

the

value

place

on

the

various

aspects

of

the

environment
.



Perceptions

which

policy

maker

have

on

the

environment
.



Reflects

the

focus

of

environmental

legislation

and

the

commitment

of

the

State

to

protect

the

environment
.

Many Definitions!




Man

is

both

a

creature

and

molder

of

his

environment,

which

gives

him

physical

sustenance

and

afford

him

the

opportunity

for

intellectual,

moral,

social

and

spiritual

growth
.

UN

Conference

on

the

Human

Environment,

1972
.




Mankind

is

a

part

of

nature

and

life

depends

on

the

uninterrupted

functioning

of

natural

systems

which

ensure

the

supply

of

energy

and

nutrients
.

Civilization

is

rooted

in

nature,

which

shape

human

culture

and

influence

all

artistic

and

scientific

achievement,

and

li
ving

in

harmony

with

nature

gives

man

the

best

opportunities

for

the

developmen
t

of

his

creativity

and

for

rest

and

relaxation
.

The

World

Charter

for

Nature,

Adopted

by

UN

in

1982




“Environment”

means

the

physical

factors

of

the

surroundings

of

human

beings

including

the

land,

soil,

water,

atmosphere,

climate,

sound,

odors,

tastes

and

the

biological

factors

of

animals

and

plants

of

every

description
.

National

Conservation

and

Protection

Act

1987
,

No
.
5

of

1987
,

St
.

Kitts

and

Nevis

Environmental

management

encompasses

concerns

about,

among

others
:



Air

quality
;


Water

quality

and

quantity
;


Soil

erosion

and

land

degradation
;


Protection

of

endangered

species
;


Proper

management

of

dangerous

chemicals
;


Adequate

treatment

and

proper

disposal

of

waste
;


Management

of

natural

resources,

including
:

o

Forests
;

o

Wetlands
;


o

Scenic

sites
.




Coordinated

management

of

the

global

commons,

including
:

o
High

seas
;

o
Atmosphere
;

o
Antarctica
;

and


o
Outer

space



Human

elements

of

the

environmental

including
:

o
Human

settlements
;

o
Cultural,

historical,

and

religious

aspects

of

human

activities
;

o
Population
;

and

o
Minorities

and

indigenous

peoples
.








activities

which

produce

goods

and

services

to

measure
,

prevent,

limit,

minimise

or

correct

environmental

damage

to

water,

air,

soil,

as

well

as

problems

related

to

waste,

noise

and

eco
-
systems
.

This

includes

cleaner

technologies
,

products

and

services

that

reduce

environmental

risk

and

minimize

pollution

and

resource

use

.

OECD/Eurostat,

OECD

and

the

Statistical

Office

of

the

European

Communities,

the

Environmental

Goods

and

Services

Industry
:

Manual

for

Data

Collection

and

Analysis,

1999
,

OECD

Publication,

Paris
.



POLLUTION MANAGEMENT GROUP


Solid/Hazardous Waste Management


Recycled Materials


Waste Water Management


Air Pollution Control


Noise and Vibration Abatement


Remediation and Cleanup of Soils, Surface Water or Ground Water



INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE/CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT SERVICES GROUP


Analytical Services, Data Collection, Analysis and Assessment


Environmental Research and development


Environmental Education, Training and Information



CLEANER TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION GROUP


Cleaner/Resource Efficient Technologies and Process


Cleaner/Resource Efficient Products


*Source: M.D. Griffith, 2009



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT GROUP


Renewable Energy


Water Resources Treatment and Distribution


Sustainable Biodiversity


Coastal and Marine Protection and Management


Protection and Management of Natural and Cultural Heritage


Environmental Planning


Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Management


Sustainable Land Management


Sustainable Forestry Management


Other Environmental Services


*Source: M.D. Griffith, 2009







Development

that

meets

the

needs

of

the

present

without

compromising

the

ability

of

future

generations
:

Brundtland

Commission,

1987



Calls

for

integration

of

environment

and

development

at

all

levels

of

decision

making
;



Intra
-
generational

and

intergenerational

equity
:

equitable

access

to

environmental

resources

by

both

present

and

future

generation
;



Sustainable

and

development
-
contradictory



sustainable
:

implies

elements

of

long

term

renewal,

maintenance,

recycling,

minimal

raw

material

exploitation

and

the

management

of

people
´
s

needs

on

a

collective

basis



development
:

can

be

interpreted

many

different

ways




Concept

institutionalized

by

the

United

Nations

Conference

on

Environment

and

Development
.


International

Environmental

Law



International

law

governs

relations

between

independent

states
.

The

rules

of

law

binding

upon

states

therefore

emanate

from

their

own

free

will

as

expressed

in

Conventions

or

by

usages

generally

accepted

as

expressing

principles

of

law

and

established

in

order

to

regulate

relations

between

these

coexisting

independent

communities

or

with

a

view

to

the

achievement

of

common

aims
.

The

Permanent

Court

of

International

Justice

in

S
.
S
.

“Lotus”
.



Special

Brands

of

International

Environmental

Law


Caribbean

Community

Environmental

Law



National

Environmental

Law



Consists

of

legislation,

standards,

regulations,

institutions

and

administration

adopted

to

control

activities

damaging

to

the

environment

within

a

state
.



1972
:

United

Nations

Conference

on

the

Human

Environment
.


1972
:

UNEP

established
:


UNGA

Resolution

2997

(XXV
11
),

15

December

1972
.


1975
:

UNGA

approved

UNEP
´
s

work

contributing

to

the

development

and

codification

of

a

new

body

of

international

law

to

meet

the

requirements

generated

by

environmental

concerns
.


1981
:

A

Programme

for

the

Development

and

Periodic

Review

of

Environmental

Law

(the

Montevideo

Programme
)

was

drafted
.


Conclusion

of

international

agreement
;


The

development

of

international

principles,

guidelines

and

standards
;

and


Provision

of

technical

assistance

for

the

further

development

of

national

legislation

and

institutions,

including

the

implementation

of

international

agreements

through

national

legislation
.



1991
:

Review

of

the

Montevideo

Plan

1991

and

the

Programme

for

the

Development

and

Periodic

Review

of

Environmental

Law

for

the

1990
´
s
.




THANK YOU