Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) - Reocities

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA): Overview

Session Objectives:



Explain what EIA is about



Discuss the EIA process







Agenda


EIA & its evolution


EIA principles


EIA process


Benefits of EIA


Discussions

What is EIA?

US EPA National Environmental Policy Act

(proclaimed in 1970) called for:



public statement of environmentally significant
consequences of all federal actions


public input into project formulation


informed decision
-
making


This process became known as EIA


Purposes of EIA


modify and improve design


ensure efficient resource use


enhance social aspects


identify measures for monitoring & managing
impacts


inform decision
-
making


provide justification for a proposal


Various Aspects of
Environmental Impacts


type and nature


magnitude


extent


timing



duration


uncertainty


reversibility


significance

Integration within EIA

The process of EIA has moved towards the
consideration of all effects arising from a
proposal. These can include:



biophysical


social


health


economic


risk and uncertainty





Early 1970s
-

initial development


1970s to 1980s
-

trend to integration


Mid to late 1980s
-

cumulative effects and
policy integration


Mid 1990s
-

towards sustainability (SEA
-

strategic environmental assessment,
biodiversity)


Evolution of EIA



EIA Developments in the 1990s:




Major reforms to well established systems


Implementation of EC Directive (1985)


World Bank and other agencies introduce policies


Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context
(1991)


Conventions on Climate Change and Biological
Diversity




EIA
-
Three Core Values




Sustainability

-

the EIA process will result in
environmental safeguards



Integrity
-

the EIA process will conform to agreed
standards



Utility
-

the EIA process will provide balanced,
credible information for decision
-
making


Sadler, 1996

EIA
-

Eight Guiding Principles


Participation



Transparency



Certainty



Accountability



Sadler, 1996


Credibility



Cost
-
effectiveness



Flexibility



Practicality


EIA Operating Principles I

EIA should be applied
:



to all development project
activities likely to cause
potentially significant
adverse impacts or add to
actual or potentially
foreseeable cumulative
effects



as a primary instrument for
environmental management
to ensure that impacts of
development are minimized,
avoided or rehabilitated



Sadler, 1996



so that the scope of review
is consistent with the
nature of the



project or activity &
commensurate with the
likely issues & impacts



on the basis of well
defined roles, rules and
responsibilities for key
actors

EIA Operating Principles II

EIA should be undertaken:



throughout project cycle,
beginning as early as possible
in the concept design phase



with clear reference to the
requirements for project
authorization & follow
-
up,
including impact management






Sadler, 1996




consistent with the application
of 'best practicable' science &
mitigation technology in
accordance with established
procedures & project
-
specific
terms of reference, including
agreed timelines



to provide meaningful public
consultation with communities,
groups & parties directly
affected by, or with an interest
in, the project and/or its
environmental impacts




EIA Operating Principles III

EIA should address, wherever necessary or appropriate:




All related & relevant factors, including social and
health risks & impacts


Cumulative and long
-
term, large
-
scale effects


Design, locational and technological alternatives
to the proposal being assessed


Sustainability considerations including resource
productivity, assimilative capacity and biological
diversity


Sadler, 1996

EIA Operating Principles IV


EIA should result in:



Accurate & appropriate info as to the nature, likely
magnitude & significance of potential effects, risks &
consequences of a proposed undertaking & its alternatives


Preparation of an impact statement or report that presents
this info in a clear, understandable & relevant form for
decision
-
making, including reference to qualifications, &
confidence limits in the predictions made


Ongoing problem solving and conflict resolution to the
extent possible during the application of the process


Sadler, 1996



EIA Operating Principles V


EIA should provide the basis for:




Environmentally sound decision
-
making in which terms &
conditions are clearly specified and enforced


Design, planning and construction of acceptable
development projects that meet environmental standards
and resource management objectives


An appropriate follow
-
up process with requirements for
monitoring, management, audit & evaluation that are based
on the significance of potential effects, the uncertainty
associated with prediction & mitigation, & the opportunity
for making future improvements in project design or
process application

Sadler, 1996


The EIA Process



Screening



Scoping




Assessing




Mitigating




Reporting


Reviewing



Decision
-
making



Monitoring &
managing



Public involvement



EIA Costs for Multipurpose Projects

in Thailand


Delays are caused during EIA
when:


EIA is commenced too late in the project
cycle


TORs are poorly drafted


EIA is not managed to a schedule


EIA report is inadequate and needs to be
upgraded


Lack of technical data


Benefits of EIA include:



more environmentally sustainable design


better compliance with standards


savings in capital and operating costs


reduced time and costs for approvals


avoids later plant adaptations


reduced health costs


increased project acceptance

Ensuring Fairness in the EIA
Process


register consultants' names and terms of reference


name consultants and their expertise in the EIA
report


publish the terms of reference in the EIA report


make EIA reports available to the public


publish lists of screening and final decisions along
with conditions for approval