Biodiversity Threats

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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© Sam Ferreira

Global Patterns

Unsustainable exploitation
of biodiversity

Rands

et al.
2010
. Science
329: 1298
-
1303


End of the line


imagine a
world without fish

www.endofthelinemovie.com


Large mammal declines in
parks

Craigie

et al.
2010.
Biological Conservation
123: 45
-
54


© Sam Ferreira

South Africa may do better sometimes

0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Large Mammal Populations

Unknown
Decrease
Stable
Increase
54% increasing or stable 4% decreasing

Ferreira
et al.

2009.
SANParks
, South Africa

The Business of Ecosystem Services


Carbon sequestration


Community
-
based ecotourism


Resource use


Harvesting


Hunting


Water quality



Increased
monetary
-
based values

© Rudi van
Aarde

A conflict of interest for conservationists?


Biodiversity degrades with monetary
-
based approaches




Conundrum for protected areas



Protect biodiversity



But also generate revenue


© Sam Ferreira

Mills & Waite 2009.
Ecological Economics

68: 2087
-
2095

© Rudi van
Aarde

Why is biodiversity important?


It has livelihood links


Monetary


Non
-
monetary



Threats to biodiversity threatens livelihoods



© Adrian
Shrader

Threats are drivers of Global Environmental Change

Gaston
et al.
2008.
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and
Systematics

39: 93
-
113

Reduction or Loss of Species in Protected Areas

22%

Habitat Change

Fire, prescribed burning,

elephant damage,

habitat loss
and
quality,

starvation, declining resources


3%

Climate Change

Drought

6%

Invasive species

Fish stocking,

bush encroachment



25%

Over
-
Exploitation

Hunting,

removals for translocation

3%

Pollution

Affects resource availability

13%

Disease

10%

Predation

13%

Unknown

54 % of cases involved more than one driver

Ocean
acidification



Since
1970
pH dropped by 0.1


Sea
-
level rise



Cost 5
-
10% GDP

Africa



75
-
250 million people water stress by 2020



Rural agricultural yield drop by 50% by 2020



5
-
8% more arid land by 2080

Climate Change as a Driver

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC): 4
th

Report 2007

-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
Upslope shift (m)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number of species
Upper altitudinal boundary
contracted downslope
Upper altitudinal boundary
expanded upslope
Plants on the move

Moving upslope

Moving downslope

Number of species

Altitudinal shift (m)

43%

Ave. = 69m

Le Roux
& McGeoch
2008.
Global Change Biology

14: 2950
-
2962

Biodiversity consequences of Climate Change

Invasive Species as a Driver

Invasive
alien plants
in Kruger

Foxcroft
& Richardson
2003. In Plant
invasives
.
Blackhyus

Publishers.

Aerial extent of
Opuntia

stricta


Foxcroft
et al.

2004.
Diversity and Distribution

10: 427
-
437

© Sam Ferreira

Invaded

Not invaded

Richness

21.39
±

2.31

35.56
±

2.32*

Abundance

67.49
±

18.87

19.49
±

18.88*

Homogenization

0.008
±

0.002

0.77
±

0.002**

Biodiversity consequences of Invasive Species

Impact of the Argentine ant
on native
Fynbos

ants

©
Melodie
McGeogh

McGeoch, Unpublished data

Over
-
exploitation

as a Driver

What does it mean?


Populations harvested unsustainably

-

Reproduction cannot compensate for mortalities


Wilcove

et al.

1998.
BioScience

48: 607
-
615

-

Resource quality change


Food and Agriculture Organization of the


United Nations 2007


Conceptual driver


Tragedy of the commons

-

Increase of individual resources

-

e.g.

herd of cows

-

Detriment of common resources

-

e.g.

communal fodder


Hardin 1968.
Science

162: 1243
-
1248


Frank
et al.
2005.
Science

308: 1621

1623

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen

Time

NO
3
-

+ NO
2

18/25 cases, 7**

Time

PO
4
3

Phosphorous

23/25 cases, 14**

Fertilizer use

Effluent

deVilliers

&
Thiart

2007.
South African Journal of Science

103: 343
-
349

State of South Africa’s River Systems

Pollution

as a Driver

©
Melodie
McGeogh

May
Jun
July
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
0
1000
2000
3000
Helicopter
Spotlight
2008/2009
2009/2010
Number of crocodiles
Dead

170

Dead

28

Biodiversity consequences of Pollution

Ferreira & Pienaar 2010.
Aquatic Conservation

Submitted

©
Andrew Deacon

Increase in EIDs

Wildlife

Plants & animals

Homogenization

Mixing

Loss of diversity

Increased risk of disease

and disease transfer

translocation

impact

Emerging infectious disease


Transfer
between domestic animals
and wildlife

Daszak

et al.

2000.
Science

287: 443
-
449


Human
translocation of hosts and
parasites

Spear &
Chown

2008.
Journal of Biogeography


No
human or domestic animal
involvement

Matthee

et al.

2004.
Journal of
Parasitology

90: 1263
-
1273


Consequences


Direct threat to wildlife

Indirect threat via human antagonism

Disease

as a Driver

Belden & Harris 2007.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
5: 533
-
539

©
Danny Govender

Tree Grass


Dynamics

herbivory

fire

soil

rainfall

[CO
2
]

Bond 2008.
Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics

39: 641
-
659

Management actions

Climate change

Habitat clearing


Fragmentation


Roads


Habitat Change

as a Driver

Vehicle
numbers


Tourism facilities


Tourist numbers



© Sam Ferreira

Dealing with threats

Climate change




land expansion

Invasive species




regulatory and restoration

Over
-
exploitation




regulatory and restoration

Pollution





regulatory and restoration

Disease





regulatory and scenarios

Habitat change




protection and restoration


Essentially a social problem

growth of human populations

per capita

consumption

Rands

et al.
2010
. Science
329: 1298
-
1303


Integrate conservation friendly land
-
uses


Socio
-
economic
-
ecological complexity




Conservationists are negotiators

Diversify

approaches

MISSION


To manage Golden Gate Highlands National
Park in a collaborative learning environment
as part of an ecologically functional and
sustainable patchwork of different land uses
in the region that ensures the persistence of
the natural and cultural heritage for the
benefit and enjoyment of all
.


SANParks

2009. Pretoria.

Scenario Planning

Consequences often unknown


Nearly all drivers fall in this category


Disease accentuated


Medical examples to embrace

http://www.physorg.com/news160327953.html

©
Markus Hofmeyr

Make links and manage causal mechanisms

Objectives

and

outcomes

Drivers and indicators


-

impacts on biodiversity

-

tall trees

-

aesthetics

-

conflict


Mechanisms and modulators


-

how they use space

-

water directly modulates

-

density may override this

Management responses



Induce predation

Induce dispersal

Mimic predation

Mimic dispersal

Manipulate births

Manipulate deaths

Restore space

Manipulate resource

Exclude resource

Rotate resource

Exclude impact

Objectives


Ecosystem

Abiotic


soil nutrients

Decomposers


millipedes

Producers


vegetation

Consumers


birds


Species of Concern

Rare species

Endemic species


Stakeholders

Perceptions

Complaints


Tourists

Satisfaction

Revisits

Drivers and indicators


Elephants

Patch density

Fragstats

Large trees

Size distribution


Stakeholders

Wildlife conflict

Damage to crops


Mammals

Sightings

Diversity

Tourist effort


Mechanisms and modulators


Elephants

Home range overlap

Season distribution


Direct modulator

Water availability

Fence distribution


Indirect modulator

Abundance

Density


Humans

Landscape use


Monitoring needs

Gaylard
& Ferreira 2010.
Koedoe
.
Submitted

Our legacy?


Biodiversity begets livelihoods


Livelihoods threaten biodiversity



The Year of Biodiversity
-

A way of living



matrix of different land
-
uses


Ferreira et al. 2010.
Journal of Environmental Management
Submitted



biodiversity is global public good


integrate

biodiversity


resource production


consumption


wider

institutional and societal changes


enable effective

implementation



Rands

et al.
2010
. Science
329: 1298
-
1303


© Sam Ferreira

Biodiversity should be an accidental
outcome of sustainable livelihoods

© Rudi van
Aarde