What is a search engine?

triteritzyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Analyzing Technology Issues

Computer Basics

The Impact of Technology
on Education


Education


Internet


Distance
Learning
-

Using Technology as a
medium for schooling or learning.


Computer
-
Based
Learning
-

Using a computer as
a tutor


Simulations
-

Models a real
-
world activity.

The Impact of Technology
on Science


Science


Artificial
Intelligence
-

tries to improve computers
by endowing them with some of the
characteristics associated with human
intelligences.


Genetic
Engineering
-

changing DNA in living
organisms


Virtual
Reality
-

an artificial environment that
appears to feel like a real environment


Multinational Economy


Electronic
Commerce
-

having an online
business.

The Impact of Technology
on Work


The
flying car


Voice recognition



Space travel


Smart
houses


Electronic shopping

The Impact of Technology
on Our Lives

Exploring Technology Careers


Business and Office


Administrative Assistant


Desktop Publisher/Graphic Designer


Network Support and Administration


PC Support Specialist


Manager of Information Systems


Web
-
Based


Web Developer


Web Master

Computer Crimes


A criminal act committed through the use of
a computer. It can also involve the theft of a
computer and any equipment associated with
the computer.

Types of Computer Crimes


Computer fraud


Conduct that involves the manipulation of a computer or
computer data in order to obtain money, property, or
value dishonestly or to cause loss.



Computer hacking


Involves invading someone else’s computer, usually for
personal gain or just the satisfaction of invasion.

Other Computer Crimes


Theft of computer time


An employee uses a company’s computer for
personal use such as running a small business,
keeping records of an outside organization, or
keeping personal records.


Data diddling


Changing data before it is entered into the
computer or after is has been entered into the
computer.

Computer Viruses


A virus is a program that has been written to
cause corruption of data on a computer.

Types of Computer Viruses


Worm


Makes many copies of itself, resulting in the consumption of system
resources that slows down or actually halts tasks.


Time bomb


Virus that does not cause its damage until a certain date or until the
system has been booted a certain number of times.


Logic bomb


Virus triggered by the appearance or disappearance of specified data.


Trojan horse


Virus that does something different from what it is expected to do.

Privacy and Security Issues


Any time you submit information on the
Internet, it is possible for the information to
be gathered by many persons and used for
various situations including being sold.
Information can be gathered from online
sources such as schools, banks, hospitals,
insurance companies, and many other
sources.

Security Measures

Maintain and Enforce Security Measures such
as:


Passwords


Electronic identification cards


Firewalls


Antivirus software


Selective hiring process

Advantages and Uses of
Telecommunications


Telecommunication involves electronically
transferring data.


Distance learning


Allows the user to take classes without being
physically present.


Teleconferencing


Provides conferencing capabilities from several
locations without leaving the office, reduces costs for
time and travel.

What is a browser?


The software program that you use to
retrieve documents from the World
Wide Web (WWW) and to display
them in a readable format.


Examples:


Internet Explorer


Netscape Communicator

Title bar


The bar on
top of the
window that
contains the
name of the
document.


A horizontal
menu that
appears on
top of a
window.


Provides a
selection of
options
related to
the Web
page.

Menu Bar


Icons for
single
-
click
access to
most
commonly
used menu
commands.

Tool bar


Contains the
URL, or address,
of the active
Web page; also
where you type
the location for
the Web page
you want to visit.

Address bar


Connects
you to
address
displayed in
the Address
bar.
Document
Window
displays the
active Web
Page

Go button


Located at
the bottom
of the
browser;
shows the
progress of
Web page
transactions.

Status bar


A small picture
in the upper
right corner of
the browser;
when
animated, it
means your
browser is
accessing data
from a remote
computer.

Access Indicator


Vertical and
horizontal
scroll bars; lets
you scroll
vertically and
horizontally if
the Web page
is too long or
too wide to fit
within one
screen.

Scroll bars

What is Email?


Email, or electronic mail, is similar to regular
mail. You have a message, an address, and a
carrier that figures out how to get it from one
location to another.


Email is used to stay in touch with family and
friends, conduct business, and send
attachments such as text and image files.

Advantages and Uses of Email


Faster way to communicate and respond


Quick and easy way to send messages


Forward messages to other individuals


Send messages to multiple individuals


Include attachments such as pictures, audio files,
and documents





Email Terminology


Inbox


Outbox


Sent Items


Deleted Items


Drafts


New Message


Send


Address Book

Electronic Mail Addresses

The address consists of three parts:


The user name of the individual


The @ symbol


The user’s domain name



Example: rsmith@yahoo.com

What is a search engine?


A tool that lets you find Web pages that
match a particular word or phrase.


Examples of search engines:


Altavista


Google


HotBot


InfoSeek


Excite

Search Engine Terminology


Search expression


Index


Spiders or bots


Meta tags


Directory


Keyword search


Hyperlink

Background of the Internet


Early origin in 1960s


Closely tied to a networking project started by
a governmental division called the Advanced
Research Projects Agency.


Original name: ARPANET


Created so that scientists were able to share
information on military and scientific
research.

Features of the Internet


The World Wide Web


Began in March 1989 when Tim Berners
-
Lee
wrote a small computer program for his personal
use.


Web Protocols


HTML


Hypertext Markup Language


A series of tags that are integrated into text documents
and describes how the text should be formatted when
a Web browser displays it on the screen.


HTTP


Hypertext Transfer Protocol


Standard that defines how messages are formatted
and transmitted.

Chat Rooms


Using the computer to create real
-
time
communication between yourself and
another user or a group of users.


Internet Relay Chat (IRC)


A text
-
based chat developed by Jarkko Oikarinen in
1988.


One of the most widely used chat forums on the
Internet today.

Chat Options


Web chat


Incorporates graphics, audio and video


Hosted by search engines such as Yahoo, Snap, and
Excite.


Proprietary chat


Requires that you download and install software from a
company.


Examples are Microsoft Chat, AOL, and Prodigy.


Buddy lists


You specify your list of friends and even tell when they
are online.


Examples are ICQ and AOL Messenger

Mailing Lists


A group of people with a shared interest.


Their email addresses are collected into a
group, and this group is identified by a single
name.


When a message is sent to the group,
everyone on the list receives that message.

Newsgroups


A discussion forum or a type of bulletin
board.


Each board is dedicated to discussion on a
particular topic.


USENET


Worldwide network of computers that
facilitates the transmission of messages
among the news servers.

Research on the Internet


Two basic tools used to find information:


Search engines


Used to search for keywords.


Subject directories


Used to find specialized topics.

Types of Search Engines


Keyword Search


Uses keywords to perform search


Multimedia Search Engines


Used to find graphics, video clips, animation, and MP3
music files.


Meta Search Engines


Search several major search engines at one time.


Subject Directories


Organized by subject categories and displayed in a series
of menus.

Tools and Techniques


Phrase Searching


Search Engine Math


Boolean Operators


Wildcard Searching


Title Searching

Phrase Searching


A phrase is entered using double quotation
marks and only matches those that appear
adjacent to each other and in the order in
which you specify.


Example: “baseball cards”

Search Engine Math


Symbols used in formulas to filter out
unwanted listings.


Use the plus symbol (+) before words that must
appear.


Also known as an inclusion operator.


Use the minus symbol (
-
) before words that you
do not want to appear.


Also known as an exclusion operator.

Boolean Operators


Boolean logic consists of three logical
operators:


AND


NOT


OR

Wildcard Searching


The * symbol, called an asterisk, is
considered a wildcard character.


Used if you don’t know the spelling of a word


Example: N*Ryan to search for Nolan Ryan


Used to search plurals or variations of words.

Title Searching


Searching the
title of a web
page.


When a web
page author
creates a Web
page, the Web
page generally
contains a
HTML title.