What are Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)?

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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SBI 4U


A GMO is any living things that has had its
genome manipulated by humans, usually by
inserting a gene from another species


GMOs are very important for the food and
medicine industries.


Biotechnology is the science of genetic
modification.


Also known as genetically engineered,
recombinant or transgenic organisms.


In 2008, 13.3 million farmers in 25 countries
were growing GMO crops on 1.25 million
square kilometers


Humans have been manipulating the
genomes of organisms for thousands of years


Humans have been using the process of
selective breeding to choose the best plants
and animals, and to gradually change the
genomes of those species


Only the strongest, tastiest and most
desirable individuals are allowed to breed and
their genes are passed on to their offspring


These organisms not considered to be GMOs


Wolves to Dogs:






Teosinte

to Corn:


Brassica

oleracea

or wild cabbage has been
bred into cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower,
brussels

sprouts, kohlrabi and kale


The insertion of foreign genes into organisms


Bacteria:


Plasmids are used as a vector to transfer foreign
genes


A restriction enzyme is used to excise a specific
gene which will anneal to a plasmid cut with the
same enzyme


Bacteriophages

are also commonly used to transfer
DNA


Some plants can be genetically modified by
infecting them with a bacterium called
Agrobacterium

tunefaciens


The desired gene is inserted into the “Ti” plasmid in
the bacterium


When a plant is infected it incorporates some the
plasmid DNA into its chromosome, so any of the
plants offspring will carry those genes


An alternative method is the “Gene gun”


DNA attached to small gold or tungsten particles is
fired at a piece of plant tissue


Microinjection


the use of a micropipette to insert DNA into a cell


Uses needles 0.5
-
5μm

in diameter


The foreign gene is inserted into the
pronucleus

of
a fertilized egg cell


The genes of animals can also be modified
using viruses because viruses naturally insert
their DNA into animal cells



Bacteria can be made to produce important
human proteins by inserting the human genes
that code for these proteins into the bacterial
genome


Examples:


Human insulin is now produced by
E. coli

bacteria for
diabetics. In the past insulin from pigs or cattle was used
and was much less effective


Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is also produced by
recombinant bacteria. HGH was previously obtained from
cadavers.


Others: Blood clotting Factors and Vaccines


Human proteins can also be produced in the
body fluids of transgenic animals then refined


Flavr

Savr

Tomatoes


The first transgenic plants licensed to be eaten by
humans


Golden Rice


Rice modified to contain
β
-
carotene


Aimed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD)


VAD results in 2.5 million deaths of children under
5 and 250
-
500 thousand children going blind every
year among other health problems


Insect and disease resistant crops


Soybeans, corn, canola, wheat, etc.


GloFish


Zebrafish

with a fluorescence

gene taken from jellyfish are

available as pets


Malaria
-
resistant mosquitoes


When introduced to the wild they would reproduce
and spread the gene through the gene pool,
decreasing the number of mosquitoes carrying
malaria



Enviropig



Environmental concerns


GMOs can mate with wild plants and create hybrids


GMOs and hybrids have a selective advantage and will
outcompete wild plants


GMOs have unpredictable effects on other organisms
(may be poisonous)


Loss of biodiversity


Human safety concerns:


Transgenic food may cause allergic reactions


People allergic to seafood may be allergic to plants with
genes from fish


No labeling regulations


Social concerns


Market dominance in the food industry by a few
companies


Medicines from GMOs are cheaper and of better
quality than previous sources, saving lives


Plant GMOs with increased yield and
insect/disease resistance provide more food with
less land and reduce the need for poisonous
pesticides and fertilizers


Food can be modified for increased nutrition


Ecological concerns of escaped GMOs becoming
weeds apply equally to other domesticated plants
as well as the effects of monocultures of soil
health


GMO foods are tested for potential dangers
before they are licensed for human consumption


Genetic engineering is an exciting field of
science and new discoveries are made every
day


There may be some dangers but all human
inventions have an element
of risk


GMOs have a huge potential to improve and
save human lives



Knudsen, Guy R. "Impacts of agricultural GMOs on
wildlands
: a new frontier of biotech litigation."
Natural Resources & Environment

Summer 2011: 13+.
Academic
OneFile
. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.


Hoyle, Brian, and K. Lee Lerner. "Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms."
The Gale Encyclopedia of
Science
. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda
Wilmoth

Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 1772
-
1774.
Gale Virtual Reference Library
. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.


Watkins, Terry. "
Transgenics
."
The Gale Encyclopedia of Science
. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda
Wilmoth

Lerner. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 4071
-
4074.
Gale Virtual Reference Library
. Web. 3 Dec.
2011.


Di Giuseppe, M.,
Vavitsas
, A., Ritter, B., Fraser, D.,
Arora
, A., &
Lisser
, B. (2003).

Biology 12.

Toronto:
Nelson.


Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. (2011).
Biotechnology Online.

Retrieved from
http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/


Biotech Chronicles
.
Retrieved from http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/


(2003). Gene Guns
.
Retrieved from
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Molbio/MolStudents/spring2003/McDonald/Gene_gun.html


Pray,

L.

(2008)

Recombinant DNA technology and transgenic animals.

Nature
Education
.,1
(1). Retrieved
from
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/recombinant
-
dna
-
technology
-
and
-
transgenic
-
animals
-
34513


(2010).
Glofish
. Retrieved from
http://www.glofish.com/


Gallagher, J. (April 20, 2011). GM mosquitoes offer malaria hope. BBC News. Retrieved from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health
-
13128327


(2011). DNA Microinjection Services. Retrieved from
http://research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm


(2011). Golden Rice is part of the solution,
Biofortified

rice as a contribution to the alleviation of life
-
threatening micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries.
http://www.goldenrice.org/


(November 5, 2008). What are Genetically Modified (GM) Foods?. Retrieved from
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml


(2009). Cloning into a Plasmid. Retrieved from
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/plasmid.php


Slide 4:
http://visual.merriam
-
webster.com/animal
-
kingdom/carnivorous
-
mammals/dog
-
breeds_1.php
,
http://www.learner.org/courses/essential/life/images/show5.maize_teosinte.jpg


Slide 5:
http://www.tainongseeds.com/Kohlrabi.html
,
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/dymond_dani/Classification%20Information.htm
,
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/senior/vegetabl/cabbage1.htm
,
http://groovyvegetarian.com/2007/11/10/10
-
fun
-
facts
-
about
-
broccoli/
,
http://www.bigoven.com/glossary/Cauliflower
,
http://www.lesliebeck.com/ingredient_index.php?featured_food=77
,
http://www.thatsfit.ca/2010/01/27/kale
-
chips
-
recipe
-
healthy
-
crunchy
-
homemade
-
snack/


Slide 6:
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/plasmid.php


Slide 7:
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Molbio/MolStudents/spring2003/McDonald/Gene_gun.html


Slide 8:
http://images.tutorvista.com/content/biotechnology/micro
-
injection
-
process.jpeg
,
http://research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm


Slide 10:
http://www.goldenrice.org/


Slide 11:

http://www.glofish.com/photos.asp