Pollution-fighting plants

triteritzyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

271 εμφανίσεις

Current Events 3

June 20
-

June 26

Tsunami Debris


Tsunami triggered by a 9.0 undersea
earthquake off the coast of Japan on 11 March
2011


The tsunami swept an estimated 5 million tons
of debris into the Pacific Ocean.


Roughly 70 percent of that sank right away,
which leaves maybe 1.5 million tons still
floating around.


No radiation contamination


Tsunami Debris


A large floating dock (~66’ x 19’ x 7’) that was
ripped from its pilings in Misawa, Japan by the
tsunami arrived on the shores of Newport in
central Oregon late on June 4 or very early on
June 5.

Tsunami Debris

Trouble on the Horizon for GM Crops?


Pests are adapting to genetically modified
crops in unexpected ways


Resistance of cotton bollworm to insect
-
killing
cotton plants involves more diverse genetic
changes than expected

Trouble on the Horizon for GM Crops?


Cotton and corn have been genetically
engineered to produce toxins derived from the
bacterium
Bacillus thuringiensis
, or Bt.


Over time, initially rare genetic mutations that
confer resistance to Bt toxins are becoming
more common as a growing number of pest
populations adapt to Bt crops.

Trouble on the Horizon for GM Crops?


Two unrelated, dominant mutations in the field
populations


Dominant resistance is more difficult to
manage and cannot be readily slowed with
refuges, which are especially useful when
resistance is recessive


Refuges consist of plants that do not have a Bt
toxin gene and thus allow survival of insects
that are susceptible to the toxin


Entomophagy


2050 population 9 billion


demand for meat will grow
too


2010, a billion people suffered from chronic hunger
according to UN


From an ecological perspective, insects have much
smaller footprint than livestock


Insects are cold
-
blooded, making them 4
-
times more
efficient at turning food into meat than cattle


Fried grasshoppers have 3
-
times the protein of cattle


Because insects are so genetically distant from humans,
there is little likelihood of disease spreading


swine flu

CAFO

Entomophagy


Many parts of the world eat bugs


Mali children eat grasshoppers


Australian Aborigines eat grubs


Tarantuals

in
Venezuala


Beetles in China


Ancient Romans ate beetle grubs


Anceint

Greeks ate grasshoppers

Entomophagy


FDA allows certain levels of bugs in food


In canned and fresh spinach, 50 aphis,
thrips
, or
mites per 100 grams


Peanut Butter can have 30 insect fragments per
100 grams


Chocolate can have 60 insect fragments per 10
grams

Dengue Fever


Like Malaria, Dengue is spread by a bite from an infected mosquito


Dengue Fever is an extremely serious disease


Symptoms: mild and flu
-
like to high fever, rash, severe headache, pain behind the eyes,
muscle and joint pain


The joint pain can be so severe that Dengue has been given the name ‘breakbone fever’.


Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite are also common


In the more severe form, known as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF),
blood vessels start to leak and the blood fails to clot, causing bleeding from
the nose, mouth, and gums


Without prompt treatment, the blood vessels can collapse, causing a critical
condition called Dengue Shock Syndrome


About 25,000 people die from Dengue Fever every year


Dengue Fever


Since the 1970s, the number of countries experiencing Dengue
outbreaks has grown from 9 to more than 100


Today, up to 40% of the world’s population, or 2.5 billion
people, is thought to be at risk

Dengue Fever


Aedes aegypti


Eggs can survive for months without water,
allowing them to be transported all over the
world


The life
-
cycle of a mosquito is about 3 weeks


from hatching, to adult, to reproduction

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes


Very small amounts of DNA injected into the
end of a mosquito egg


In a very few eggs, the new DNA will be taken
up by the mosquito’s cells and will be cut and
pasted into the mosquito’s own genome


If this happens in the sperm cells of a male
mosquito, or the egg
-
producing cells of a
female, the new DNA can be passed on to their
offspring

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes


The GM males are then released into the
environment, where they mate with wild females


As a result, the population as a whole is reduced


Uses the natural instincts of the released male
mosquitoes to seek out females, so it is much
more effective than traditional means


It is also species
-
specific: it affects only the target
pest, and doesn’t harm other insects


Genetically Modified Mosquitoes


If the gene in the modified mosquitoes kills them, how does
that make them sterile?


When the GM mosquitoes are reared in the presence of
tetracycline, it stops the GM protein from working: in
effect, it acts like an antidote


So when we feed the modified mosquitoes with this
supplement in the lab, they stay perfectly healthy


But when the male mosquitoes mate with females in the
wild, their children inherit the lethal gene


Tetracycline is not present in the environment in sufficient
quantities to allow survival, so without the ‘antidote’ in their
diet, the children of the modified mosquitoes die


Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering


Glow
-
in
-
the
-
Dark cats


Pollution
-
fighting plants


Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering


Venomous cabbage



Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering

Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering


Goat Silk


Super Salmon

Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering

Example of Bizarre Genetic
Engineering




Vaccinating Bananas


Human hens

Example of Bizarre Genetic Engineering