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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Martha Nyagaya

Combating Hidden Hunger through
Bio
-
fortification


Annual

Program
Review

2011

Nairobi,
Kenya

10
May

2011

Hidden hunger
-

A massive problem

Map: USAID

Map: USAID

10m deaths/yr, 50% due to malnutrition, more illness $ diseases low cognitive ability,

Low capacity for physical labor, stunted impaired growth, poor reproductive health,

Decline in productivity>lower GDP

The process of improving the

nutritive value of staple foods

through:



Conventional breeding


Genetic engineering


Fertilizer with trace elements

Bio
-
fortification

Bio
-
fortification
: Complements
existing
n
utrition
i
nterventions

Bio
-
fortification
-

A sustainable agricultural
strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition


Targets the poor


w
ho depend heavily on staple foods



Rural based


complements fortification and
supplementation




Cost effective


research at a central location can be
multiplied across countries and time



Sustainable



investments are front loaded with low
recurrent costs


A novel strategy for delivering micronutrient on a daily basis

Iron Deficient

Iron Sufficient

Biofortification

and Commercial Fortification

12.0

Hemoglobin

Population
Distribution

Supplementation

Biofortification
: Improves
status
for
those
l
ess
d
eficient
and
maintains
s
tatus
for
all

Iron

Zinc

ProVitamin

A

Active development of conventionally
bred bio
-
fortified crops

PABRA ‘S Focus on Beans

Per capita
consumption in
Rwanda is about
27
kg/year

(
200
g/day)


Major
protein, and
mineral
source

Most important
staple food in parts
of Eastern Africa
and Latin America

High iron
content

(up to

10 mg/100g)

Iron
absorption
around

5
-
10%

High content of
iron absorption
inhibitors
polyphenols

and
phytic

acid

Will Bio
-
fortification of

beans work?


Can breeding increase nutrient levels enough to
improve human nutrition?



Will the extra nutrients be bio
-
available at sufficient
levels to improve micronutrient status?



Will farmers adopt crops and will consumers buy/eat
in sufficient quantities?

9

Activities and Targets



CIAT Business Plan


Produce seed of released bio
-
fort lines


o
Two micronutrient dense bean varieties disseminated and
promoted in two countries in eastern and southern Africa



Conduct multi
-
locational

trials to validate levels of iron over sites


o
20 F3.5 small seeded families with 90% more iron



Develop weaning (complementary) foods with bean flour with
private sector


o
At least 5 diversified bean based foods addressing micronutrient
deficiencies are developed, tested, and evaluated with farmers

Multidisciplinary research teams of
partners for delivery of Bio
-
fortified

beans in PABRA

Breeding & Plant
Science/Genetics

Nutrition & Food Science

Knowledge
management/M&E
Policy

Markets

Product Development
& Dissemination

Germplasm
screening

-
Analytical
methods for rapid analysis of nutrients

Food science

Bioavailability
studies*

Biological impact in
humans

‘Efficacy


Population impact

Effectiveness’


Research on
Micronutrient Rich Beans

Determine nutrient
targets

-
Iron
-
Zinc
-
Other foods consumed

Source: HarvestPlus

Baseline nutrition surveys: Burundi & DRC

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
No. of Preschool
Children
Normal
Mild
underweight
Moderate
underweight
Severe
underweight
Mild
overweight
Moderate
overweight
Severely
overweight
Nutrition Indicators
Underweight Levels Among Preschool Children in DR Congo and Burundi
DR Congo-Butembo
Burundi-Gitega
0
50
100
150
200
250
No. of Preschool
Children
Stunting
Underweight
Wasting
Nutrition Indicator
General Nutrition status of Preschool Children in DR Congo and
Burundi N=261
Normal NS
Under nutrition
Over nutrition
Feasibility of improving
nutrition status of
vulnerable communities
with improved bean
varieties




Less
than 50%


well
nourished




High
prevalence
of

stunting (57
%)



High correlation
between stunting (H/A)
and underweight (W/A)

Incidence and cause of food insecurity

212
399
149
101
465
398
402
101
195
198
0
20
40
60
80
100
________Gitega
Kirundo
Rusizi plains
Bas-Congo
Nord-Kivu
Sud-Kivu
Gitarama
Kibuye-Gisenyi
Kigali-Kibungo
Umutara
Burundi
DR Congo
Rwanda
Proportion of households
(%)
Enough
food type
and quantity
Enough
quantity ut
not always
Often not
enough
quantity
Sometimes
not enough
quantity
n
=
Source: CIALCA

Baseline
micronutrient
l
evel
in
c
ommercial crop

Storage
losses

Retention
-

processing
l
osses

Non
-
b
ioavailable

Bioavailable

micronutrient
c
ontent


Desired Amount

Determine Breeding Targets

Target Increment
µgg
-
1
to be added

Bioavailability

Iron: 5
-

10%

Zinc: 25%

Targets: 3 fold increase in bean iron


Iron content in bean


o
Baseline = 50 micrograms/gram

o
Target = 94 micrograms/gram

o
Estimated bio
-
fortification target increment = 44 micrograms/gram



Zinc content in bean


o
Baseline = 30 micrograms/gram

o
Target = 47 micrograms/gram

o
Estimated bio
-
fortification target increment = 17 micrograms/gram



Consumption


o
200 grams/day


women;

o
100 grams/day


children 4
-
6 years of age;

o
50 grams/day
-

1
-
3 year olds



Assumed iron retention
-

85%


Assumed absorption
-

5%

Participatory Variety Selection


86% of farmers prioritize agronomic superiority over
micronutrient density



Data from South Western Uganda



N = 1200


o
Agronomic superiority


o
Cooking qualities


o
Marketability


o
Nutrition quality

Bio
-
fortified Bean
-

Releases

Genotype

Fe/Zn

Year of
release

Country

Partners

No. of HH

reached





NUA 1

Fe 112

Zn 43

2010

Kenya

Nangina, MOH,

18

CBOs

26,
067





NUA 45

Fe 102

Zn 35

2009

Malawi

Zimbabwe

CRS, Demeter Seed
Co,
MoA
,
Bunda

College, ARD


No

not
processed




Roba

1

Fe 109

Zn 41ppm

2010

Ethiopia

S. Tanzania

FRG, World Vision,
District Agriculture
offices

67,772




M.Soya

Fe 102

Zn 35

2008

Rwanda

East DRC

CRS, WV,
Imbaraga

95,620

Will intake of additional Iron from beans
improve micronutrient status?


High variation in Iron levels


0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
G21078
Nua 43
Cal96
Nua 45
Afr 298
Nua 4
Nua 50
Nua 56
Nua 30
G21242
G14519
Radical
Nua 35
G23823E
MIB 504
MIB 488
MIB 499
MIB 497
MIB 496
MIB 602
Fe (ppm)
Other than ferritin Fe
Ferritin Fe
Inhibitors of iron absorption in beans


Polyphenols

o
Wide variations depending on
bean varieties (color)

o
Mainly in bean
hulls


Phytic

acid

o
Content constantly high

0.7
-
1.2 g/100 g

o
Mainly in
cotyledons

0

200

400

600

800

1000

MEX 142

CAB 19

VCB 81013

Awash Melka

Ranjonomby

Ituri Matata

HRS 545

CAB 2

CAB 19 (F9)

Maharagi

Libi

RWV 528

Roba 1

Nakaja

Gofta

G 2331

TY 3396
-
12

Zebra

GLP X92

Ayenew

Selian 97

Umubano

RWR 10

Vuninkingi

GLP 585

Decelaya

GLP 24

Umubano K1

ABA 136

Vuninkingi

Mashai Red

MCM 2001

39.33333333

Oba
-
1

GLP 2

AND 620

PVA 8

VNB 81010

BCR 4

MLB 49/89A

mg GAE/100g dm

Tajeri

Foman

2006

Options for increasing adequacy
of iron intake?





Enhancers of
absorption

Inhibitors of
absorption

Plant
ferritin

Inulin
?

Carotenoids
?

Phytate

Polyphenols

% loss of iron Fe and Zn in bean

after cooking

Sample

Raw Bean

Effect of cooking







Fe
(mg/100g)

Zn
(mg/100g)

Fe
(mg/100g)

Zn
(mg/100g)

% loss Fe

% loss Zn

AFR 708

8.2

1.5

7.3

1.4

11.0

6.7

AND 620

8

1.3

7.7

1.2

3.8

7.7

AWASH MELKA

6.7

1.5

6.5

1.5

3.0

0.0

AYENEW

4.7

1.4

4.3

1.3

8.5

7.1

G59/1
-
2

6.4

1.3

6.1

1.3

4.7

0.0

GLP 2

7.6

1.6

7.6

1.6

0.0

0.0

GOFTA

7.1

1.5

6.9

1.4

2.8

6.7

HRS 545

6

1.8

5.8

1.7

3.3

5.6

ITURI MATATA

7.7

1.4

7.4

1.3

3.9

7.1

JESCA

6.1

1.5

6.1

1.5

0.0

0.0

K 131

7.9

1.6

7.7

1.6

2.5

0.0

K 132

8

1.3

7.8

1.3

2.5

0.0

KIANGARA

7.4

1.4

7.2

1.5

2.7

-
7.1










Average

3.7

2.6

Effect of Cooking on Tannins and
Phytates


Bean Variety

%Tannin
Reduction

%
Phytate

Reduction

Bean Variety

%Tannin
Reduction

%
Phytate

Reduction

MAHARAGI SOJA

50.0

74.7

VNB 81010

61.1

43.4

SELIAN 97

60.9

70.1

NAKAJA

50.0

41.6

OBA
-
1

45.0

63.4

KIANGARA

71.4

40.8

VCB 81013

75.0

61.7

RED NOLAITA

63.2

40.3

GLP 2

81.0

59.2

ROBA
-
1

55.6

39.7

M'MAFUTALA

20.0

58.7

MAASAI RED

40.7

39.7

RWR 10

57.7

58.2

K132

47.6

38.5

TY 3396
-
12

54.5

56.4

MLB 49
-
89A

33.3

38.3

PVA 8

69.2

54.8

LIB 1

50.0

38.3

HRS 545

66.7

54.2

K131

57.1

37.6

MCM 2001

40.0

51.9

AWASH MELKA

66.7

37.4

MEX 142

66.7

49.3

SIMAMA

50.0

36.4

NAIN DE KYONDO

75.0

49.0

ZEBRA

71.4

34.3

SOYA FUPI

57.1

47.2

AFR 708

23.5

27.2

NGUAKU
NGUAKU

60.0

46.2

GOFTA

33.3

24.9

LINGOT BLANC

33.3

45.9

KIRUNDO

33.3

23.6

G59/1
-
2

55.6

45.6

AYENEW

66.7

23.5

RANJONOMBY

75.0

44.6

AND 620

25.9

22.4

ITURI MATATA

50.0

43.8

JESCA

44.4

16.0

MEAN

MEAN

53.6

44.2

New Recipes


6 recipe books developed

Bean Product Development


Development of Bean Based food products that address
target nutrient deficiencies in children


Focus


Iron, zinc and protein needs/deficiencies,

nutrient density and quality











This products is being tested in Ethiopia for utilization in
addressing iron zinc and protein deficiencies in children
weaning away from breast feeding

Light nutrient dense mixture for weaning children

Recommended Nutrient
Intake for children


0.75g/kg of body

Iron 10mg/day

Zinc 9mg/day

Formulation

70 % of maize/other staple + 30 %
of Micronutrient rich beans


Protein

13g/100g

Iron

7.19mg/100g

Zinc

2.47mg/100g

0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Iron (%)
Variety
Bioavailable Iron from raw and cooked green shelled beans
% Bioavailable Iron (Fe) Cooked Green Shelled Beans
% Bioavailable Iron (Fe) Raw Green Shelled Beans
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Zinc (%)
Variety
Bioavailable Zinc from raw and cooked green shelled beans
% Bioavailable Zinc (Zn) Raw Green Shelled Beans
% Bioavailable Zinc (Zn) Cooked Green Shelled Beans
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Iron (%)
Variety
Bioavailability of iron from raw and cooked beans
% Bioavailable Iron (Fe) from Raw Beans
% Bioavailable Iron (Fe) from Cooked Beans
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Zinc (%)
Variety
Bioavailability of zinc from raw and cooked beans
% Bioavailable Zinc (Zn) from Raw Beans
% Bioavailable Zinc (Zn) from Cooked Beans
Bioavailability of
iron
and zinc in

green
shelled and dry beans

Comparative evaluation of % in vitro bio
-
availability of
minerals cooked with
Magadi

soda and/or bean ash

Food
type
cooked

Mineral
content

No
addition of
magadi

or bean
-
ash

Addition
of un
-
ashed

magadi


Addition
of
ashed

magadi


Addition
of
un
-
ashed

bean
debris

Addition
of
ashed

bean
debris

Total iron content

%
bioavailable

iron

Maize

1.98

4.1
b

3.4
a

3.3
a

3.4
a

3.2
a

Beans

8.72

5.2
b

3.3
a

3.3
a

3.5
a

3.4
a

Sorghum

1.5

3.8
d

2.2
a

3.4
c

3.1
b

3.2
b

Total zinc content

%
bioavailable

zinc

Maize

0.52

3.4
c

3.0
b

2.8
b

2.2
a

2.3
a

Beans

3.32

5.5
d

4.2
c

4.2
c

3.9
b

3.6
a

Sorghum

0.4

3.3
c

2.9
b

2.7
b

2.0
a

2.1
a

Cooking time (minutes)

Maize

345

252

250

258

255

Beans

180

125

120

133

130

Sorghum

240

175

170

173

171

Percentages of respective mineral along rows with same superscripts for
magadi

and bean
-
ash samples are not significantly different at P≤0.05

Reduction of cooking time



effect of soaking

Genotype

Time (minutes)



Range 48
-

15
-
0

% reduction

in
cooking time

Soaked

Not Soaked

AFR

708

93.5

165.0

43.3

AND

620

91.0

220.0

58.6

Awash

Melka

75.0

111.5

32.7

G
59
/
1
-
2

107.5

155.0

30.7

GLP
-
2

92.5

161.0

42.6

GLP
-
92

132.5

163.5

18.9

Gofta

112.5

209.5

46.3

HRS

545

120.0

160.5

25.2

Ituri

Matata

93.0

131.5

29.3

Jesca

112.5

161.0

30.1

K
132

82.5

141.0

41.5

Kiangara

80.0

125.0

36.0

Efficacy


To establish whether there is a physiological
adaptation to the inhibitory effect of bean
polyphenols

during long term consumption of
a mixed diet



To compare the biological impact of iron bio
-
fortified beans on biochemical
and functional
indicators of iron status

Nutrition
Education
&awareness
creation

Market
Develop
ment

Seed
systems

Government
bodies/Local &
International
NGO’s

Agriculture &
Nutrition Workers

Community
-
based
Ag, Nutrition &
Marketing
Promoters

Farmers and
Women’s Groups

Scaling up dissemination with

partnerships for REU at different levels

Summary


Breeding progress is good and several bio
-
fortified bean
varieties can be released by 2012



Nutritional impact is assessed throughout development


efforts will be intensified will be intensified in the next year



Dissemination strategies are considered early on in

product development


o
Impact


o
Costs