Introduction to Engineering Fundamentals ... - Burson-STEM

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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History & Development of
Technology

Innovative Applications of Technology
in Engineering
-

Part 1

Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)


1





Directions: Please take out a

sheet of paper and answer the following
questions.


How would I find directions to San Angelo, Texas
without using GPS or the internet?


I’m moving to Tyler, Texas, how can I find a list of
the elementary schools near my new home?
(without using the internet)


What would be the results in your city if sanitation
workers went on strike for 1 week?


Bell Work Activity

Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

2


A. There are several important terms and


definitions students need to know.


B. Students will now complete the definitions
handout on the
History & Development of
Technology
Innovative Applications of
Technology in Engineering
-

Part 1;
Students
may work in groups.



Warm
-
Up Activity

Engineering and Technology Terms
(and definitions)


Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

3


The growth of our global population has
made the expansion of technology a
necessity, to sustain life as we know it.



Prior to the Industrial Revolution (1750),
most of the global population operated
independently in an agrarian (farming)
society.

Our Dependence

on Technology
Innovations

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4


The Industrial Revolution brought about
the movement of large segments of people
from the rural areas to the cities in search
of employment
.



This brought about dramatic changes to
the structure of society and also drove
(and continues to drive) major
technological innovations.

Our Dependence
on Technology
Innovations

Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

5


We will discuss how modern innovative
engineering ideas and techniques have
impacted the major technology disciplines.


A
. Communication Technology:


Printing and graphic processes: Gravure printing,
Photographic printing and Digital printing


Telecommunication processes: Bandwidth improvement with
Fiber optic cables, Wireless telecommunications, Satellite
telecommunications


Audio/Video technologies: Satellite radio, High definition
television, Web page design, Video game design


Modern innovations in
the major technology
disciplines

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6

Modern innovations in the major
technology disciplines
(continued)

B. Energy and Power Technology:




• *Renewable Resources: Wind, Hydro (water), Solar,

Biofuels (produced from plants), Geothermal (internal earth

heat)




• Non
-
Renewable Resources: Fossil Fuels (Natural gas,

Coal, Petroleum), Nuclear Power (Uranium)




• Unlimited Resources:
(*All renewable resources can be

considered unlimited resources )




Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

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Modern innovations in the major
technology disciplines
(continued)

C. Biotechnology:




• Agricultural processes: Genetically modified plants and

animals, Biosynthesis (Biologically created chemicals)




• Medical processes: Electronic implants, Laser surgery,

Genetic engineering




• Waste management: Disposal methods, Biological

reprocessing, Waste minimization concepts



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D. Construction Technology:




•Construction planning: Residential Construction (apartments,


condos, houses), Commercial/Industrial Construction


(stores, churches, skyscrapers), Civil Construction (roads,


schools, hospitals)





• Design and management processes: Construction Materials,




Safety Factors (fire, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.)










Modern innovations in the major
technology disciplines
(continued)

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9

E. Transportation Technology:







• Engines, Motors and Transportation Systems: Engine fuel


Efficiency and Emissions; Fuel Cells, Hybrid Vehicles,




Electric Locomotives; Intermodal Transportation (two or


more methods); Efficiency of Container Ships





Modern innovations in the major
technology disciplines
(continued)

Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

10

Modern innovations in the major
technology disciplines
(continued)

F. Manufacturing Technology:


• *Manufacturing process improvement concepts:





Just
-
in
-
Time Manufacturing





Time and Motion Studies





Scientific Management





Research and Development processes





Computer Aided Design (CAD)

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11

How have technological solutions
impacted the manufacturing process?

A.
Positive impact of automation on manufacturing
efficiency and cost reduction




Having the capacity to produce large volumes of product at lower

cost than handcraft workers




Programmable robotic processes allow for greater standardization

and higher product quality


B.

Negative impact of automation on human labor





Automation allows non
-
stop production with fewer people;


Production not impacted by human limitations (illness, injury, fatigue)





Automated processes have made many manual tasks obsolete and

does not carry the additional cost of human labor (medical benefits,

labor negotiations, training, etc.)

C. Increased requirements for a more skilled and educated
workforce


Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

12

Risks and Benefits of engineering activities

A.
Benefit 1: Efficient manufacturing processes
(see notes)




B. Benefit 2: Safe, efficient transportation and construction
systems
(see notes)






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13

Risks and Benefits of engineering activities
(continued)

C. Benefit 3: Safe, efficient food production, water
distribution and waste management





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14


D. Risks: Increased energy consumption and waste
creation





Energy consumption and pollution since the Industrial



Revolution has increased exponentially each decade. The


growth of industrialization in third world countries has


compounded the problem. We are in danger of consuming


and or contaminating major portions of our non
-
renewable


resources
.





Risks and Benefits of engineering activities
(continued)

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15

A.
Managing environment accidents, pollution and natural
resource

consumption (mining, petroleum and natural
gas production, etc. )


B. *The impact of a mobile population




C. Positive management of growth within the key
technology disciplines to reduce the impact on our
environment


The Environmental
Impact of the
engineering process

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16

The Environmental Impact of the
engineering process
(continued)

D. The impact of a mobile population





The relocation of the auto industry.
(see notes)







The impact on the communities left behind.
(see notes)




E.
Positive management of growth within the key technology
disciplines to reduce the impact on our environment






Long term, environmental planning will be necessary if future

generations are to prevent this cycle from re
-
occurring .



Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)

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