Genetically Modified Organisms

triteritzyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

199 εμφανίσεις

Genetically Modified
Organisms

NL


Any organism that has had its genetic
makeup directly altered; either to gain a
desired trait from another organism or
remove an unwanted one


Also called genetic engineering or
transgenic


Developed with biotechnology


Made in things like medicine, food, food
ingredients, animals


What are Genetically Modified
Organisms (GMOs)


The desired gene of an
organism is cut by
restriction enzymes


the desired gene is then
inserted into a plasmid
vector to be introduced
into the organisms


Undesired genes are
removed by restriction
enzymes

How is it done?

The foreign DNA is inserted into the host
by:


Microinjection process (DNA in
micropipette inserted in embryo)


Bacteria


Viruses


Gene Guns

Cont.


For many years, people have been
altering genomes of plants/animals
through breeding for desired traits


Artificial Selection is limited to naturally
occurring variations


Genetic engineering techniques allow
precise control over genetics changes in
organisms that can be unrelated


Artificial Selection


First reported recombination of genetic material was in
1973


One of the first applications was insulin by the bacteria
E. coli,

used to treat diabetes; approved by FDA in 1982


In 1988, the first field tests of GM food were done for
canola plants to increase yield

In 1994, the first GM food was made available to
consumers;Long
-
lasting tomatoes


By 2006, 252 million acres of GMO crops were planted
by 10.3 farmers in 22 countries


Most things we eat now are GMOs or have GMO
ingredients



History

Rape Plants
-

given a gene enabling it to
resist certain pesticides.

Examples of GMO's

Genetically Modified to produce less of the
substance that causes it rot so it will
remain firm/fresh for longer

Long
-
Lasting Tomatoes

Genetically Modified to contain large
amount of beta
-
carotene, which converts
into vitamin A in the body

Golden Rice

Genetically Modified to produce a poison to
kill harmful insects, no longer needing
insecticides. Called Bt
-
corn because the
enhanced gene is from a bacteria called
Bacillus Thuringiensis

Bt
-
Corn or Sweet Corn

Natural Zebrafish with genes from
bioluminescent marine organisms


GloFish

Crops


Greater quality
and taste


Mature quicker


Increase in
nutrients,
yields, and
stress tolerance

improved resistance
to disease, pests
and herbicides

Able to survive
extreme weather

Benefits

Animals


Increased
resistance,
productivity,ha
rdiness, and
feed efficiency


Better yields of
meat, eggs and
milk


Improved
animal health
and diagnostic
Methods



Environment


Friendly
bioherbicides
and
bioinsectides


Conservation
of soil, water
and energy




Health risk of allergens, transfer of antibiotic
resistance markers


Environment risks unintended transfer of
transgenes through cross
-
pollination, unknown
effects on other organisms


Developing nations will depend even more
Industrialized nations


Violation of natural organisms values


Tampering with nature by mixing genes of
different species


Having plant genes in animals or vice versa


Controversies & Concerns


Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
controls the regulation of GM foods in Canada

CFIA has a certain criteria for new GM food in
Canada:


How the crop was developed, with biological
change of the food


composition of the new food vs the old food


nutritional information of new food vs old food


the potential of toxins and for causing allergic
reactions


Regulation of GM food in Canada

GM plants be used to produce recombinant
vaccines, so that once consumed by
individuals they will be vaccinated against
diseases. This will aid in the solution to the
spread of diseases


Plants that will produce new plastics
that are more environmentally friendly


Fruit and nut trees that will yield years
earlier



Future Outlook


GMOs will help with the starvation
problems around the world


As the technology improves so will the
use of GMOs and limit the risks involved


We can eventually help ourselves with
the experiments on animals


Conclusion

Dharmananda, S. (2005, December). Issues Surrounding Genetically Modified Products. In
ITM Online
. Retrieved May 14, 2012,
from http://www.itmonline.org/arts/gmo.htm


Phillips, T. (2008). Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Transgenic Crops and Recombinant DNA Technology. In
Scitable
.
Retrieved May 14, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically
-
modified
-
organisms
-
gmos
-
transgenic
-
crops
-
and
-
732


Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms. (2008, November 5). In
Human Genome Project Information
. Retrieved May 14, 2012,
from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml


Chaudry, A. (2004, August). Genetically Modified Foods. In
The Science Creative Quarterly
. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from
http://www.scq.ubc.ca/genetically
-
modified
-
foods/


4 Examples of Genetically modified crops. (2002). In
Future Food
. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from
http://www.bionetonline.org/english/content/ff_cont3.htm


Glofish FAQ. (2003). In
Glofish
. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from http://www.glofish.com/faq.asp


DNA Microinjection. (2011). In
Trasgenic Mouse Facility
. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from
http://www.research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm


Lassahn, N. (2009, June 13). How Genetically Modified Organisms are Made. In
Nutririon
. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from
http
://
nicole
-
lassahn.suite101.com/how
-
are
-
gmos
-
made
-
a125159

References

image slide 3:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/122433/Genetically
-
modified
-
organisms
-
are
-
produced
-
using
-
scientific
-
methods
-
that
-
include

Imade slide 4:

http://www.research.uci.edu/tmf/dnaMicro.htm

Image slide 5:

http://www.itmonline.org/arts/gmo.htm


Image slide 6:

http://www.fitnraw.com/how
-
to
-
identify
-
genetically
-
modified
-
food/


Image slide 7:

http://www.123rf.com/photo_2170378_rape
-
plant
-
and
-
rape
-
field
--
plant
-
detail.html


Image slide 10:

http://www.motherearthnews.com/Sustainable
-
Farming/Genetically
-
Modified
-
Corn
-
Safe
-
Or
-
Toxic.aspx


Image slide 9:

http://www.goldenrice.org/


Image slide 8:

http://calorielab.com/news/categories/weight
-
control
-
in
-
the
-
military/


Image slide 11:

http://frankenfish.com/main
-
2/genetically
-
engineered
-
fish/glofish


Image Slide 13:

http://www.kimberlysnyder.net/blog/2012/02/23/7
-
foods
-
you
-
should
-
never
-
ever
-
eat/

References