Genetic Engineering - norwichuniversitymedicalethics

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Stephanie
St.Onge
, Michelle Vance, Jonathan Wright, Alton
Havey

Gene:


“Genes reside on a specific stretch of
DNA that codes for a type of protein,
or for an RNA chain that has a
particular function in the organism. All
living things depend on genes, as they
specify all proteins and functional RNA
chains
("Genes
-
what are genes?," 2011
.”


The 4 chemical bases: A, T, C, and G
are the building blocks for the
30,000 genes found in human DNA.




“A locatable
region of genomic
sequence,
corresponding to
a unit of
inheritance, which
is associated with
regulatory
regions,
transcribed
regions, and or
other functional
sequence
regions".

("Genes
-
what are genes?," 2011)


(Orlando, 2011)

Traits:


Genes hold the information to build
and maintain an organism's cells
and pass genetic
TRAITS

to
offspring.


The 4 bases are used to form the 20
amino acids that code for the
100,000 human proteins.


Proteins form traits.

“A genetically
determined
characteristic or
condition. Traits may
be physical, such as
hair color or leaf shape,
or they may be
behavioral, such as
nesting in birds and
burrowing in rodents.
Traits typically result
from the combined
action of several
genes, though some
traits are expressed by
a single gene.”


(Orlando, 2011)

(American Heritage, 2011)

Types of
Traits


Traits influenced by nurture
such as language and
education.


Traits influenced by genetic
makeup, or nature such as,
gender and chromosomal
disease.


Traits influenced by both nature
and nurture such as skin color
and heart disease.

Environmental
-



Genetic
-




Mixed
-

(Orlando, 2011)

Project Goals:



“identify

all the approximately
20,000
-
25,000 genes in human
DNA.”


“determine

the sequences of the
3 billion chemical base pairs that
make up human DNA.”


“store

this information in
databases.”


improve

tools for data analysis,


“transfer

related technologies to
the private sector.”


“address

the ethical, legal, and
social issues (ELSI) that may
arise from the project.”



Found:


All species have same coding
system, therefore, genes can
move between species.


Epigens
: Turns genes on or off.


Epigens

are influenced by the
environment, such as ingesting
green tea to “turn off” cancer
genes.


Epigens

are also inheritable in
that a woman’s diet during
pregnancy can effect the
development of the child’s
genetics.

(US Department of Energy, 2011)

(Orlando, 2011)


“The recombinant DNA process is the most
dramatic technological tool to date.”


Recombinant DNA is created by the “practice
of altering DNA by splicing parts of one into
the other.”


“The biologist is learning how to manipulate,
recombine and reorganize living tissue into
new forms and shapes…”

(Edge & Groves, 2006)

Genetic testing:



“Tests done for clinical genetic purposes.
Genetic tests may be done for diverse
purposes pertaining to clinical genetics,
including the diagnosis of genetic disease in
children and adults; the identification of
future disease risks; the prediction of drug
responses; and the detection of risks of
disease to future children.”

(Medicine Net, Inc, 2002)


“The treatment of genetic disease by the
administration of genes to correct an absent
or defective gene”
(Edge & Groves, 2006)


This therapy is accomplished through the
direct intervention of the human genome
through a process known as Genetic
Engineering.



“The transfer of genetic material intended to
modify
nonpathological

human traits. The
term commonly is used to describe efforts to
make someone not just well, but better than
well, by optimizing attributes or capabilities
-
-

perhaps by raising an individual from
standard to peak levels of performance.”

(National Human Genome Research Institute, 2006)

Genetic

Engineering


“The science of altering and cloning
genes to produce a new trait in an
organism or to make a biological
substance, such as a protein or
hormone. Genetic engineering mainly
involves the creation of recombinant
DNA, which is then inserted into the
genetic material of a cell or virus.”



Genetic Engineering has given rise to
many Ethical questions and
considerations.


(American Heritage, 2011)

Designer
Babies

“A baby developing
from an embryo
created by in
-
vitro
fertilization and
selected because it
had or lacked
particular genes, the
genetic makeup often
having been modified
by genetic
engineering. “

(Dictionary.com, 2011)


Do we really want to know about our genetic
makeup?


Will the ability to Genetically Engineer
leat

to
the production of Designer Babies?


Is it ok for strictly medicinal purposes? Could a
line be drawn between therapeutic and
enhancement?


Could the engineering or manipulation of life be
considered an act of playing God or as
interference with God’s will?


Will Genetic Engineering put an end to natural
selection, the traditional process of evolution?



Freedom of knowledge.


Potential insurance rates being set based on
gene tests.


Genetic Discrimination or neglect of lesser
genetic
models.




US Department of Energy. (2011, July 25).
Human genome project
. Retrieved from
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml


Genes
-
what are genes?
. (2011, December 19). Retrieved from http://www.news


medical.net/health/Genes
-
What
-
are
-
Genes.aspx


Orlando, J. (2011, November 17). Genetic testing and enhancement outline: Medical


ethics.
Class Handout
,


trait. (
n.d
.).
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from
Dictionary.com website:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trait


Medicine Net, Inc. (2002, December 10).
Genetic testing definition
. Retrieved from
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=21942


genetic manipulation. (
n.d
.).
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
. Retrieved December 19,
2011, from Dictionary.com website:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trait


Edge, R. S., & Groves, J. R. (2006).
Ethics of healthcare: A guide for clinical practice
. (3rd ed., p.
315). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar


National Human Genome Research Institute. (2006, April).
Genetic enhancement
. Retrieved from
http://www.genome.gov/10004767


designer baby. (
n.d
.).
Dictionary.com Unabridged
. Retrieved December 19, 2011, from
Dictionary.com website:
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/designer baby