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triteritzyΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Chapter 9: Food and Hunger

9.1 World Food And Nutrition


Millions of people are chronically
hungry


Famines
usually have political and social
causes


Almost Never Due to Physical Lack of Food


Overeating
is a growing world problem


We
need the right kinds of food


Vitamins
can prevent
illness

9.2 Key Food Sources


A few major crops supply most of our food


Genetic Diversity is at Risk


A
boom in meat production brings costs and
benefits


Seafood
is a key protein source


Many Fisheries Near Collapse


Increased
production comes with increased
risks

9.3 Food Production Policies


Food production can be sustainable
(Duh)


Otherwise We’d Be Extinct


Policies
can protect the
land


Short Term Profit vs. Long Term Benefit


Cash Crops vs. Subsistence Agriculture


Farmers Get Cash,
But


Have To Buy Their Own Food, Supplies

9.4 The Green Revolution And Genetic

Engineering


The “green revolution” produced dramatic
increases in
crop yields


Widely Credited with Averting Global Famines
that Were Predicted in 1960’s


Norman Borlaug, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize

Norman Borlaug Quote

"Some of the environmental lobbyists of the
western nations are the salt of the earth, but many
of them are elitists. They have never experienced
the physical sensation of hunger. They do their
lobbying from comfortable office suites in
Washington or Brussels. If they lived just one month
amid the misery of the developing world, as I have
for fifty years, they would be crying out for tractors,
and fertilizer, and irrigation canals, and be outraged
that fashionable elitists back home were trying to
deny them these things."

Comment on Borlaug


"Dr. Norman Borlaug is the first person in history
to save a billion human lives. But he must also get
credit for saving the wild creatures and diverse
plant species on 12 million square miles of global
forest that would long since have been plowed
down without the high
-
yield farming he
pioneered.


Senator

Rudy
Boschwitz
, R
-
MN, former member
of the US Senate Agriculture Committee


9.4 The Green Revolution And Genetic

Engineering


The “green revolution” produced dramatic
increases in
crop yields


Genetic
engineering uses molecular
techniques to produce
new crop varieties


Most GMOs have been engineered for pest
resistance or
weed control


Is genetic engineering safe
?

The Green Revolution After 40 Years


Continues to Keep Large Parts of the World
Self Sufficient in Food


Many of our Crops are Monocultures


Gene Banks Seek to Preserve Diversity


Heirloom Plant Varieties


Small Scale but Useful


How Long Can We Keep It Up?

The Lesson of Bananas


Thousands of Varieties of Bananas


Seedless Bananas are Asexual Clones


Bananas Largely Wiped out by “Panama
Disease” in 1920’s


“Banana Republics”


Resistant Strain, “Cavendish,” Developed


New Strain of Fungus is Attacking the
Cavendish