Advances in Genetics Outline Notes.pptx


14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Advances in Genetics Outline Notes


1. Selective Breeding

Selective breeding, cloning, and genetic engineering are
three methods for developing organisms with desirable

Selective breeding: process of selecting
organisms with desired traits to be
parents of the next generation

A. Inbreeding

Inbreeding: crossing two individuals that have similar

Has a high likelihood of leading to genetic disorders

B. Hybridization

Hybridization: breeders cross two genetically different

2. Cloning

Clone: an organism that has exactly the same genes as the
organism from which it was produced

3. Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering: genes from one organism are
transferred into the DNA of another organism

A. Genetic Engineering in Bacteria

Example: one type of genetically engineered bacteria
produces insulin

Gene is inserted into the DNA of the bacteria. The
bacteria begins to make the protein that the DNA codes

B. Genetic Engineering in Other Organisms

Scientists can inject genes into cows which cause them to
produces the proteins the gene codes for in their milk

Some genes that have been inserted into plants cause
them to be able to survive cold temperatures or to resist

C. Gene Therapy

Gene therapy: inserting copies of a gene directly into a
person’s cells

D. Concerns About Genetic Engineering

Genetically engineered crops may not be entirely safe to

Scientists don’t know the long term effects of genetic

4. Learning About Human Genetics

A. The Human Genome Project

Genome: all the DNA in one cell of an organism

The main goal of the Human Genome Project has been
to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the
human genome.


B. DNA Fingerprinting

DNA from a person’s cells is broken down into fragments
(small pieces) and are used to produce a pattern called a
DNA Fingerprint.

Fun Fact: identical twins are the only ones who can have
exactly the same DNA fingerprint