Advances in Genetics Outline Notes.pptx

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Advances in Genetics Outline Notes

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1. Selective Breeding


Selective breeding, cloning, and genetic engineering are
three methods for developing organisms with desirable
traits.



Selective breeding: process of selecting
organisms with desired traits to be
parents of the next generation

A. Inbreeding


Inbreeding: crossing two individuals that have similar
characteristics



Has a high likelihood of leading to genetic disorders

B. Hybridization


Hybridization: breeders cross two genetically different
individuals

2. Cloning


Clone: an organism that has exactly the same genes as the
organism from which it was produced

3. Genetic Engineering


Genetic engineering: genes from one organism are
transferred into the DNA of another organism

A. Genetic Engineering in Bacteria


Example: one type of genetically engineered bacteria
produces insulin



Gene is inserted into the DNA of the bacteria. The
bacteria begins to make the protein that the DNA codes
for.

B. Genetic Engineering in Other Organisms


Scientists can inject genes into cows which cause them to
produces the proteins the gene codes for in their milk



Some genes that have been inserted into plants cause
them to be able to survive cold temperatures or to resist
pests

C. Gene Therapy


Gene therapy: inserting copies of a gene directly into a
person’s cells

D. Concerns About Genetic Engineering


Genetically engineered crops may not be entirely safe to
eat



Scientists don’t know the long term effects of genetic
engineering

4. Learning About Human Genetics


A. The Human Genome Project



Genome: all the DNA in one cell of an organism



The main goal of the Human Genome Project has been
to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the
human genome.



http://
youtu.be/PdUpbJsjnkc


B. DNA Fingerprinting


DNA from a person’s cells is broken down into fragments
(small pieces) and are used to produce a pattern called a
DNA Fingerprint.



Fun Fact: identical twins are the only ones who can have
exactly the same DNA fingerprint