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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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4
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4
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P
m

Welcome

4:05


6:00 Pm

Shared Expertise

6:00
-

6:15 Pm

Prayer Break

6:15
-

7:15
Pm

Developing Constructed
-
Response Items

7
:15
-

7
:
30 Pm

Survey and Feed back

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Major advantage of constructed
-
response
items:


They elicit responses that more closely resemble
real
-
life behavior.

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1.
Use direct questions rather than incomplete
statements.

2.
Write items so that the correct response is
concise (a few words or a short phrase).

3.
Write items so that they can be scored
efficiently.

4.
Be sure there is a highly limited set of
correct responses.

5.
Think of the correct response, then write
the item.

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7


Open
-
ended Questions


Require several sentences or brief paragraph


Require higher level thinking (than simple recall)
and the application of students’ knowledge


Making Comparisons


Identifying Patterns


Evaluating Points of View


Making Generalizations


Synthesizing Information


Allow for the examination of Student Thinking


Scored using a Rubric that provides varying degrees
of
Credit

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“The notion that learning comes about by
accretion of little bits is outmoded learning
theory. Current models of learning …
contend that
learners gain understanding
when they construct their own knowledge

and develop … interconnections among
facts and concepts …”



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Consider the
VERB

of the Content
Expectation:


Generate

new questions that can be
investigated in the laboratory or field
.



Use

empirical evidence to
explain and
critique

the reasoning used to draw a
scientific conclusion or explanation
.



Draw

isomers for simple hydrocarbons.




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Set the Context


Specify the knowledge to be brought to bear



Specify the Reasoning


Use specific verbs e.g.

analyze, cite, describe…



Point the Way


Inform students of the
criteria

that will be applied
to evaluate their responses



Develop the Scoring Rubric


Clear articulation of the appropriate evaluation
criteria by which to judge the quality of student
responses.


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B
1
Identify
scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and
choose among alternative solutions.

AND

B
4
Recognize
that genetic engineering techniques
provide great potential and responsibilities
.



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disadvantage that might result from the use of
recombinant DNA technology. Then describe a plan
or a policy for dealing with the disadvantage that
could be followed by research scientists, doctors,
public officials, or other people who are involved
with recombinant DNA technology and its uses.”

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Complete (
3
):


Student response describes a reasonable disadvantage of
recombinant DNA technology and provides a clear description of a plan
for dealing with the disadvantage. Credited disadvantages
(
1
pt)

include:


Regulation of new strains


Production of dangerous organisms


Genetic Similarity
-

loss of diversity


Regulation of applications/patents

Credited acceptable plans
(
2
pts)

include:


Informed consent


Regulation


Thorough testing


Oversight committee

Essential (
2
):


Student response describes a reasonable disadvantage and
attempts a brief description of a plan for dealing with this disadvantage
(e.g., test or observe, research further). OR Student response provides
only a description of a plan.



Partial (
1
):


Student response describes a reasonable disadvantage of
genetic technology but does not develop a plan for dealing with the
disadvantage.



Unsatisfactory/Incorrect (
0
):


Student response states that there are no
disadvantages, or states a disadvantage that is inaccurate or
unreasonable.

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“Student response states that making new kinds of viruses and
mutations are a disadvantage, and outlines a plan that involves
experimentation with human cells outside the body.”

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“Student response discusses the production of
dangerous viruses, and attempts a brief
description of a plan.”

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“Student response explains that the intermixing
of genes could result in the production of
nontreatable

diseases. No plan is given.”

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“Student response does not give a clear
disadvantage, and states merely that these people
should stop messing around with recombinant
DNA technology.”

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SI(P )
Analyze
information from data tables and graphs to answer
scientific questions.

“One characteristic that can be used to identify pure metals
is density. If you determine the density of a pure metal,
you can determine what the metal is, as shown in the
table below
.








Suppose that you determine that a metal ring has a density
of
15.3
grams/cm
3
. Assume that the ring is a mixture of
some combination of the metals listed in the table. What
can you determine about its composition from its
calculated density? Explain your answer.”

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B
Explain
that cellular differentiation results from gene
expression and/or environmental influence (e.g.,
metamorphosis, nutrition).




Sample Item: “Biologists know that nearly all
cells in a person's body contain the same
genes. For example, kidney cells contain the
same genes as the cells that normally make
hemoglobin. Given these facts, explain why
kidney cells do not make hemoglobin even
though they contain the hemoglobin gene.”


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L
Explain how animal systems (digestive, circulatory,
respiratory, skeletal, muscular, nervous, excretory, and
reproductive) work together to perform selected activities.



Sample Item: “When you exercise strenuously,
your body produces excess heat. Describe at
least two things your body does to help
prevent your temperature from rising
excessively, and explain why the body's
response is effective.”

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A scenario
-
based question
provides a series of statements
that outlines a scheme or
sequence of events in summary
form, followed by a question
concerning what should be
discovered or deduced from the
scenario.



Scenario
-
based items can utilize these forms
of question construction formats after
presenting the situation under investigation.

• What is the nature of the problem?

• What is needed to solve the problem?

• What will occur from......?

• What is a solution?

• If this happens, what should be done?

• What is the most effective or efficient
solution?

• Why is … the most effective solution?

• What would happen if ….?

• Given …. what is the primary cause?

• On the basis of …, what is the primary cause?


• What is the most effective (appropriate)
method for ….?

• What is better (or worse) ….?

• What is the most critical step in this
procedure?

• What is (un)necessary in a procedure?



1.
Assess understanding beyond rote
recall.


There should be more than one way to
answer a question.


There should be opportunities for
students to earn partial credit.



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2.
Keep the item within a reasonable
scope.


Avoid questions that are so broad that a
knowledgeable person could write
multiple pages on the subject.


EXAMPLE:

Poor: Explain kinetic energy and
gravitational potential energy.

Better: A pencil rolls across a tabletop
and then falls to the floor. Describe
the changes in the kinetic energy and
gravitational potential energy of the
pencil as it rolls, falls, and lands on
the floor.

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3.
Define the task specifically.


Don’t expect students to “read between the
lines.”


EXAMPLE:

Poor: Describe the differences between
various types of rocks.

Better: Describe three differences between
igneous and sedimentary rocks.

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4.
Break a complex task into parts.


Makes an item more accessible to students.

?C
Put tasks in a logical sequence (first part is often at lower
cognitive level than later parts).

?C
Avoid redundancy.


EXAMPLE:

Poor: Juan and Valerie are designing an experiment to test
whether a pesticide affects tomato plant growth. Identify four
possible variables in this experiment. Choose one of these and
explain how it can be controlled and how the results might
change if it were not controlled.


Better: Juan and Valerie are designing an experiment to test
whether a pesticide affects tomato plant growth.

A.
Identify four possible variables in this experiment.

B.
Choose one of these and explain how it can be controlled.

C.
Explain how the results of their experiment might change if
this factor were not controlled.

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5.
Use verbs that discourage one
-
word
responses.


Avoid questions that can be answered simply “yes”
or “no.”


EXAMPLES:

“Explain” or “Illustrate” vs. “Name” or “List”

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6.
Use caution when asking subjective questions.


Items should not intrude on student privacy.


Do not ask students how they feel.


Do not ask students to relate things to personal
experience.


Any explanation or justification for a student’s
response should be based on the
stimulus material
.

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7.
Write the scoring rubric at the same time as
the item.


Include examples of “correct” or “partial”
responses.


8.
Critique and confirm that the item elicits the
intended response.


Aligned to a specific Content Expectation.


A common error is to ask one question, but base
the scoring rubric on an answer that really
corresponds to another related question that goes
into more depth than what is asked.


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Bring a chapter test and identify on it
test items (Multiple choice


Constructed
Responses items)


Note: Modify the items if it is needed
according to the rules of test items and
higher DOK .



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