A MAJOR PROJECT REPORTx

toughhawaiiΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

26 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

196 εμφανίσεις

Delhi Technological University

Page
1


Chapter
-
1

INTRODUCTION


This project titled virtual SCADA System using LabVIEW is an attempt to simulate power
system model and then observing its various parameters. As SCADA system
can be used to
monitor many types of process like operation of motors, generators, overall plant, EMS etc
without a limit in the existence of location and size of process as it can work round the globe by
incorporating WAN connections.

This project makes u
se of some software like Multisim, LabVIEW and Multisim LabVIEW
connectivity toolkit. Before taking this project I was totally unaware of the capability of
LabVIEW software as I tried over different versions but the older version are not capable of
doing t
he work as my requirements. Fortunately the newly released LabVIEW 2011 and
Multisim 12.0 (released in October 2011) is capable of doing most things which I required to do.

Multisim is used to simulate circuitry, whereas LabVIEW executes the control.

C
o
-
s
i
m
u
lati
o
n

a
pp
licati
o
n
s

are

t
y
p
ically

d
e
v
el
o
p
ed

in

t
h
e

f
o
l
l
o
wing

m
a
nn
er. F
i
r
s
t,

the p
o
w
e
r

stage

circ
u
it
r
y

(
t
h
e

p
la
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

c
o
n
tr
o
l

s
y
st
e
m
)

is

d
esig
n
ed in

Multisim


a

S
P
ICE
-
b
a
s
ed

circ
u
it
desi
g
n

t
o
o
l.

T
h
en t
h
e

LabVIEW
c
o
d
e

to

c
o
n
tr
o
l

the
c
irc
u
it

is

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
ed,

p
l
a
ced i
n
si
d
e

o
f a

LabVIEW

C
on
tr
o
l

D
es
i
g
n

and S
i
m
u
lati
o
n

l
o
o
p

and

c
o
nn
e
ct
e
d

t
o

the

Multisim
circ
u
it

f
o
r

c
o
-
s
i
m
u
lat
i
o
n

usi
n
g

a

Multisim
D
esign

inter
f
ace

b
l
o
ck.
C
o
-
s
i
m
u
lat
i
o
n

is

e
x
e
cuted as a

lar
g
e
-

si
gn
al

ti
m
e
-
do
m
ain

t
ra
n
s
i
e
n
t

si
m
u
lat
i
o
n

in

which

Multisim
s
i
m
u
la
t
es

the

circ
u
it
r
y

a
n
d

LabVIEW

e
x
e
cutes

t
h
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
s
y
st
e
m al
g
o
rit
h
m
s.

The

t
wo si
m
u
la
t
o
rs

t
y
p
ical
l
y

e
x
ch
ang
e

d
ata in a

c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
ed,

v
ar
i
a
b
le
t
i
m
e

s
t
e
p

m
a
nn
er,

i
n

w
h
ich

bo
th s
o
l
v
e
r
s

o
b
ta
i
n c
o
nv
erge
n
c
e

a
r
o
un
d

an

a
ccur
a
te

si
m
u
lat
i
o
n resu
l
t,
e
v
en

in the

case

w
h
ere

c
o
up
led dyn
a
m
ics

e
x
i
st

bet
w
e
e
n

t
h
e

Multisim

and

LabVIEW

parts

o
f
t
h
e

s
y
st
e
m
. Th
u
s,
i
t

is a
l
so

p
o
ssi
b
le

t
o

inc
lud
e a
dd
iti
o
n
al
p
la
n
t

m
o
d
el
dy
n
a
m
ics,

such

as

m
echa
n
ical

o
r t
h
e
r
m
al

m
o
d
els,

in the

LabVIEW

C
o
n
tr
o
l

D
esign

a
n
d

Sim
u
lat
i
o
n

l
o
o
p

a
n
d

o
b
t
a
in

ac
c
u
rate si
m
u
lat
i
o
n

r
e
su
l
t
s
f
o
r t
h
e

o
v
erall
s
y
s
te
m
. In

LabVIEW
,

these

s
i
m
u
lat
i
o
n

su
b
s
y
st
e
m
s a
r
e

t
y
p
ically

e
xp
r
ess
e
d

i
n

s
t
at
e
-
sp
a
ce,

tra
n
sfer fu
n
c
ti
o
n

o
r d
i
ffe
r
ential

eq
u
ati
o
n

f
o
r
m
at.

Delhi Technological University

Page
2


This simulation of virtual power system helps us in improving the
understanding of power
system working and performance and hence improve our belief of the subject.























Fig
-
1.1

Due to some software limitations some functions are unable to show at this time but as the days
pass the additional functions can be easily implemented to the same topic. Let us mention some
limitations of this co
-
simulation project. At first we cannot fix

the ratings of three phase supply
source until now in the LabVIEW Multisim co
-
simulation, secondly we cannot use instruments

Plant/Control in
Multisim

Control/plant in
LabVIEW


Delhi Technological University

Page
3


of LabVIEW and Multisim in each other explicitly like the measurement probe what we use in
Multisim cant be used in LabVIEW.

Withi
n the limitations in this project I am able to simulate Power
Distribution

Bus system at
33KV supply and then connected them with LabVIEW and then in LabVIEW under control and
simulation I measured bus voltage, current, complex power and power factor and h
as tries to
show load sharing as loads are normally known from load forecasting.

Useful Data Sheet
Information:
-

http://www.eland.co.uk/documents/ACSR%20Conductor%20Cables.pdf

1.

Inductance
-

single phase, two wire line (total loop value of circuit); (μ°/4∏)[ 1 + 4ln{(d
-

r)/r} ] Henries per
meter

run. N.B. μ° = Permeability of free space = 4∏/(10^7): ∏ =
3.14159 : ln = logarithm to base 2.7183... (e): d = distance between conducto
r
centers
, r =
conductor radius : d & r must be in same units e.g. feet or
meters

2.

Inductance
-

3 phase, Line to Neutral
-

equilateral configuration (conductor spacing d) =
half of value in 1. above. N.B. The neutral is theoretical for a 3 wire line.

3.

Induct
ance
-

3 phase, Line to Neutral
-

mean value for configuration other than
equilateral. In place of d, use value D = ³√(d12.d23.d31) where d12 = distance conductor
1 centre to 2 centre, d23 = distance conductor 2 centre to conductor 3 centre, d31 =
distance

conductor 3 centre to conductor 1 centre.

4.

Capacitance
-

single phase, 2 wire line (remote from earth); ∏εº/(ln{(d
-

r)/r}) Farads per
meter

where εº = permittivity of free space (air has relative permittivity of 1) =
8.85/(10^12), other values as in 1. ab
ove.

5.

Capacitance
-

3 phase, Line to Neutral
-

equilateral configuration (conductor spacing d) =
2 x value in 4. above. N.B. The neutral is theoretical for a 3 wire line.

6.

Capacitance
-

3 phase, Line to Neutral, configuration other than equilateral
-

use mea
n
value D in place of d, like 3. above.

7.

Approximate parameters for 33 kV 50 Hz overhead line, 2
meter

conductor spacing, 5.2
m ground clearance, with 100 sq.mm copper section (13mm diameter), per phase, per
kilometer

are 0.18 ohms, 1.14 milliHenry and 0.01

microfarad

at 20 Celsius.

Delhi Technological University

Page
4


8.

Magnetization losses of steel core affect resistance loss, depending on current, up to
about 10% increase over DC. Skin effect has small effect, up to about 1% increase.

Note
:
-

in this project work the approximate design as
mentioned under point 7 is used
considering 5km length.

































Delhi Technological University

Page
5




Chapter
-
2


LITERATURE REVIEW



Software prototype models are not available for study purpose, but still some literatures are
found helpful in developing the idea
regarding this prototype model.

In the

paper


A Web Based Remote Access Laboratory Using SCADA”
. IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION, VOL 52, NO.1 FEBRUARY 2009 [10]
,

Zafer
Aydogmus (Member, IEEE) and Omur Aydogmus (Student Member, IEEE)
has
implemented

an ex
pe
rimental setup

with real instruments. A standard PLC is used to control of
the experimental system. A SCADA was integrated with the system monitor and control the
process. A Web
-
based system, was developed using the Smart Access feature of the SCADA.
The e
quipment used in the experim
ental setup is shown in figure
-
2
.1
.





Fig
-
2
.1

Experimental Setup




Fig
-
2
.
2 Block Diagram of Setup

T
h
e

c
o
m
po
n
e
n
ts

o
f

t
h
e
e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
n
tal

se
t
u
p

a
r
e:


1
)

i
n
d
u
st
r
ial

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

c
o
n
v
e
r
ter

f
o
r
v
a
r
ia
b
le

s
p
ee
d
;

2
)

v
a
r
ia
b
le

ac/
d
c

c
o
n
v
e
r
ter

f
o
r

m
a
g
n
etic

p
o
w
d
er

bra
k
e

(l
o
a
d
);

3
)

c
onn
e
c
tio
n

t
e
r
m
i
n
a
l
s

w
i
th

s
c
h
em
a
t
i
c

di
a
g
ra
m

f
o
r

i
n
d
u
st
r
i
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

c
o
n
v
e
r
te
r
;

4
)

P
C
-
P
PI

ca
b
le

f
o
r

c
o
m
m
u
ni
c
a
tio
n

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

S
C
A
D
A
/
P
C

a
n
d
P
LC
;

Delhi Technological University

Page
6


5
)

P
L
C

a
n
d

a
n
al
o
g

i
n
pu
t/
o
u
t
p
u
t

m
od
u
l
e
s

(Si
e
m
e
n
s

S
7
-
200
)
f
o
r

c
o
n
t
ro
l

o
f

t
h
e

syst
e
m
;

6
)

S
C
A
D
A

sc
r
een

(
W
i
nC
C

f
l
e
x
i
b
le

R
T
);

7
)

P
C

(
1
.
8
-
GHz
A
M
D

C
P
U,

51
2
-
M
B

R
A
M

w
i
t
h

M
ic
ro
s
o
f
t
W
i
n
d
o
w
s

XP

P
r
o
f
e
ssio
n
a
l
);

8
)

mu
lt
i
f
un
c
ti
o
n

d
i
s
p
l
a
y

u
n
it

fo
r

m
a
g
n
etic

p
o
w
d
er

br
a
k
e;

9
)

3
-
p
h
ase

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t

f
o
r

m
o
t
o
r

c
u
rr
e
n
t

a
n
d

v
o
lt
a
g
e
s
;

10
)

1
-
k
W

3
-
p
h
ase

i
n
d
u
cti
o
n

m
o
t
or
;

11
)

m
a
g
n
etic

p
o
w
d
er

bra
k
e

to se
r
v
e

a
s

a

l
o
a
d
;

12
)

i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
tal

s
h
a
f
t

e
n
c
od
er

f
o
r s
p
eed

d
ata.

T
w
o

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

t
y
p
es

o
f

c
o
n
t
ro
l

w
e
r
e

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
ted
i
n
t
h
e
s
y
st
e
m

to

c
o
n
t
ro
l

t
h
e

m
o
t
o
r

as

f
o
ll
o
w
s.

A.

Manual control

Manual control consists of feeding the control inputs given by the user directly to the system
without the use of any automatic controller. The user is expected to adjust the values of the
control inputs to achieve the desired speed ( by varying inverter o
utput frequency) or load level
(the required voltage of the magnetic


power brake being supplied by the ac/dc converter).

B.

Automatic Control (PID Control)

The PID controller can be activated by switching the MAN/AUTO button to AUTO mode. In
steady
-
state op
eration, PID controller regulates the value of the output so as to drive the error to
zero. A measure of the error is given by the difference between the setpoint and the process
variable. The principle of PID control is based upon the following equation,
that expresses the
output, M(t), as a function of a proportional term, an integral term, and a differential term:

M(t) = K
p
e(t) + K
i

∫e(t).dt + K
d

de(t)/dt.

The Web
-
based control system presented here consists of a client user, a Web server and an
Internet

connection. The client user can access the real
-
time laboratory via a Web server; and
this architecture is shown in figure
2.
3. Multiple clients can access the Web server
simultaneously, and use the information pages on the website. Since the real time la
boratory
consists of real equipment used for the practical lab oratory, only one client at a time can access
the laboratory, using a password protection feature.

The client accesses the lab via the web server through a URL address, which activates the web
Delhi Technological University

Page
7


server redirects the client to SCADA. Data exchange occurs according to the request response
method. The HTTP client sends a request to the HTTP server which processes it and returns the
response. The client and server establish a connection via the Ethern
et interface for data
exchange.


Figure
-
2
.
3 Web
-
based remote access real
-
time laboratory scheme.


T
his

d
istance

e
d
uc
a
ti
o
n

lab

o
f
fe
r
s

a

c
o
m
p
l
e
menta
r
y t
oo
l

to the

p
h
ysical
P
ro
cess

C
o
nt
ro
l

l
a
bor
at
or
y
.

T
he

stu
d
ent

mu
s
t

r
ead the

lec
t
u
r
e

n
o
tes

g
i
v
en

o
n

the

W
eb

p
ages

and

p
e
r
f
o
r
m

t
he

expe
r
i
m
e
nt

via

t
he

I
nte
r
net

at

le
a
st

o
nce

b
ef
or
e

atten
d
i
ng
t
he

lab

in
p
e
r
s
o
n,

f
o
r

m
ax
i
m
u
m

e
f
fici
e
n
c
y
.

T
hen,

each

stu
d
e
nt

m
u
st

pe
r
-

f
o
r
m

t
he

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
nt

o
n

their

o
w
n
.

C
o
m
p
a
r
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
en
t
s

w
ho
d
id
o
r

d
id

n
o
t

use

the

r
e
m
o
te

la
b
,

th
o
se

stu
d
en
t
s
w
h
o

t
oo
k

the

re
-

m
o
te

lab

w
e
r
e

ob
se
r
v
ed

to

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
b
etter

t
han

t
h
o
se

w
ho

d
id n
o
t.

A
ls
o
,

t
he
r
e
w
as

a
r
e
d
ucti
o
n

i
n

s
o
m
e

c
o
m
m
o
n

t
ro
u
b
les

s
u
ch as

c
o
nnecti
o
n

m
i
st
a
k
es,

mea
s
u
r
e
m
e
nt
r
ea
d
i
n
g

e
rror
s

and

o
v
e
r

l
o
a
d
ing. Usu
a
l
ly
,
s
tu
d
e
nts

d
o

n
o
t

h
a
v
e

en
ou
gh

t
i
me

to

c
o
m
p
lete

their
e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
nts
i
n

the

ac
t
ual

la
b
.

T
aking

t
he

r
e
m
o
te

lab

w
as

o
b
-

se
r
v
ed to

r
e
d
uce

the

t
i
me

s
t
u
d
ents

r
e
q
ui
r
ed to

c
o
m
p
lete

t
he

e
xp
e
r
i
m
e
nt,

a
nd

th
e
se

s
t
u
d
ents

u
sed

th
i
s

t
i
m
e

m
or
e

e
f
fici
e
nt
l
y.

P
LC/
SC
A
D
A

s
yst
e
ms

a
r
e

w
i
d
e
l
y

used

in

in
d
ust
r
y
.

T
h
rou
gh us
i
n
g

in
du
st
r
ial

e
q
ui
p
me
n
t

in
t
his

w
o
r
k, via

a

use
r
-
f
r
i
e
n
d
l
y

a
nd un
d
e
r
st
a
n
d
a
b
le

i
n
te
r
f
ace,

s
t
ud
ents

a
r
e

a
b
le

to improve

t
heir
kno
w
le
d
ge

o
f

in
d
ust
r
ial

a
ut
o
mati
o
n

u
s
i
ng

P
L
C
/
SC
A
D
A
.

Delhi Technological University

Page
8


T
his ski
l
l

c
r
eates

the

oppor
tu
n
i
t
y f
o
r

a

g
r
a
d
uate

to

f
i
nd

a

j
o
b

in in
du
st
r
y

and

easi
l
y

a
d
a
p
t

to

the

aut
o
mati
o
n
s
yst
e
ms

he

o
r

she
w
i
l
l

enc
o
unter

t
he
r
e.

I
n

c
o
ncl
u
si
o
n,

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
i
ng

t
he

e
x
p
e
r
i
m
e
nts
r
e
m
o
te
l
y

via

t
he
I
nte
r
net,

b
ef
or
e

p
e
r
f
or
mi
n
g t
h
e
m

ph
y
sic
a
l
l
y

in

the

la
bor
at
o
r
y
, enh
a
nces

stu
d
e
nt
s


lea
r
n
i
n
g.

In the paper

Design,
Development, and Commissioning of Substation Automation
Laboratory to Enhance Learning
[6]
, Mini S. Thomas, Senior Member, IEEE, D. P.
Kothari, Senior Member, IEEE and Anupama Prakash
describes that
Substation

automation

systems

are

one

of

the

b
uilding

bloc
ks of

modern

utility

protection and

control

systems. Th
e
y

inte
r
f
ace

with

primary

substation

equipment

such

as

b
us

bars,

trans
formers,

brea
k
ers,

transmission lines,

and

distri
b
ution

feeders and

pr
o
vide measurements

and

status

information

to

the

upper layers

of

the

system hierarc
h
y.

SA

systems

also

detect

a
n
y

ab
-

normal

system

or

substation condition

and

ex
ecute

the

neces
sary

action

to

pr
e
v
ent

further

deterioration of

a

disturbance

or damage

to

equipment.

Substation

int
e
gration

and

automation

can

be

d
i
vided

into

fi
v
e l
e
v
els,

as

sh
o
wn in

Fig.

2
.
4.




Fig
-
2
.
4 Five layers of substation integration and automation and the three


Functional data paths from the substation to the utility enterprise.


The

l
o
west

l
e
v
el, which

is

an int
e
gral

part

of

e
v
ery substation,

comprises

p
o
wer

system

field
equipment in

the

switch

yard.

The

second

and

most

important part of substation

automation

is

the
IED implementation,

comprising the

replacement

of

electromechanical

relays

with

IEDs with

one

or

more

microprocessors and

communications

ports. These

IEDs

h
a
v
e

the

ability

to

transmit

data,

ex
ecute control
commands,

and frequently

pr
o
vide

a

local

user inter
f
ace.

Once the

IEDs

are

Delhi Technological University

Page
9


installed,

the

third

task

is

to

int
e
grate

these

IEDs

in the

most

e
f
fect
i
v
e

manner

to

int
e
grate

protection, control,

and data

acquisition functions

into

a

minimal

number

of

platforms

so

as

to

reduce

capital and

operating costs

and

panel

and

con
trol

room

space

requirements.

On

completion

of

the

int
e
gration of

the

IEDs,

a

la
r
ge

number

of

SA

applications

li
k
e

intelligent alarm

processing

or

adapt
i
v
e

relaying

relay

coordination

can

be
implemented

in

the

fourth

stage.

The

utility

enterprise

l
e
v
el,

the fifth

in

the

hierarc
h
y
,

consists

of

third
-
party

enterprise

soft
w
are that

is

int
e
grated

with

the

complete

system,

with

both

operational

and nonoperational

data being
analyzed

at

the

enterprise l
e
v
el.

Thus,

a

better

understanding

of

nonoperational data

e
x
-

traction

and

use

is

g
ained.

This

reduces

maintenance

cost

by

analyzing

historical

data

and

performing

predict
i
v
e maintenance instead

of periodic

maintenance.

There

are

three

primary

func
tional

data

paths

from

the

substation

to

the

utility

enterprise
. The

most

common

data

path

is

that

of

transmitting the

opera
tional

data

to

the

utility’s

SCA
D
A

system.

The

second

data

path is

that

of

transmitting

the

nonoperational

data

to

the

utility’s

data
w
arehouse,

and

the third

is

remote

access

to

IEDs.

Attempts

h
a
v
e

been

made

to

foll
o
w

the

hierarchical

l
e
v
els

of SA

implementation

in

the

current

SA

laboratory

setup,

with

the operational

data

path

already

h
a
ving

being

implemented

and

the
nonoperational

and

remote

access

paths

planned

to

be

added

in the

near

future for

better

understanding.

An

automated substation

is

one

where

all

the

secondary equipment

within

the

substation

is

interlin
k
ed. In

earlier

days, serial
communication
buses

or

proprietary

communication

media

associated protocols

were

used

almost

entirely

to

link the

co
n
v
entional automated

substation.

W
ith

the

d
e
v
elopment of

di
f
ferent

protocols,

most

of

the

substation
w
or
k
ed

with

one
single

v
endor

monopoly. E
f
forts

were

made,

therefore,

for standardization by

the

IEC

60870
-
5

series

of

communication protocols

and

the

DNP3

(Distri
b
uted Net
w
ork

Protocol). These

protocols

brought

some

semblance of

conformity and interoperability within

a

substation

and

for

remote

telemetry between

mult
i
v
endor

systems.

Besides

interoperability

within

the

substation,

interoperability between

di
f
ferent

substations

w
as

also

desirable;

it

thus

became necessary

to

h
a
v
e

common

understanding among

the

v
arious
naming

co
n
v
entions,

object

naming,

and

addressing

formats for

engineering.

Utility

Communications Architecture

(UCA) started

w
orking

on

these

lines,

detailing

a

well
-
defined set

of object

naming

co
n
v
entions

and

empl
o
ying

XML

to

bring

about uniformity

in

data

and

cont
e
xt

Delhi Technological University

Page
10


by

using

metadata

and

an

ov
erall object
-
oriented

approach.

This

w
as

later

co
-
opted

into

the

IEC
61850

Standard,

which

pr
o
vides

a

basis

for

substation

communication

and

engineering,

thus

all
o
wing

interoperability

as

well

as
standardizing

substation

engineering

and

substation

solutions.

Thus,

IEC

61850

is

a

standard

for

the

design

of

electrical

substation

automation.

It

defines the

communication

between d
e
vices

in

the

substation

and

the

related

system

requirements. It

supports

all

substation automation functions

and

their

engi
neering.

IEC

61850

also

supports

the

free

allocation

of

functions to

IEDs,

and

therefore

supports

di
f
ferent

approaches

in

function
int
e
gration,

function

distri
b
ution,

and

SA

architecture.

The

stan
dard

contains

an

object
-
oriented

data

model

that

groups

all

data
according

to

the

common

user

functions

in

objects

called

logical
nodes

(LN).

All

related

data

attri
b
utes

are

contained

and

defined in

these

LNs.

Access

to

all

the

data

is

pr
o
vided

in

a

standardized
w
ay

by the

services

of

the standard,

which

are

defined

to

fulfill the

performance

requirements.

The

data

model

and

services

of the

standard

are

mapped

to

a
mainstream

communication

stack consisting

of

MMS,

TCP/I
P
,

and

Ethernet

with

priority

tagging.

W
ith

the

d
e
v
elopment

of

Standard

IEC

61850,

the

utili
ties

were

forced

to

implement

v
arious

options

for

retrofitting

and
e
xpanding

of

e
xisting

infrastructure

that

had

not

reached

the

end of

its

operational life

in

order

to

get

the

maximum ad
v
antages and

benefits

of

the n
e
w

technology

at

the

minimum

cost.

Experimental Setup in the SA lab consists of the following:

A.

Retrofitting of IEC 61850
Compliant

IEDs with Open
-
Ended Software

In order to help the students understand the migration from old technology to new
technology an attempt was made to integrate the
IEDs available in the laboratory with the
available control center software SCADA PORTAL through a protocol converter, which
involves following tasks:

1) Physical

wiring

of

the

d
e
vices

and

g
r
ounding:

Once

all the

hard
w
are

equipment

w
as

procured,

the

main

task

w
as

to

establish

proper

connection between

all

the

d
e
vices

and

pr
o
vides

proper

grounding

schemes.

All

the

relay IEDs

and the

Omicron

tester

are

on

the

substa
tion

LAN

and

the

substation

compute
r
,

which

pr
o
vides

the

HMI (supporting

l
e
g
a
c
y

protocol)

and

is

connected

to

the

substation

LAN

through a

g
at
e
w
a
y
,

since

l
e
g
a
c
y protocols

do

not

support

Ethernet.

All

d
e
vices

on

the

substation LAN

interact

based

on client

ser
v
er or

peer
-
to
-
peer

Delhi Technological University

Page
11


relationships.

A

client

is

a

net
-

w
ork

entity

that

issues

service

requests

to

a

ser
v
er.

A

ser
v
er

is a
net
w
ork

entity

that

responds

to

the

requests

of

a client.




Fig.
2
.
5 Client
-
server relationship of the IEDs and gateway


Fig.

2
.
5 sh
o
ws

the

client

ser
v
er

relationships

of

the

IEDs,

sub
station

maste
r
,

and

the

g
at
e
w
ay

in

the

substation

architecture. The

relay

IEDs

can

also

w
ork

in

a

peer
-
to
-
peer relationship where

each

entity

has

the

same

status

on

the

net
w
ork,

i.e.,

there are

no

masters and

no

sl
a
v
es.

Once

the

net
w
orking is

complete,

the

hard
w
are

is

as

sh
o
wn in

Fig 2
.
6,

which

is

the

p
h
ysical

realization

of

a

part

of

the

setup as

sh
o
wn

in

Fig

2
.
7.






Fig.
2
.
6 Substation Automation laboratory setup




Delhi Technological University

Page
12




Fig.
2
.
7 System architecture of the substation automation laboratory



2)

Simulation

of

field

d
e
vices:

In

order

to

configure

the

relay IEDs

and

to

perform

v
arious

e
xperiments

related

to

substation
automation,

it

is

important

to

create

di
f
ferent

substation

e
n
viron
-

ments

and

to

help

the

students

analyze

the

w
orking

of

substation equipment

under

normal

and

f
ault

conditions. Monitoring and controlling

an

actual

substation

is

o
b
viously

not

a

viable

option
at

a

laboratory

l
e
v
el.

Hence,

soft
w
are

such

as

the

P
o
wer

System Computer
-
Aided

Design/Electromagnetic
T
ransients

program (PSCAD/EMTDC)

and

M
A
T
rix

LABoratory

(M
A
TLAB)

were
made

a
v
ailable

in

the

laboratory

for

simulating

the

di
f
ferent

field d
e
vices

and

the

w
orking

e
n
vironment.

3)

Int
e
g
r
ation

with

cont
r
ol

center

softwa
r
e:

The

foll
o
wing
section

describes

the

int
e
gration

of
relay

IEDs

with the

control center

soft
w
are.


Co n f i g u r a t i o n

of

r
elay

IEDs

The

IEDs

a
v
ailable

in

the SA

laboratory

are

made

by

Siemens

and

SEL.

These

IEDs are

configured

using

their

proprietary

soft
w
are

DIGSI4.0
(Siemens)

and

A
CSELER
A
T
OR

Quick

set (SEL).

The

OMIC
R
ON

tester

is

used

to

inject

di
f
ferent

v
alues of

three
-
phase
v
oltages

and

currents,

as

per

the

configu
ration, to

the

relay

IEDs.

These

injected
v
alues

are

pro
cessed

by

the

rela
y
,

and

analog
v
alues

such

as

frequen
c
y
, p
o
wer

f
acto
r
,

p
o
we
r
,

phase

v
oltages,

and

line

v
oltages

can be

seen

on

the

LCD

display

pr
o
vided

on

the

front

panel
.



Configu
r
ation

of

P
r
otocol

Co
n
verter

The

protocol

con
v
erter

has

a

standard

input

file

as

per

IEC

61850

standards, which

defines

all

the

IEC

61850

logical

nodes,

data

objects, data

attri
b
utes,

and

the

li
k
e,

from

which

the

SCL

file is generated.

The

configuration

utility
generates

three

major
output

files:

1)

an

SCL

file

that

contains

details

of

the

data

model

as per

the

IEC

61850

Standard;

2)

configuration

files

for the

other

protocols;

3)

a

mapping

information file,

der
i
v
ed

from

a

procedure to

map

the

data

between

other

protocols

and

IEC

61850 attri
b
utes.

This

mapping

information

is

stored

in

a

separate

file.

B.

T
esting

of

Relays

The

performance of

the

relay

IEDs

a
v
ailable

in

the

lab

w
as
v
erified before

commissioning,

by

o
f
fline

and

online

tests.

In the

o
f
fline

test,

a

relay

model

w
as

d
e
v
eloped

and

tested for

the
performance

parameters,

while

in

the

online

test,

an

actual

relay IED

w
as

tested

with

f
ault

Delhi Technological University

Page
13


w
a
v
eforms,

and

the

f
ault

clearing

ca
pabilit
y
,

location,

and

type

of

f
ault

were

assessed

C.

GOOSE

Mess
a
ging

D.

Substation

Monitoring

P.K.

lyam
bo and R. Tzoneva, Member, IEEE,

in his

paper

Transient Stability Analysis of
the IEEE 14
-
Bus Electric Power System
[7]
,

has performed transient analysis of 14
-
bus
system.
Transient stability entails the evaluation of a power systems ability to withst
and large
disturbances, and to survive transition to a normal operating condition.

In the stability study for the IEEE 14
-
bus system, the following assumptions were taken:

1.

The input remains constant during the entire period of a swing curve;

2.

Damping or syn
chronous power is proportional to the generators own relative speed or
slip;

3.

Synchronous power is calculated from a steady
-
state solution of the network;

4.

Each machine is represented in the network by a constant reactance in series with the
constant
electromotive force;

5.

The mechanical angle of each rotor coincides with the electrical phase of the internal
voltage;

6.

The load is represented b y shunt admittances to its buses.

There are three states in the system:

1.

The prefault state which determines the i
n9itial condition for angles X(i) where i=1,2,3. .
.(equals to the number of synchronous machine in the system)

2.

The fault state which exists at t=0 and persists until the fault is cleared at t=tcr;

3.

The postfault state with t>tcr.

4.

Where t[s] is fault cleari
ng time and tcr[s] is critical clearing time.

Swing equation for the power system is considered. Fault location and fault clearing time is
considred and detected. Considered IEEE 14
-
bus system and some results are shown below:

Delhi Technological University

Page
14










Fig.
2
.
8 IEEE 14
-
Bus system





Fig.
2
.
9 plots of angle differences for machines



Fig.
2
.
10 plots of angle differences for machines


2,3,4&5.
Fault on bus 2, fault cleared in 0.4s



2,3,4&5. Fault on bus 10, fault

cleared in 0.4 s



Savas Sahin, Mehmet Olmez, and Yalcin Isler,
[11]

in his microcontroller base experimental
setup of SCADA has shown data acquisition processing.
D
e
v
eloping countries,

li
k
e

T
ur
ke
y
,

must

k
eep

up

with

the most

modern

technologies so

that

their

industry

is

able

to compete

in

w
orld

mar
k
ets. Since

SCA
D
A

and

other

hard
w
are d
e
vices

are

quite

e
xpens
i
v
e, and

educational

institutions may not

be

able

to

a
f
ford

them,

it

is

crucial

to

be

able

to

implement teaching

based

on

simulation

tools, which are

much more

a
f
fordable. This

study

describes

teaching

Delhi Technological University

Page
15


concepts

of industrial

automation,

data

acquisition,

instrumentation,

virtual instrumentation,

and


its

d
e
v
elopment

by

using

the

well
-
kn
o
wn commercial

soft
w
are,

LabVIEW.

Also,

acquiring

e
xperimental kn
o
wledge of

these

matters

by

means

of

four

lab

e
xperiences helps

to

int
e
grate

the

theoretical

concepts.

LabVIEW soft
w
are

is

used

for

the

SCA
D
A

front

panel

and block

diagram.

The

block

diagram

holds

the

data

fl
o
w and graphical

source

codes

that is

to

sa
y
,

LabVIEW

is

based

on object
-
oriented

programming

(OOP).

These

features

are useful for

designing

a HMI

for

SCA
D
A

system.

The

front

panel pr
o
vides switches, counters,

timers,

and

graphs

in

order

to monitor

and

control.

The

block

diagram

supplies

data

fl
o
w

and function

tools

with

connectors, terminals,

and

wires.

Four consecutive SCADA experiments are prepared:

1)

Implementation

of

the

RS232

Serial

P
ort

Experiment:

The first
e
xperiment

is

designed

for

connecting

the

PIC

board,

serial

communication,

and

graphical

programming

via

LabVIEW.
Students

are

e
xpected

to

read

the

status

of

switches

and

send

this
v
alue

to

the

LEDs

through

the

serial

port

in

this

e
xperiment.

This
e
xperiment

helps

students

to

comprehend

basics

of

the

D
A
Q

and
OOP

via

digital

communication

protocols.

Students

are

g
i
v
en

a t
w
o
-
week

period

to

complete

their

w
ork

for

this

e
xperiment.

2)

Implementation

of

the

IEEE

1284

D
-
25

P
a
r
allel

P
ort

Experiment:

The second

e
xperiment,

which

is

called

the IEEE 1284

D
-
25

parallel

port

communication
e
xperiment,

is

d
e
v
eloped

to

sh
o
w

a

di
f
ferent

common

communication protocol.
Students are

e
xpected to

read

the

status

of

switches

and

send this

v
alue

to

the

LEDs

through the

parallel port

in

this

e
xperiment.

This

e
xperiment

pr
o
vides

the

int
e
gration between

D
A
Q and

OOP

via

digital

communication

protocols

as

a

pre
-
intermediate

l
e
v
el

application.

Students

are

g
i
v
en

a

t
w
o
-
week

period

to complete

their
w
ork

for

this

e
xperiment.

3)

Implementation

of

the

Digital

Thermometer

Experiment:
The
third
experiment

is
the

implementation

of
a

real
-
time temperature monitoring
system.

A

digital

thermometer

senso
r
,
DS1820,

is

connected

to

the

setup

to

measure

the

temperature. Students

are

e
xpected

to

read

the

temperature

v
alue

through

the serial

port

in

this

e
xperiment.

An

e
xtra

b
utton

must

be

added

to the

program

to

switch

the

calculation

method

of

the

temperature using

the

read

v
alue

from

the

sensor.

The

calculation method can

be

selected

to

use

either

the

formula

node or

mathematical
functions.

This

e
xperiment

is

designed

as

an

intermediate
-
l
e
v
el application.

Students

are

g
i
v
en

a

t
w
o
-
week period

to

complete their

w
ork

for

this

e
xperiment.

Delhi Technological University

Page
16


4)

Implementation

of

the

T
empe
r
atu
r
e

and Liquid
-
L
e
vel

Ex
periment:

The

final

e
xperiment,

which

is

a

compl
e
x

application for

SCA
D
A,

is

designed

to

connect

one

temperature

senso
r
,

one
di
f
ferential

pressure transmitter

as

l
e
v
el

senso
r
,

limit

switches, heater

resistance,

pumping

motors,

PIC

board,

serial

communication, and

graphical

programming

via

LabVIEW.

The

system
can

be

controlled

manually

or

automatically

using

the

ON

OFF control.

First,

sensors

and

actuators

are

connected to

the

PIC card.

Then,

students

are

e
xpected

to

conduct

this

e
xperiment

as
foll
o
ws:

1)

The

liquid

is

transferred

to

the

tank

no.1

through

a

solenoid
v
al
v
e

until

the

desired

l
e
v
el

is

achi
e
v
ed via

a

di
f
ferential
pressure

transmitter.

2)

Then,

this

liquid

is

heated

using

a

heater

to

the

set

tempe
r
ature

v
alue.

3)

When

this

operation

is

completed,

the

heater

is

turned
o
f
f
and

the

hot

liquid

is

pumped

to

the

other

tank

via pumping motor

no.1
.

4)

After

becoming

calm,

the

liquid

is

pumped

back

to

the

tank
no.1

via

pumping

motor

no.2
.

This

step

is

int
e
grated

to

the
e
xperiment

in

order

to

av
oid

w
asting

the liquid.



Fig
-
2
.
11 (a) plant of experiment, (b) electronic control system, (c) graphical Program, (d) the
GUI developed by students

Khalid W. Darwish, A. R. Al Ali, Rached Dhaouadi, “
Virtual SDADA Simulation System
Delhi Technological University

Page
17


for Power Substation
”[13]

Among power network faults, following were selected for training:

1.

Phase to Phase fault,

2.

Phase to earth fault,

3.

Power
transformer overloading.

The selected power substation under study are 33/11KV of 15MVA capacity. The substation
have the following equipments:

1.

33 and 11KV switch gears,

2.

Switch gear protection relays,

3.

Power transformer 33/11KV, 15MVA,

4.

Protection relays of
power transformer,

5.

Auxiliary transformer 11/0.415KV,

6.

DC supply and Battery charger.

The control panel contains the following controls:

1.

Log on or change user,

2.

Switch gears ON/OFF control,

3.

Switch gears status,

4.

Earth switch status,

5.

Analog measurement
simulation for load voltage and current,

6.

Fault simulation tools for

i.

Transformer overload faults,

ii.

Distribution feeder phase to phase fault,

iii.

Distribution feeder phase to ground fault,

iv.

Distribution feeders protection relay reset.

7.

Links to alarms, events, comm
and logs, archive, trends, and communication status,

8.

Print report of events.





Delhi Technological University

Page
18



Chapter
-
3

SCADA SYSTEM


3
.
1

Int
r
odu
c
t
i
on

W
i
de
l
y

u
s
ed

i
n
i
ndus
t
r
y

f
or

S
uperv
i
so
r
y

C
on
t
rol

a
nd

Da
t
a

Acqu
i
s
iti
on

of

i
n
dus
t
r
i
al processes,

SC
ADA

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

are

now

a
l
so

p
ene
t
ra
t
i
ng

t
he

e
x
per
im
en
t
al

p
h
y
s
i
cs
l
abora
t
or
i
es

f
o
r

t
he

con
t
r
o
l
s

of

anc
ill
a
r
y

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

such

as coo
li
n
g
,

ven
til
a
ti
on,

power d
i
s
t
r
i
bu
ti
on,

e
t
c.

SC
ADA

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

ha
v
e

m
ade

subs
t
an
ti
al

pr
o
g
r
ess

over

t
he

r
ecent

y
e
ars

i
n
t
er
m
s

of func
ti
ona
li
t
y
,

s
c
a
l
ab
ili
t
y
, perfor
m
a
n
ce

and

openn
e
ss

such

t
hat
t
h
e
y

are

an a
l
t
erna
ti
ve

t
o
i
n house

deve
l
op
m
ent

e
v
en

for

ve
r
y

d
e
m
and
i
n
g

and

co
m
p
l
ex

con
t
rol

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

as
t
hose

of p
h
y
s
i
cs

e
x
per
im
en
t
s.

3.1.1
T
y
p
e
s

o
f SCADA

1.

D+
R
+N

(Development

+
R
un

+

Ne
t
work
i
n
g)

2.

R
+N

(Run

+Ne
t
w
o
rk
i
ng

)

3.

Fac
t
o
r
y

focus

3.1.2

Fe
a
tur
e
s

of SCADA

1.

D
y
n
a
mi
c

pro
c
ess

Graph
i
c

2.

A
l
arm

su
mm
e
r
y

3.

A
l
arm

h
i
s
t
o
r
y

4.

R
eal
tim
e

t
rend

5.

H
i
s
t
or
i
cal

tim
e

t
rend

6.

S
ecur
i
t
y

(App
li
ca
ti
on

S
e
cur
i
t
y
)

7.

Da
t
a

base conn
e
c
ti
v
i
t
y

Delhi Technological University

Page
19



8.

Dev
i
ce connec
ti
v
i
t
y

9.

S
cr
i
p
t
s

10.

R
ec
i
pe

m
an
a
ge
m
ent

3.1.3
Ma
nu
f
act
u
re
rs

of
S
CADA

M
od
i
con

(Te
l
e
m
e
can
i
q
u
e)

V
i
sual

l
ook

A
ll
en

B
r
ad
l
y

:

R
S

V
i
ew

Si
e
m
ens:

w
i
n

cc

Gefa
n
c:

K
P
I
T

:

A
S
T
R
A
I
n
t
e
l
u
ti
on

:

Asp
i
c
W
onderware

:

I
n
t
o
u
ch

3.
2.
W
hat

do
e
s

S
CADA

M
EAN?

SC
ADA

s
t
ands

for

S
upe
r
v
i
so
r
y

C
on
t
rol

And

Da
t
a Acqu
i
s
iti
on.

As

t
he

na
m
e
i
nd
i
ca
t
es,

i
t
i
s

not a
fu
l
l con
t
rol

s
y
s
t
e
m
,

but ra
t
her

focu
s
es

on

t
he

superv
i
so
r
y

l
e
v
e
l
.

As such,

i
t

i
s a pure
l
y

s
o
f
t
wa
r
e

p
a
ck
a
g
e

t
hat
i
s pos
iti
oned

on

t
op

of

hard
w
are

t
o wh
i
ch

i
t

i
s
i
n
t
erfa
c
ed,

i
n
g
e
n
eral

v
i
a

P
r
o
gra
mm
ab
l
e

L
o
g
i
c

C
on
t
ro
ll
ers

(
P
L
C
s),

or

o
t
her

co
mm
e
rc
i
al

h
ardw
a
re
m
odu
l
es.

SC
ADA

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

a
r
e

us
e
d

not on
l
y

i
n
i
ndus
t
r
i
al

processes:

e
.
g
.

s
t
e
el
m
ak
i
n
g
,

po
w
er
g
e
n
era
ti
on

(
conven
ti
onal

and

nuc
l
e
a
r)

and

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
ti
on,

che
mi
s
t
r
y
,

but a
l
so

i
n so
m
e e
x
per
im
en
t
al

fac
iliti
es

such

as nuc
l
e
ar

fus
i
on.

The s
i
z
e

of

such

p
l
an
t
s

ra
n
g
e from

a f
e
w

1000

t
o several

10

t
hous
a
nds

i
npu
t/
ou
t
put

(
I
/
O
)

c
h
anne
l
s.

Howe
v
er,

SC
A
D
A

s
y
s
t
e
m
s evo
l
ve

rap
i
d
l
y

and

are

n
o
w

pene
t
ra
ti
n
g

t
he

m
a
rket of

p
l
an
t
s

w
it
h

a nu
m
ber

of
I
/
O channe
l
s

of

s
e
ve
r
al

100

K: we

know

of

t
wo cases

of

near

t
o 1 M

I
/
O chan
n
e
l
s

curren
t
l
y under

deve
l
op
m
en
t
.

SC
ADA

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

used

t
o

run

on

DO
S
,

V
M
S

and

UN
I
X;

i
n re
c
ent

y
e
a
rs

a
l
l

SC
ADA

vendors

have

m
o
v
ed

t
o NT

and

so
m
e

a
l
so

t
o

L
i
n
u
x
.


Delhi Technological University

Page
20



3.
3

A
rc
h
i
t
ec
ture

3.3.1
H
ar
d
w
are

Arc
hi
te
c
t
u
r
e

One

d
i
s
ti
n
g
u
i
shes

t
wo

b
a
s
i
c

l
a
y
e
rs

i
n a
SC
ADA

s
y
s
t
e
m
:

t
he

"
c
li
ent
l
a
y
er
"

wh
i
ch

ca
t
e
rs for

t
he

m
an

m
a
ch
i
ne

i
n
t
e
rac
ti
on

and

t
he

"
da
t
a

ser
v
er

l
a
y
e
r"

wh
i
ch

hand
l
es

m
ost

of

t
he process

da
t
a

con
t
rol

a
c
ti
v
iti
es.

The

da
t
a

ser
v
ers

c
o
mm
un
i
ca
t
e

w
it
h

dev
i
ces
i
n
t
he

f
i
e
l
d
t
hrou
g
h

pr
o
cess

con
t
ro
ll
ers.

P
rocess

con
t
ro
ll
e
rs,

e
.
g
.

P
L
C
s,

are

conn
e
c
t
ed

t
o
t
he

da
t
a.

Servers

e
it
her

d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y

o
r v
i
a

ne
t
works

or

f
i
e
l
d bu
s
es

t
hat are

pro
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

(e
.
g.

Si
e
m
ens

H1), or

non
-
pro
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

(
e.
g
.

P
r
o
f
i
bus).

Da
t
a

s
erv
e
rs

are

connec
t
ed

t
o e
a
ch

o
t
her

and

t
o

c
li
ent

s
t
a
ti
ons

v
i
a

an E
t
hernet

L
AN.

T
he

da
t
a

s
er
v
ers

and

c
li
ent s
t
a
ti
ons

a
r
e

NT

p
l
a
t
for
m
s

but for
m
a
n
y

produc
t
s

t
h
e

c
li
ent s
t
a
ti
ons

m
a
y

a
l
so

be

W
95

m
ach
i
nes.

F
i
g
-
3.
1
.

shows

t
y
p
i
cal hardw
a
re

a
rch
it
ec
t
u
re.




Fi
g
u
r
e

3.
1
:

T
y
p
i
ca
l

H
ar
d
w
ar
e

A
rc
hit
ec
t
u
r
e


Delhi Technological University

Page
21


3.3.2

S
o
f
t
w
are

Arc
hi
t
e
ct
u
re

The

produc
t
s

a
re

m
u
lti
-
t
a
sk
i
ng

and

are

b
ased

upon

a rea
l
-
tim
e

da
t
aba
s
e

(
R
T
DB)

l
o
c
a
t
ed
i
n one

or

m
ore

s
e
rvers.

S
ervers

are

respons
i
b
l
e

f
o
r da
t
a

acqu
i
s
iti
on

and

ha
n
d
li
ng

(e
.
g
. po
lli
ng

con
t
ro
ll
ers,

a
l
arm check
i
n
g
,

c
a
l
cu
l
a
ti
ons,

l
og
g
i
n
g

and

arch
i
v
i
n
g
)

on

a set of para
m
e
t
e
rs,

t
y
p
i
ca
l
l
y

t
hose

t
h
e
y

a
r
e

conn
e
c
t
ed

t
o.




Fi
g
u
r
e

3.
2
:

G
e
n
er
ic

S
of
t
w
ar
e

A
rc
hit
ec
t
u
r
e

Howev
e
r,

i
t

i
s poss
i
b
l
e

t
o

have

ded
i
c
a
t
ed

s
e
rvers

f
or

par
ti
cu
l
ar

t
asks,

e
.
g
.

h
i
s
t
or
i
an, da
t
a
l
ogger,

a
l
arm

hand
l
e
r.

F
i
g
.

3.
2 shows

a
SC
A
D
A

arch
it
e
c
t
ure

t
hat
i
s

g
e
n
er
i
c

for

t
h
e produc
t
s

t
hat we
r
e

eva
l
u
a
t
ed.

3.4
C
o
m
m
uni
cat
i
o
n
s

3.4.1
I
n
t
e
rnal

C
o
mm
un
i
ca
ti
on

S
erver
-
c
li
ent

and

ser
v
er
-
server

co
mm
un
i
ca
ti
on

i
s
i
n
g
e
n
eral

on

a pub
li
sh
-
s
ubscr
i
be

and even
t
-
dr
i
ven

b
as
i
s

and

u
s
es

a T
CP
/
I
P

pro
t
oco
l
,

i
.e
.
,

a c
li
ent app
li
ca
ti
on

sub
s
cr
i
bes

t
o a para
m
e
t
e
r

wh
i
ch

Delhi Technological University

Page
22


i
s own
e
d

b
y

a
p
ar
ti
cu
l
a
r

ser
v
er

a
pp
li
ca
ti
on

and

on
l
y

cha
n
g
es

t
o
t
hat para
m
e
t
e
r

a
r
e

t
hen

co
m
m
un
i
ca
t
ed

t
o
t
he

c
li
ent ap
p
li
ca
ti
on.

3.4.2
Access

t
o
D
ev
i
ces

The

da
t
a

s
e
rvers

po
l
l
t
he

con
t
ro
ll
ers

at

a u
s
er

d
e
f
i
ned

po
lli
ng

ra
t
e. The

po
lli
ng

r
a
t
e

m
a
y b
e
d
i
ffe
r
ent

for

d
i
f
fe
r
ent

para
m
e
t
e
rs.

The con
t
ro
ll
ers

pass

t
he

r
eques
t
ed

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
ers

t
o
t
he da
t
a

ser
v
ers.

T
im
e

s
t
a
m
p
i
ng

of

t
he

p
rocess

p
ara
m
e
t
ers

i
s
t
y
p
i
c
a
l
l
y

p
erf
o
r
m
ed

i
n
t
he con
t
ro
ll
ers

and

t
h
i
s

tim
e
-
s
t
a
m
p

i
s
t
aken

over

b
y

t
h
e

da
t
a

s
e
rver.

I
f

t
he

con
t
r
o
ll
er

and co
mm
un
i
ca
ti
on

pro
t
ocol

used

support

unso
li
c
it
ed

da
t
a

t
rans
f
er

t
hen

t
he

p
r
o
duc
t
s

w
il
l support

t
h
i
s

t
oo.

The

produc
t
s

prov
i
de

c
o
mm
un
i
ca
ti
on

dr
i
vers

for
m
ost

of

t
he

co
mm
on

P
L
C
s

and

w
i
de
l
y used

f
i
e
l
d
-
buses,

e
.
g
.,

M
odbus.

Of

t
he

t
hr
e
e

f
i
e
l
d
buses

t
hat are

reco
mm
e
n
ded

at

C
E
R
N, bo
t
h

P
rof
i
bus

and

W
or
l
df
i
p

are

suppor
t
ed

but
C
ANbus

of
t
en

not .

S
o
m
e

of

t
he

dr
i
vers are

ba
s
ed

on

t
h
i
rd

par
t
y

p
roduc
t
s

(e
.
g
.,

App
li
com

c
ards)

and

t
h
e
ref
o
re

h
ave a
dd
iti
on
al c
os
t

assoc
i
a
t
ed

w
it
h

t
h
e
m
.

A

s
i
n
g
l
e

da
t
a

s
erv
e
r

c
an support

m
u
lti
p
l
e

co
mm
un
i
ca
ti
ons pro
t
oco
l
s:

i
t

can gene
r
a
ll
y

support

as
m
a
n
y

such

p
ro
t
oco
l
s

as
i
t

has

s
l
o
t
s

for

i
n
t
erfa
c
e cards.

The

eff
o
rt

requ
i
r
ed

t
o d
e
ve
l
op

new

dr
i
v
e
rs

i
s
t
y
p
i
ca
l
l
y

i
n
t
he

ra
n
g
e

o
f

2
-
6 weeks depend
i
n
g

on

t
he

co
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y

and

s
imil
ar
i
t
y

w
it
h

e
x
i
s
ti
ng

dr
i
vers,

and

a dr
i
ver deve
l
op
m
ent

t
oo
l
k
i
t

i
s prov
i
ded

for

t
h
i
s.

3.4.3

I
n
ter
f
ac
in
g

App
li
ca
ti
on

I
n
t
er
f
aces

/

Openness

The

prov
i