The History of Computer Systems - BMU Nigeria

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COURSE

IT150 Computer Architecture


Lecture No. 1

IT150
-
P01

COURSE
INTRODUCT
ION


Week

Hour
s

Unit

Lecture or activities

Learning outcomes

1

1

Introduction
to

c
omputer

s
ystems

and

history of

c
omputing

Introduction to computer s
ystems



Information systems



C
omputer systems

Computer organization and

computer
architecture

History of computin
g





Introducing to course goals
and topics

Comparing information
systems and computer
systems

Comparing computer
organization and computer
architecture

Understanding t
he history
of computer technology,
characteristics and
classification of computer
systems through history

2

Computer

types
and

examples

of
computer

families


Computer types



Dedicated computers



Microcontrollers



Computers for entertainment



Personal compute
rs



Servers



Parallel systems



Mainframe computers


Examples

of computer

families




Pentium 4,

UltraSPA
R
C III,

Intel 8051



Copyright © 201
2

BELGRADE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a r
etrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Belgrade Metropolitan University.

Jun

201
2

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

2
/
26



Contents

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............

4

Summary of the IT150 Computer architecture course

................................
................................
.........

4

IEEE Syllabus

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

4

Modern Multilevel Machines

................................
................................
................................
....................

5

The Need For Information System

................................
................................
................................
..........

6

Strengthening the

global economy

................................
................................
................................
......

6

Strengthening the global economy

................................
................................
................................
......

6

The transformation of industrial economies

................................
................................
.........................

6

The transformation of business operations

................................
................................
..........................

6

What is an information system?

................................
................................
................................
...........

6

Definition

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

6

Computer system as part of information system

................................
................................
.................

7

Definition

................................
................................
................................
................................
..........

7

Compute
r system functions

................................
................................
................................
..............

7

Organization and Architecture of Computer Systems

................................
................................
.............

9

The History of Computer Systems

................................
................................
................................
..........

9

Mechanical Computers

................................
................................
................................
........................

9

The First
-
Generation: Electronic Tubes (1946
-
1957)

................................
................................
........

13

English
computer COLOSSUS

................................
................................
................................
......

13

The American ENIAC

................................
................................
................................
.....................

14

Von Neumann machine

................................
................................
................................
..................

14

The Second Generation: Transistors (1958
-
1964)

................................
................................
............

15

The first transistor computer TX
-
0 (Transistorized Experimental Computer Zero)

........................

15

PDP
-
8 architecture

................................
................................
................................
.........................

16

Transistor version of the IBM 709 machine

................................
................................
...................

16

CDC 6600

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

16

The Third
-
Generation: Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)

................................
................................
....

17

IBM System 360

................................
................................
................................
.............................

17

PDP
-
11

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

17

The Fourth Generation: VLSI (1980
-
?)

................................
................................
............................

18

Fifth Generation

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

18

The most important compu
ters in history

................................
................................
...........................

19

Moore‘s Law

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

19

Spectra of Computer Systems

................................
................................
................................
..............

20

Computers with a fixed program (Disposable)
................................
................................
...................

20

Microcontrollers (Embedded)

................................
................................
................................
.............

20

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26


Computers for the game (Games Computers)

................................
................................
..................

20

Personal computers

................................
................................
................................
...........................

21

Servers

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

21

Workstations

................................
................................
................................
................................
......

21

Mainframes computers

................................
................................
................................
......................

21

Examples of Computer Families

................................
................................
................................
...........

22

Intel (Pentium)

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

22

The history of Intel processors

................................
................................
................................
.......

22

SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture)
................................
................................
......................

24

8051 Microcontrollers

................................
................................
................................
.........................

25

8051 family of microcontrollers

................................
................................
................................
......

25

Literature

................................
................................
................................
................................
...............

26

































IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

4
/
26





Lecture #1


COURSE INTRODUCTION


Introduction

The course
IT 150 C
omputer architecture
describes hardware and software technolog
ies
, necessary
information to those who develop computational structures, information support for business
app
lications and processes to information technology solutions in the industry.

The course provides
necessary knowledge to help
students
understand the impact of computer
architecture on the effectiveness of their use in various technological applications.

Th
e course lectures present
the principles of computer hardware and software

at

a low level. Also
,
they present
the principles of hardware and infrastructure of the central processor (CPU) and other
computer parts.

The course provides
description of the most

important features of assembler language, input and
output units, memory and the
way of executing programs in the central processor computers

Summary of the
IT150

Computer architecture
course


Lectures will be given
in a number of
methodical units
during
15 week

period.



Introduction to Computer Systems



History of Computing



Classification and types of computers



Presentation of data



Fundamentals of logic design



Architecture of digital computers



Processor architecture



Buses



Memory



Input / output system

IEE
E Syllabus

The
course IT1
5
0 C
omputer

a
rchitecture

is
based on

the IEEE

recommendation

is as follows
:



History of computing
-

implications of:



History of computer hardware, software



History of the Internet



Telecommunications



Fundamental data repr
esentation: non
-
numeric, numeric (integers,
real numbers,
errors,
precision)



Physical representation of digitized information: e.g., data, text, image, voice, video



CPU architectures: CPU, memory, registers, addressing modes, instruction sets



Compute
r system components: busses, controllers, storage systems, peripheral devices

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

5
/
26




Multiprocessor architectures



Performance enhancements



Digital logic and systems



Computing infrastructure

Modern
M
ultilevel
M
achines

Figure 1.1 shows the six levels of mod
ern computers. The level
0

or the
Di
gital
L
ogic
L
evel

deals
with gates and registers.


The level 1 or the
Microarchitectur
e

Level

deals with objects such set of registers, memory and the
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), data path, and microprogram.


The lev
el 2 or the I
nstruction Set Architecture Level

(ISA) describes the machine’s instruction set
and instructions that are carried out interpretively by the microprogram or by hardware execution
circuits.


The level 3 or the
Operating System Machine Level

int
roduces
operating system that adds a variety
of new instructions and features

above and beyond the ISA level, usually implemented in software (but
not

necessarily so)
.


The level
4
or
Assembly language Level

is implemented by translation

(
not by interpre
tation

like the
Operating System Machine Level)

and
the source is the assembly language program
and
the target is
the machine language, each statement being translated into one machine
.


The level 5 or
Problem Oriented
Language
Level

contains

languages for

application programmers
(high level languages)

and
generally, the programs written in one of the high level languages are

translated into
the
level 3 or
the
level 4 by translators called compilers.



Figure
1
.1
The six levels of modern computers

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

6
/
26


The Need

F
or
I
nformation
S
ystem

Changes in business
and general
development
are

consequence of the development of information
technology. They can be divided into three groups:

Strengthening the global economy



T
ransformation of industrial economies



Transformation
of business enterprises

Strengthening the global economy

Strengthening the global economy is reflected in the fact that today industrial countries generate most
of their income in mutual trade to the neighboring countries, and with all countries of the wor
ld
-

on a
global level. Success and survival of their companies is tied to the ability of business on a global level.

Globalization of economy has resulted in increasing the value of information for companies
.

Modern
information systems include communicati
on and analytical capabilities, necessary to manage the
business on a global level. Globalization is achieved by the possibility that buyers and sellers appear
on any part of the global economy

The transformation of industrial economies

Industries

of all d
eveloped

countries

are now in the

transition

phase

from the industrial

to

the so
-
called

post
-
industrial economy,
which is

primarily

based

on knowledge

and information.


Classical industrial
production achieved high efficiency and productivity in industrial

production. Already, in highly
developed countries the number of workers in traditional industries declined rapidly and growing
number of workers in the postindustrial economy.

Now, information systems are of great importance, and are based on knowledge a
nd information,
while products based on information technologies have great economic value.

The transformation of business operations

The traditional way of business enterprise is a hierarchical, centralized and structured to include a
large number of subj
ects who act in accordance with a given set of operating procedures. A new way
of business, based on information technologies

is
less hierarchical, decentralized, with more flexible
rules that depend on currently available information for each individual s
ituation.

What is an information system?

Information system can be defined as a set of interrelated components that collect, process, preserve
and distribute information to support decision making and management organization.

In addition to
support, inform
ation system allows management to analyze a problem, view the whole complex to
form new products

Definition

Information systems (IS)

An information system (IS) is

the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that
people and organizations u
se to collect, filter, process, create, and distribute data

[4]
.

The study bridges business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and
computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes within a c
omputer
science discipline

[5]
.

Computer Information System(s) (CIS)

Computer Information System(s) (CIS) is a field studying computers and algorithmic processes,
including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and thei
r impact on
society

while IS emphasizes functionality over design
{3]
.


IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

7
/
26


Information technology
-
IT

T
he branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve
and store and transmit information

[9]
.

Information technolog
ies today cover a wide range of physical devices such as: paper, pencil, book,
newspaper, camera, telephone, television, fax machines, and more. Without computers today cannot
imagine nor understand the environment and the contemporary world. Without compu
ters today
cannot even participate in the processes taking place in the modern world.

Development of information technology in the last two decades, has led to changes in the business
environment of enterprises, so that information systems have become esse
ntial for organizations to
survive in the market and further development. Simply put, who does not use modern computer
technology, is doomed to stagnation and decay.

C
omputer system as
part of information system

Computer systems provide technological suppo
rt for information systems
.
Intensive development of
information systems has had a major impact on the development of computer systems and
has helped
in development

of
new types of computer system.

A

computer system is a set of machines and associated meth
ods (implemented in the form of
software), organized in order to perform automatic data processing
.
Computer system is a complex
system with a hierarchical structure. It consists of a large number of interconnected subsystems, which
are also hierarchically

organized. At the bottom of the hierarchy are electronic components,
i.e.

hardware.

Definition

Computer systems include the computer along with any software and peripheral devices that are
necessary to make the computer function. Every computer system, f
or example, requires an operating
system

[6]
.

A system of interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral
devices such as a printers, scanners, or routers. Each computer connected to the system can operate
independently,

but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers

[
7]
.

A system of one or more computers and associated software with common storage

[8].

C
omputer system

functions

Each computer
system

performs four basic functions:



Data t
rans
fe
r

(I/O and communication devices)



Data processing (CPU)



Data storage (memory)



Control
of
transmission
process
and
data
storage of data (operating system)

Data transfer

The computer system should be able to transmit and exchange data with the external envi
ronment.

The operational environment includes computer devices
,
a source of data that
are

transferred to the
computer system, as well as devices that accept data exported from the computer system. These
operations are called input / output operations, whil
e the units are called peripherals computer system.
If the transfer is done by remote devices, such a process is called
communication
transfer, such a
process that is performed by communication devices.

Data Processing

Computer system has possibility of da
ta processing. Although the external environment
can transmit
in the computer system a number of different forms of data, all these forms are represented in the
computer and processed using a fixed number of different data types and methods for their
proc
essing
. Data processing is performed
by a

processor (CPU).

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26


Data storage

The computer also performs the function of storing data, either temporarily or permanently. This
function is
performed in computer memory.

Control of data transmission, data processing

and data storage

It is done inside the operating system, which is an integral part of every modern computer system.


Figure 1.
2

illustrates connection between
parts of a
computer system.













Figure 1.
2

F
unctions of a computer system


A

computer s
ystem
typically
contains
five parts
:



Central processing units (CPUs)



Internal and external memory



Input / output and communication devices



Communication channels
(
buses
)



Software (
s
ystem and
a
pplication

software
)

Central processing units
-

CPU

The central
unit performs data processing and control
s

operations
that are
performed in a
computer system.

Internal and external memory


Memory used for storin
g data.

I
nput / output and communication devices


They are used to transfer data between a computer system

a
nd its operating environment.

Communication channels
(buses)

Enable communication between processors, I / O
,

communication devices, and memory.

This
involves the transfer of all kinds of information,
i.e.
, the instruction and data.

Software


S
oftware a
llow
s operation of a computer system by
controlling
system resources. In addition

to
that
, the software provides the interface between
a

computer system and its users. The software
can be roughly divided into two categories:



System software



Application softwar
e

OPERATIVNO
OKRU
ŽENJE
PRENOS
PODATAKA
CUVANJE
PODATAKA
OBRADA
PODATAKA
IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

9
/
26


O
rganization
and Architecture of Computer System
s

The architecture of a computer system refers to the attributes of the system that are visible to the user
of the system, and which directly affect the logic of a program that user

creates
.


The attributes

of
a

system relat
ed

to
the
architecture

of a computer are a set of instruction, format of

machine words,
and way of presenting data in a computer.


The organization of a computer system
indicates
the relationship between
the
operational parts of a
compute
r system.


The attributes
related to
the system organization are:



L
evel of technology used to implement a computer system;



W
ay of communication

betwe
en devices in a computer system;



A
lgorithm
for
testing the correctness of the peripheral device
by the
cont
rol unit
of
computer
system.


U
nderstanding

the difference between computer organization and architecture is very important. For
example, within the same family, all computers can have the same architecture, but may have a
different organization.

If one
k
eeps
the architecture and
changes
organization, then all the existing software can be installed
on the new computer system,
so it can keep
perform
ing its
function, but because of the new
organization
will
chang
e

the speed of
instruction
execution
.

The
Hist
ory of Computer Systems


Computer
e
ra practically begins in the Middle Ages, the development of the first machine that had the
power of computing, or performing basic mathematical operations.

Thousands of different types and
models of computers
were

design
ed during the evolution of the modern digital computer systems.
Most of them are now forgotten. Only a few of them have made a significant contribution to the
development

[13]
.

Mechanical
C
omputers

Pascal computer

In 1642 Blaise Pascal
(1623
-
1662)
, at age
19, invented the
Pascaline

machine
,
Figure
1.
3
,
used for tax computation. Pascal's machine was able to add and subtract numbers.


Figure 1
.
3

Pascal's Pascaline



IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

10
/
26


Leibniz's computer

T
he German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

later constructed a computer that is
in
addition to

addition and subtraction
c
ould multiply and divide numbers
, Figure
1.
4
.

Leibniz was the first
to advocate use of the binary number system which is fundamental to the operation of modern
computers
.


Figure
1.
4

Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner mach
ine


Differential machines

(Difference Engine)

By 1822 the English mathematician
Charles Babbage

constructed a calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the
Difference Engine
, Figure
1.
5
.
.
This machine
was
able to
add and subtract numbers
. It

was designed to calculate tables of
numbers
and was
used in navigation.



Figure
1.
5

Babbage's Difference Engine


Analytical machine

(Analytical Engine)
.

Analytical machine
, Figure
1.
6
,

had four components: memory, computer units, input units and output

unit. The memory consisted of 1000 words of 50 decimal digits, and each word is able to keep the
variables, and results. One of the
instructions was used to input numbers
from memory in the
computer unit
, performed add
operation,
store the result in memor
y. The machine was programmable
and had its assembler.

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

11
/
26



Figure
1.
6

Analytical machine

Konrad Zuse

The German Konrad Zuse earned the title of "inventor of the modern computer" for his
series of automatic calculators, which he invented to help him with his
lengthy engineering
calculations. In 1936, Zuse made a mechanical calculator called the Z1, the first binary computer.
Zuse's third machine, the
Z3
,

built in 1941, was probably the first operational, general
-
purpose,
programmable digital computer

(Figure
1
.
7
).












Figure
1.
7

Zuse
’s

Z3 machine

John Atanasoff

developed later a machine which
was

based on binary arithmetic, and used a
capacitor for storing data. Capacitors are occasionally supplemented in order to conserve electric
charge.
This is very

reminiscent of the functioning of today's DRAM (dynamic RAM). The
Atanasoff

Berry Computer

(
ABC
)
, Figure 1.
8
,
was the first electronic digital computing device
.






IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

12
/
26



Figure 1.
8

Atanasoff

Berry
machine

MARK I
.
Mark I

computer
, Figure 1.
9
,
was built as a pa
rtnership between Harvard
University

and IBM
in 1944.

The machine had 72 words with 23 decimal places, and the instructional cycle lasted 6
seconds. The input / output units were punched tape
s
.



Figure 1.
9

Mark I

computer


There are
five
generations
acco
rding to the development of technologies used to fabricate the
processors, memories and I/O units
, Table 1.1

[4]
.

Table 1
.1 F
ive
computer
generations

Generation

Period

I

1945


55

II

1955


65

III

1965


75

IV

1975


89

V

1989 to present


First Gene
ration

ENIAC
-

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator, EDSAC


Electronic Delay Storage Automatic
Calculator, EDVAC


Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, UNIVAC


Univers
al
Automatic Computer , IBM 701


Second Generation

Manufacturer
s


IBM 7030, Digital Data Corpor
ation’s PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

13
/
26



Third Generation

System 360 Mainframe from IBM, PDP
-
8 Mini Computer fro
m Digital Equipment Corporation


Fourth Generation

Intel’s 8088,80286,80386,80486 .., Motorola’s 68000, 68030, 68040,

Apple II, CRAY I/2/X/M
P etc


Fifth Generation

IBM notebooks, Pentium PCs
-
Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core.. SUN work stations, Ori
gin 2000,
PARAM 10000, IBM SP/2


D
e
finitions

Small scale integration
-

1965 on

Up to 100 devices on a chip

Medium scale i
ntegration
-

to 1971

100
-
3,000 devices on a chip

Large scale integration
-

1971
-
1977

3,000
-

100,000 devices on a chip

Very large scale integration
-

1978
-
1991

100,000
-

100,000,000 devices on a chip

Ultra large scale integration


1991
-

Over 100,000,000

devices on a chip

The First
-
Generation
:

Electronic Tubes

(
1946
-
1957
)

1904 Sir John Ambrose Fleming invents the vacuum tube and diode.
The first electronic computer was
designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology
.

English computer COLOSSUS

A large stimulus
to
development of computers was
given by
the
Second World War
. During the first
part of the war,
Admiralty in Berlin sent commands by radio waves to
German submarines. English
intelligence officer intercepted the
messages and deciphering them. They are encrypted using
ENIGMA apparatus. In order to deciphering the message, it
was

necessary to make a massive
computation in
a

short
period of time
-

from the moment of
reception of message until
the
execution
of
command
s.

A
special laboratory to decipher

the messages was established in England
,

using the
Colossus
computer
, Figure 1.
10
.


Figure 1.
10

The Colossus of Great Britain

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

14
/
26


The American ENIAC

In
1943
, t
he work began on the design of
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integ
rator and Computer)
electronic computers, It consisted of 18 000 electronic tubes and 1500 relays

with the weight of
30
tons and
consumption of
140 kW
.

In terms of architecture,
it had
20 registers, each of them
with

capacity of 10 decimal
digits.

ENIAC wa
s programmed using 6000 switches and connectors. The
m
achine was completed
in
1946
, Figure 1.11
.


Figure 1.
11

ENIAC computer

In
1949
,
large
number of computers was

made:



EDSAC



JOHNIAC



ILLIAC



MANIAC



WEIZAC


All computers are created at various universitie
s

in the USA.
,

Von

Neumann

machine

The term
Von Neumann architecture
, also known as the
Von Neumann model
, derives from a 1945
computer architecture proposal by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann
and others,
EDSAC
,
or

von

Neum
ann

machines
, the first
computer with

built
-
in

program and

represents a

basic

example of

the first

digital

computer
.
This

computer architecture

has played a

major
role

in the further

development of

computing.

Von

Neumann

machines
,
in terms

of architecture

consisted of

the following

components:


1.

ALU

(
A
rithmetic
L
ogic

U
nit
)

2.

CU
(Control

Unit
)
that is,

the control unit

3.

Memory

4096 x 40

bits

4.

Each

memory

word

had

20

for instructions
or 40

bits

for

integer

values

5.

Instruction

consisted of
:
8 bits

for the

command

ty
pe

and 12

bits of

address


Within the

ALU
there was

a

specific

40
-
bit register, called
an accumulator
.
Typically
,
when the

two
numbers

add up
,
the result is

placed

in the

accumulator
,
before

it is sent to

memory
.
Today

in modern

computers

ALU

and CU

are on

the

same

chip

as the

CPU (
Central
Processing Unit
).

Figure 1.
1
2

presents

concept of the
Von

Neumann

architecture
.

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26



Figure 1.
1
2

Von

Neumann

architecture

The Second Generation
:

Transistors

(
1958
-
1964
)

In
1947 the first Transistor

was invented by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley in the Bell Labs in the
USA.

The use of transistors revolutionized the computer

industry
so
from
1950, the vacuum tube
were
no longer used in comput
er technology.

The first transistor computer TX
-
0

(
Transistorized Experimental Computer Zero)

The TX
-
0 was the first transistorized computer and contained a then
-
huge a fully 16
-
bit computer with
a 16
-
bit address range and 16
-
bit operations. The TX
-
0 was b
uilt in 1955 and went online in 1956 and
was used continually through the 1960s at MIT.

In
1957, Digital Equipment Corporation
-
DEC was created, another name was the PDP
. F
our years
later, PDP
-
1 computer
was created
(1961) with the following characteristics
:



4096 words, the length of 18 bits



200 000 instructions per second



Price $ 120,000



Performance less than twice
of
the
IBM’s
machine IBM 709, which was the most powerful
machines in those days.

Several years later, DEC produced the PDP
-
8, with the followin
g characteristics



12 bit machine
;



P
rice $ 16,000;



D
ata bus called Omnibus.



DEC PDP
-
8



1964



First minicomputer (after miniskirt!)



Did not need air conditioned room



Small enough to sit on a lab bench



$16,000



$100k+ for IBM 360



Embedded applications & OEM



Bus

structure


IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26


A b
us

is a collection of parallel wires, which connect various parts of the computer and used to
transfer data between these components.

DEC has produced 50
,
000 of these computers and the PDP
-
8 has become a leader in the
minicomputer systems.

PD
P
-
8 architecture

Figure 1.
1
3

shows the PDP
-
8 architecture. Omnibus Highway connecte
d the fundamental components
of c
omputer, Figure 1.14.


Figure 1.
1
3

The PDP
-
8 architecture



Figure 1.1
4

The
PDP
-
8 system

Transistor version of the IBM 709

machine

In 1960
, the IBM machine is manufactured by 709 in the transistor version, with the following
characteristics:



38 bit
accumulator
, 36 bit
multiplier quotient

register, three 15 bit index registers whose
contents were subtracted from the base address instead of be
ing added to it.



machine cycle of

2
milliseconds.



memory with
32.536
words, each word with
36 bit
s
;



IBM
-
738 Magnetic Core Storage

CDC 6600

In 1964
CDC (Control Data Corporation) produced
the

computer CDC 6600

with

the following
characteristics:



the fastes
t machine

at the
time;




architecture based on parallel processing, incorporating smaller computers,



t
he first supercomputer (Cray).

By installing smaller computers,
t
he central only deals
with
calculation
s
, while all the peripheral
functions of communicati
on are left to smaller computers

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

17
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26


The Third
-
Generation
:

Integrated Circuits (1965
-
1980)


In
1958 Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit at Texas Instruments and got the Noble Prize.

Introduction of
integrated circuits reduced
the
size and increas
ed

comp
lexity of computers. IBM
produced the
famous IBM System 360,
m
odel
s

30 and 75. These computers were used in scientific
and commercial applications and computers have replaced the IBM 709 and IBM1401

machines


Multiprogramming technique
was

introduced tha
t allow
ed

more programs simultaneously

in memory
, so
that while
one

program executes, the other
s

are
in memory waiting to be executed.

IBM System 360

Figure 1.
1
5

shows
the characteristics of the computer
family
IBM System 360
.

It

presents
different
charac
teristics in terms of machine cycles, memory size and number of channels (data change).

Table
1.2

shows the s
mallest of the System/360 configurations


Table 1.
2

The
IBM computer family System 360




C
haracteristics of

the IBM

System

360

computers

are:



16

x 32

bit registers
;



memory addressed in terms of 8
-
bit bytes;



various instructions operate on larger units




wide

address space

of

16,777,216

bytes

(
16MB).



Introduced in 1964
and r
eplaced (& not compatible with)
by
7000 series



Figure 1.1
5

The smallest o
f the System/360 configurations

PDP
-
11

Characteristics of

PDP
-
11
system

are:




an

upgrade of

the PDP
-
8
computers



16
-
bit architecture



all
-
time

best selling

minicomputer
s

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26


The F
ourth

Generation
:

VLSI
(1980

-
?)

Characteristics of

the fourth

generation

are:



VLS
I

(
Very Large
Scale

Integration)



Improved
the speed

and

complexity

of computers
,
placing a

million

transistors on

one

integrated circuit



Reduc
ed
size



Significant

increase in speed



Introduction
of

personal computers (
PC)
was

a

real revolution

in the democra
tization of

computer technology
,
with
mass

production and reduced
cost



Use

an
operating system
,
CP/M

to
provide
comfort

in the work and

creation

programs



Floppy

disk drives

as

mass

storage
,
used

for

storing

the operating

system

software
,
programs and

data




Apple

II

became

a very

popular

personal computer
,
used

in schools
;




IBM

Personal Computer, developed

in 1981,

in order

to be

widely used and an
inexpensive computer



GUI

interface

(
Graphic
User

Interface)
.



Macintosh

was produced

in
1984 for
graphical

pre
sentation
s



MS
-
DOS

operating

system
,
became
very

popular,

and practically

the

standard for

personal

computers
, developed
with Microsoft

Corporation
.

Fifth
Generation

Characteristics of

the fifth generation
:



Computers

should be
base
d

on

artificial intelligen
ce
;



PDA

(
Personal Digital
Assistant
),
the first

computers

that include

elements of

artificial

intelligence
,
especially in

view of communication

with the

surrounding

world;



Invisible

computers
,
embedded

computers
,
embedded

in

various

applications such

as
di
gital

clocks
, bank
cards
,
and

various other

products

...













IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

19
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26


The most important computers in history

Table 1.3

shows the most important computers in
the
history.
T
he third column
shows
the comments
about related
computer
s.

Table 1.3
The most import
ant computers in
the
history


Moore‘s
L
aw

A
dvance in technology

allow

more

transistors

to

be stored

on a single

integrated circuit
.
With l
arge
number

of transistors
,
one

can

accommodate

more

electronic

switches,

which means

more memory

and

more powerful

p
rocessor

implementation
.
This will
reduc
e

the

cost

of production
,
and thus the

selling

price

per

transistor

chips
, making
all the

chips

less expensive
.


In terms of increasing the number of transistors per chip,
Moore’s

law stipulates that the number of
tr
ansistors per chip doubles every 18 months. Moore's Law is the empirical observation that in practice
proved to be wrong.
Since 1970’s development has slowed a little
, n
umber of transistors doubles
every 18 months
.
Moore's Law

applies to

the year

after th
e

1995
.



Figure 1.
1
6

presents

an illustration of

Moore
's law
.


Figure
1.
1
6

Moore‘s Law

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

20
/
26


Spectra of Computer Systems

Table
1.
4

illustrates the spectrum of computer systems, with typical prices and cost of application
areas.

Table 1.4
C
omputer systems

spec
trum



C
omputers with a fixed program (Disposable)

These are computer systems that are programmed to perform one function throughout its entire
lifetime.


For example, t
hese
computers
include:



chips for greeting cards with recorded audio content



chips f
or radio frequency identification (RFID)



similar applications.

These computers have a very primitive interface to the outside world.

Microcontrollers (
Embedded
)

Microcontrollers (
Embedded

Computers). Microcontrollers control
different
units
,

devices, and
user
interface. They represent the application of
micro control

chips for

various functions and
usage
:



applications, radio clocks, controllers in washing machines, microwave oven controllers and
the like;



communication applications, mobile pho
ne, fax con
troller, pagers, etc.
;



computer peripherals: vcr, dvd, stereo, mp3 player;



units for graphic presentation, tv, digital cameras, printers, photocopier controllers in
appropriate units;



medical units, digital thermometers, monitors cardiac activity, ... ;



military applicatio
ns, torpedo, rocket systems
;



applications in the store, cash register;



toys, gaming machines, radio controlled boats and cars.

Computers for the game (Games Computers)

Computers for the game
are
characterized by large demands for pro
cessing power, since they are
designed to simulate various situational games.

These

are the computers
like any
other
general
-
purpose

computers.

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26


Today, because of their demands, which are all more realistic views and complex requirements for the
animation
, these computers have become the driving mechanism for the development of computers
technology.

Personal computers

There are desktop and notebook models. PC computer today has the following components:



The memory of
tents gigabytes



Hard disks with about
a hundred gigabytes of storage space;



CD
-
ROM/DVD drives;



Sound cards;



Network interfaces;



High
-
resolution monitor;



The memory disks
-

flash
.

S
ervers

Servers are computers with similar features as the PC, which serves as massive
network
storage
elements,

designed for multiple network users.

They occur in uniprocessor and multiprocessor versions (multiple processors), with a large memory
space on hard disks.

W
orkstations

A workstation is a computer intended for individual use that is faster and more ca
pable than a
personal computer. It's intended for business or professional use (rather than home or recreational
use). Workstations and applications designed for them are used by small engineering companies,
architects, graphic designers, and any organizat
ion, department, or individual that requires a faster
microprocessor, a large amount of random access memory
-

and special features such as high
-
speed
graphics adapters.

http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/workstation

Mainframes computers

A data processing system employed mainly in large organizations for various applications, including
bulk data processing, process control, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning,
and financial transaction processing.

Mainframes use

proprietary operating systems, most of which are based on
UNIX
, and a growing
number on Linux. Over the years they have evolved from being room
-
sized to networked
configurations of workstations and servers that
are
extremely competitive and cost effective

platforms
for e
-
commerce development and hosting. Mainframes are so called because the earliest ones were
housed in large metal frames

[16]
.






IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

22
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26


Examples
o
f Computer Families

T
hree families of computer systems

will be
discussed

:



Intel's family



Ultra S
parc III



The microcontroller 8051

I
ntel (Pentium)

I
ntel
family
has emerged introduc
ing the Intel
4004

chip,
a
4
-
bit

central processing unit

1971

(Figure
1.17)
.

The f
amily development
for many years has followed the
Moore's law.


Figure 1.
1
7

The
Intel
4004

chip

The history of Intel processors

The modern history of PC computer systems
starts
with
the processor 8086, a 16
-
bit architecture on a
single chip. It is designed as a chip similar to 8080, but not completely compatible. IBM 8088
processor is chosen as

the central processor in its first PC computer (PC XT), and
IT

quickly became
the industry standard worldwide.

In 1965, Intel cofounder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit
would double every two years. Ever since
, chip manufacturers such as Intel and AMD have been
pushing the boundaries of CMOS fabrication technology to either match or exceed this prediction.

This was mainly possible by reducing the minimum feature pitch on a silicon die. Because of this,
microp
rocessor architects can reduce the size of an individual transistor and package more transistors
on a single silicon die.
Table 1.5
shows the progression of Intel’s ability to add more transistors on a
single processor die

[15]
.

Table 1.5
The
Intel
process
or

family






IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

23
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26


The Intel
family details



8080

-

first general purpose microprocessor

-

8 bit data path

-

u
sed in first personal computer


Altair



8086


5MHz


29,000 transistors

-

much more powerful

-

16 bit

-

instruction cache, prefetch few instructions

-

8088 (8 bit
external bus) used in first IBM PC



80286

-

16 Mbyte memory addressable

-

up from 1Mb



80386

-

32 bit

-

s
upport for multitasking



80486

-

sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining

-

built in maths co
-
processor



Pentium

-

s
uperscalar

-

m
ultiple instructions exec
uted in parallel



Pentium Pro

-

i
ncreased superscalar organization

-

a
ggressive register renaming

-

branch prediction

-

data flow analysis

-

speculative execution



Pentium II

-

MMX technology

-

graphics, video & audio processing



Pentium III

-

a
dditional floating point instr
uctions for 3D graphics



Pentium 4

-

n
ote Arabic rather than Roman numerals

-

f
urther floating point and multimedia enhancements



Core

-

f
irst x86 with dual core



Core 2

-

64 bit architecture



Core 2 Quad


3GHz


820 million transistors

-

Four processors on chip

Figure

1.1
8

shows
t
he Intel
processors t
imeline

IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

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26



Figure 1.1
8

Intel Processors Timeline

SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture)

SPARC

(Scalable Processor Architecture) is a 32
-

and 64
-
bit microprocessor architecture from Sun
Microsystems that is based on reduce
d instruction set computing (RISC). SPARC has become a
widely
-
used architecture for hardware used with UNIX
-
based operating systems, including Sun's own
Solaris systems
.


Sun has made SPARC an open architecture that is available for licensing to microproc
essor
manufacturers.
SPARC has been implemented in processors in a range of computers from laptops to
supercomputers.

The
UltraSPARC

is a microprocessor developed by Sun Microsystems who is now a part of Oracle
Corporation and fabricated by Texas Instrumen
ts that implements the SPARC V9 instruction set
architecture
. The SPARC
-
V9 architecture provides explicit support

for

[17], [18]
:



64
-
bit virtual addresses and 64
-
bit integer data



Improved system performance



Advanced optimizing compilers



Superscalar impleme
ntations



Advanced operating systems



Fault tolerance



Extremely fast trap handling and context switching



Big
-

and little
-
endian byte orders





IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

25
/
26


Characteristics of the UltraSparc architecture are:

1.

The open architecture

T
he components could be produced by multi
ple suppliers, making the price competitive.

2.

Initial
architecture was a 32
-
bit machine at 36

MHz
.

The central unit (CPU)
had

55
instructions, of which 14 were related to floating
-
point unit within the CPU.
At the same time,
Intel has developed 8
-
bit, 16
-
b
it, and 32
-
bit machines based on 80386 processors.

3.

T
he first 64
-
bit RISC architecture
was produced in
1995
.

Version 9 (V9),
introduced
64
-
bit
architecture.

4.

UltraSparc architecture is designed for image processing, voice and multimedia techniques:

8051
Microcontrollers

Microcontrollers are quite different compared to Pentium processors, because the microcontroller
is a
computer
on the
chip. The microcontroller
has
8
-
bit architecture

Basic characteristics of a chip from that time are:



4KB ROM memory, and

later increased



128 Bytes of RAM memory



32 I / O lines



s
erial port



16
-
bit timers (3 pieces)

8051 family of microcontrollers

Table 1.6

g
ives the basic characteristics of the
8051 family of microcontrollers
.

Table 1.6 Basic characteristics of the 8051
family of microcontrollers

Chip

Program memory

Memory type

RAM

Timers

Interrupt number

8031

0


128

2

5

8051

4KB

ROM

128

2

5

8751

8KB

EPROM

128

2

5

8032

0


256

3

6

8052

4KB

ROM

256

3

6

8752

8KB

EPROM

256

3

6

Characteristics of
the 8051 family of micr
ocontrollers



This is the best
-
selling microcontroller family

with
very low purchase price.



The chips are still produced, but they are all compatible with old software. All the old programs
cannot change to perform the corresponding micro
-
controllers of re
cent fabrication.



Migration towards greater integration, increased capabilities..



Increase the speed of the processor: The basic model has worked at 12

MHz clock, while
today's models, which drives the clock rate of the order of 100 MHz, which contributes
to
increasing the processor speed.



Reducing the number of cycles per instruction: First Microcontrollers had 12 cycles per
instruction, in the last 10 years have developed microcontrollers with 3 cycles per instruction,
while now available
m
icrocontrollers
, who each command executed in one cycle of the
instruction.



IT150 Computer Architecture

Lecture no. 1




Lecture name: COURSE INTRODUCTION

26
/
26


Literatur
e


[1]

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, "
Structured Computer Organization
", Prentice Hall, 2005.

[2]


Andrew S. Tanenbaum,

"
Arhitektura i organizacija računara
", Mikro

Knjiga, 2007

[
3
]

Archibald,

J.A. (May 1975). "Computer Science education for majors of other disciplines". AFIPS
Joint Computer Conferences: 903

906. "Computer science spreads out over several related
disciplines

and shares with these disciplines certain sub
-
disciplines that traditi
onally have been
located exclusively in the more conventional disciplines"

[
4
] Hoganson, Ken (December 2001). "Alternative curriculum models for integrating computer science
and information systems analysis, recommendations, pitfalls, opportunities, accred
itations, and
trends". Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges 17 (2): 313

325.
ISSN

1937
-
4771
.

[
5
] Polack, Jennifer (December 2009). "Planning a CIS Education
within

a CS Framework". Journal of
Computing Sciences in Colleges 25 (2): 100

106.

[6]
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/computer_system.html

[7]
http://www.businessdiction
ary.com/definition/computer
-
system.html

[8]
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/computing+system

[9 ]http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=information+technology&sub=Search+WordNet&o2=


&o0=1&o8=1&o1=1&o7=&o5=&o9=&o6=&o3=&o4=&h=

[10] www.intel.com

[
11] www.sun.com

[12] www.intel8051.com

[13]
http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/History.htm

[14]
http://www.lsp4you.com/electronics/Generation%20of%20Computers.pdf

[15]
http://www.ni.com/white
-
paper/8564/en

[16]
http://www.businessdictionary.c
om/definition/mainframe
-
computer.html

[17]
http://searchservervirtualization.techtarget.com/definition/SPARC

[18]
http://sparc.org/standards/SPARCV9.pdf