Computer Basics: Chapters 1 & 2

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Computer Basics: Chapters 1 & 2
Definition of a Computer

What does IPOS stand for?

Input

Process

Output

Storage
Other types of Computers

Name some examples of other types of computers,
other than a typical personal computer or laptop:
History of Computers

Computers were originally created for

Government & business use

Charles Babbage
is known as the “Father of
Computers”
History of Computers

Steve Jobs
created the first Apple computer in
1976
.

Bill Gates
created the first MS
-
DOS computer for IBM
in
1981
.

What does MS
-
DOS stand for?

Microsoft Disk Operating System
Computer Classification

Computers are classified three ways:

Size

Speed

Application
Types of Computers

Name the 6 different types of computers discussed in
Lesson 1.

Microcomputer

Notebook/Laptop Computer

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)

Minicomputer

Mainframe Computer

SuperComputer
Name the type of computer being
described below:

Government agencies and large corporations use these
types of computers for specialized applications. Are often
used to conduct and test medical experiments. Can cost
several million dollars.

Supercomputer

Sometimes has an on
-
screen touch sensitive keyboard.

PDA

Known as a “server,” used by small to medium
-
sized
companies

Minicomputer
Name the type of computer being
described below:

Larger and more powerful than a minicomputer.
Capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of
users.

Mainframe Computer

Known as a personal computer or desktop computer

Microcomputer

Portable, has the same capabilities as a desktop
computer

Notebook/Laptop Computer
What are the four parts of a
“computer system”?

Hardware

Software

Data

People
Hardware

What is the definition of hardware?

Tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and
touched (keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse, scanner)

What does “tangible” mean?

Something you can physically touch
Software

What is the definition of software?

Intangible set of instructions that tell the computer
what to do

There are two types of software programs, “System”
and “Application.” Name examples of each.

System
-
example: Windows 7, XP, or Vista

Application
-
example: Internet Explorer, Microsoft
Office, games

What does “intangible” mean?

Something you cannot physically touch
Networks, Internet & Email

What is the definition of a Network?

A network connects one computer to other computers
and peripheral devices

Why was the Internet originally developed?

Government use

What is the most commonly used feature on the
Internet?

E
-
mail
Motherboard

A motherboard is a circuit board that contains many
important electronic components, wires & adapters.
The motherboard has 4 components:

1. Central Processing Unit

2. Memory

3. Basic Controllers

4. Expansion ports & Expansion slots
Motherboard’s Components

First component of the motherboard
is the CPU.

CPU stands for
Central Processing Unit

What is the CPU?

Brains of the computer

There are two primary sections of the CPU. Name and
define below:

1.
Arithmetic Logic Unit
-
performs mathematical
computations & makes comparisons

2.
Control Unit
-
retrieves instructions and helps process
data
Motherboard’s Components

Second component of the motherboard
is Memory.

There are two types of memory,
short term & long term.

The short term memory is called
RANDOM ACCESS
MEMORY
. This type of memory is considered to be
“VOLATILE”, meaning it is
not permanent
. The
information disappears when the computer is turned off.

The long term memory is called
READ ONLY MEMORY
.
This type of memory is considered to be “NON
-
VOLATILE”, meaning it is
permanent
. Information
remains on the ROM chip regardless if computer is on or
off.
Motherboard’s Components

Third component of the motherboard
are Basic
Controllers.

Basic controllers allow the transfer of data between the
computer to
peripheral devices
.

Give some examples of “
peripheral devices:

Motherboard’s Components

Fourth component of the motherboard
are
Expansion ports & Expansion slots.

Expansion ports connect peripheral devices to the
computer. There are three types of Expansion Ports:

1. Serial Ports

2. Parallel Ports

3. USB Ports

Expansion slots are an opening in the motherboard
when an expansion board can be added (ex: video
cards, sound cards, more memory, etc…)
Bits, Bytes & Binary Code

BINARY CODE
is the language of the computer.

A
bit
is the smallest unit of data.

It is the binary digit
zero
OR
one

Binary code is made up of 8 bits of data called a
BYTE
.

What is ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange)?

Most widely used standardized coding system
Storage Mediums

How many MB can be stored on a floppy disk?

1.44 MB

What does CD stand for?

Compact Disc

What does DVD stand for?

Digital Versatile Disc

Between a CD and DVD, which can store more
information?

DVD
Storage Mediums

What is a CD
-
ROM?

Information on the disk is permanent and cannot be added, edited
or deleted.

What is a CD
-
R?

Information on the disk can be added, but once on the disk, it is
permanent.

What is a CD
-
RW?

These discs can have files added, edited, and deleted from the disc
over and over again.

What are three nicknames for Flash Memory?

1. Flash Drive

2. Thumb Drive

3. USB Drive
Storage Mediums

What year were hard drives or hard disks invented?

1950’s

Which specific part of a computer does the hard drive
relay information to?

CPU

What are three ways to measure performance of a hard
disk?

1. Storage Capacity

2. Data Rate

3. Seek Time
MLA Guidelines

What size margins are used in MLA?

1 inch

What font size is used in MLA?

12 point

What font style is used in MLA?

Times New Roman

What line spacing is used in MLA?

Double
MLA Guidelines

The first line of each paragraph should be

Indented

The title of the paper should be

centered

The Header should be right aligned and include two
items:

Last Name & Page #