CLOUD COMPUTING IN LIBRARIES

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CLOUD COMPUTING IN
LIBRARIES

Basic concepts and library applications

Library Services in the Cloud

August 2, 2012

Marshall Breeding

Independent Consult, Author,

Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides

www.librarytechnology.org/

twitter.com/
mbreeding


Summary


Explore the use of cloud computing in a
library
setting


Practical examples for general business automation


Strategic library products offered through cloud
technologies

Cloud Computing for Libraries



Volume 11 in The Tech
Set


Published by Neal
-
Schuman / ALA
TechSource


ISBN
:
781555707859


http://www.neal
-
schuman.com/ccl

Book Image

Publication Info:

Cloud

computing as marketing term


Cloud

computing used very freely, tagged to almost
any virtualized environment


Any arrangement where the library relies

on some

kind of remote hosting environment for major
automation components


Includes

almost any vendor
-
hosted product offering

Cloud computing


characteristics


Web
-
based Interfaces


Externally

hosted


Pricing: subscription or utility


Highly

abstracted computing model


Provisioned on demand


Scaled according to variable needs


Elastic


consumption of resources can contract and
expand according to demand

Fundamental technology shift


Mainframe computing


Client/Server


Cloud

Computing

http://www.flickr.com/photos/carrick/61952845/

http://soacloudcomputing.blogspot.com/2008/10/cloud
-
computing.html

http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw
-
10
-
2001/jw
-
1019
-
jxta.html

Gartner Hype Cycle 2009

Gartner Hype Cycle 2010


Gartner Hype Cycle 2011

Local

Computing


Traditional model


Locally owned and managed


Shifting

from departmental to enterprise


Departmental servers

co
-
located in central

IT data centers


Increasingly virtualized

Virtualization


The ability

for multiple
computing images to
simultaneously exist on
one physical server


Physical hardware
partitioned into multiple
instances using virtual
machine management
tools such as VMware


Applicable to local,
remote, and cloud
models

Infrastructure
-
as
-
a
-
service


Provisioning of Equipment


Servers, storage


Virtual server provisioning


Examples:


Amazon Elastic Compute

Cloud (
EC2)


Amazon Simple

Storage Service (S3)


Rackspace Cloud
www.rackspacecloud.com/
)


EMC
2
Atmos

(
www.atmosonline.com/)

Amazon EC2


Amazon Machine

Instances (AMI)


Red Hat Enterprise Linux


Debian


Fedora


Ubuntu

Linux


Open Solaris


Windows

Server 2003/2008

Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service


Complete software application, customized

for customer
use


Software

delivered through cloud infrastructure, data
stored on cloud


Eg
: Salesforce.com

widely

used
business

infrastructure


Multi
-
tenant: all organizations that use the service share
the same instance (codebase, hardware resources,
etc
)


Often partitioned to separate some groups of subscribers

Application service

provider


Legacy business

applications hosted by software vendor


Standalone application on discrete or virtualized
hardware


Staff and public clients accessed via the Internet


Same user interfaces and functionality as if installed
locally


Established as a deployment model in the 1990’s


Can be implemented through Infrastructure
-
as
-
a Service


Individual instances of legacy system hosted in EC2

ASP
vs

SaaS


From:
THINKstrategies
: CIO’s Guide to Software
-
as
-
a
-
Service

Storage
-
as
-
a
-
Service


Provisioned,

on
-
demand storage


Bundled to, or separate from other cloud services

Cloud computing in action

Common Library Examples

Cloud computing trends for

libraries


Increased migration away from local computing
toward some form of remote / hosted / virtualized
alternative


Cloud computing especially attractive to libraries
with few technology support personnel


Adequate bandwidth will continue to be a limiting
factor

Operation

of a library’s Web site


Fewer libraries choosing to operate their Web sites
on local servers


Simple sites: Web

hosting services


Intermediate sites:

Hosted CMS


Drupal consulting firm

+ hosting service


Complex sites


Custom programming


EC2

or other Infrastructure as a service

Mail and Calendaring


Many

libraries just use individual accounts on Gmail or similar
services


A more sophisticated approach uses mail services from Google,
Microsoft, or others institutionally


Google Apps for Businesses


Microsoft Exchange Online


Same interface, but e
-
mail addresses carry the institutional domain
name


Free or low
-
cost for small organizations


Professional

levels for larger organizations


Supplemental

services:


No

advertising


Back
-
up and recovery services


Service Level agreement

Document creation and collaboration


Google Docs / Google Drive


Microsoft Office 365


Zoho.com



Concerns / Issues:


Documents as official institutional records


Backup and recovery process


Private or Subject to FOIA?



Data in the cloud


Storage

as a service


Informal / small
-
scale


Dropbox (2GB+)


Microsoft
Skydrive

(7GB+)


Mostly used as supplemental storage and for sharing


Institutional / Larger
-
scale


Local storage still

dominant


When using cloud storage for institutional data


Multiple

tiers of backup with SLA


DuraCloud, S3, many others



Platform
-
as
-
a
-
Platform as a Service


Virtualized computing environment

for deployment
of software


Application engine, no specific server provisioning


Examples:


Google App Engine


SDKs for Java, Python


Heroku
:

ruby platform


Amazon Web Service


Library

Specific platforms


WorldShare

Platform

Library automation through SaaS


Almost all library automation

products offered
through hosted options


SaaS or ASP?

ILS Products offered as SaaS (mostly
ASP)


SirsiDynix Symphony


SirsiDynix

Horizon


Innovative Interfaces Millennium


Ex
Libris

Aleph


EOS International
EOS.Web


Evergreen


Equinox Software


Koha


LibLime
,
ByWater
, many others
internationally


…many other examples …

Multi
-
tenant SaaS


Serials Solutions


Summon


Intota (Announced for 2012
-
13)


360 Search, 360 Link, KnowledgeWorks


Ex

Libris


Alma


Primo Central


BiblioCommons


OCLC WorldShare Management

Services

Data as a service


SaaS

provides opportunity for highly shared data models


WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries


Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex
Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo
Central


Global Knowledgebase of e
-
journal holdings shared among all
customers of SFX


Serials Solutions: KnowledgeWorks


General opportunity to move away from library
-
by
-
library
metadata management to globally shared workflows

Platform as a Service


OCLC WorldShare

Platform


WorldShare

Management Services


WorldShare License Manager


Library
-
created applications

Repositories in the cloud


Dspace



institutional repository application


Fedora


generalized repository platform


DuraSpace



organization now over both
Dspace

and Fedora


DuraCloud



shared, hosted repository platform


Pilot since 2009, production in early 2011


www.duraspace.org/duracloud.php


Caveats and concerns with SaaS


Libraries must have adequate bandwidth to support
access to remote applications

without latency


Quality of service agreements that guarantee
performance and reliability factors


Configurability and customizability limitations


Access to API’s


Ability to interoperate with 3
rd

party applications


Eg
: Connect SaaS ILS with discovery product from
another vendor

Preserve

your brand!


Be sure that your

services delivered through your
own URL


Most cloud services support domain aliases


Accomplished

through DNS configuration


Implemented by your network administrator


Create

CNAME entry to redirect cloud service to a
subdomain associated with your library:


S3.mylibrary.org = s3.amazonaws.com.


Cost implications


Total cost

of ownership


Do all cost components result in increased or decreased
expense


Personnel costs


need

less technical administration


Hardware


server hardware eliminated


Software costs: subscription, license, maintenance/support


Indirect costs: energy costs associated with power and
cooling of servers in data center


IaaS
: balance elimination of hardware investments for
ongoing usage fees


Especially attractive for development and prototyping

Risks and concerns


Privacy of data


Policies, regulations, jurisdictions


Ownership

of data


Avoid vendor lock
-
in


Integrity

of Data


Backups and disaster recovery

Security issues


Most providers implement stronger safeguards
beyond the

capacity of
local institutions


Virtual instances equally

susceptible to poor security
practices as local computing

Increased pressure


Library automation vendors

promoting SaaS
offerings


Some

companies already exclusively SaaS


Software pricing increasingly favorable to SaaS

Caveat


T
echnologies promoted by companies and
organizations have a vested interest in their
adoption


Critically assess viability of the technology and its
appropriateness for your organization


Start with low
-
risk projects before making strategic
commitments

Questions and Discussion