SPX - Technical Integration

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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SPX
-

Technical Integration

WBS 1.03.03



Ali Nassiri

RF Group Leader

SPX Technical Lead

Accelerator Systems Division


DOE
CD
-
2 Review of APS
-
U

4
-
6
December 2012

Outline


Scope


Org Chart


Goals and Requirements


Design


Technical challenges


Integrated R&D plan


Technical risks


Responses to previous reviews recommendations


ES&H


Summary


2

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Symmetric
150 mA
in 24 bunches

153 ns spacing

SPX Goal


Provide a short
-
pulse x
-
ray system (SPX) delivering few pico
-
second x
-
ray pluses
to the APS users. This system is based on superconducting


RF deflecting cavities operated in continuous
-
wave mode.


Up to 4 ID and 2 BM beam lines, operation in 24 singlets mode


This system must meet several operational requirements:



Minimize frequency of interruption of user experiments with the



deflecting cavities


Be transparent to the storage ring operation with beam when the power to the



deflecting cavities is off, cavities detuned and parked at other than 2 K

3

Cav


ID


BM

Long straight section 5 ID


(8 meters long)

Long straight section 7 ID


( 8 meters long)

Normal straight section 6 ID


( 5 meters long)

Cryomodule length: ~ 3meters

HOM
Damper

HOM
Damper

Input
Coupler

LOM
Damper

Girder 5

Sector 7 LSS Layout

Revolver
undulator

Long taper
transition

Gate valve

Bellows

SPX
cryomodule

Girder 1

X
-
ray

Stored
beam

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

SPX Main Parameters

4

Parameter

SPX

Beam

current

150 mA

RF frequency

2815 MHz

Cavity deflecting voltage

0.5 MV

Total RF deflecting voltage per cryomodule

2

MV

No. of cavities

4 ( per cryomodule)

No. of cryomodule

2

Cavity tunability



㈰2歈k
a

Source tunability



㔠歈5
b

Operating

temperature

2 K

a

To cover more than on SR revolution harmonic

b
To
allow for reasonable range of SR circumference change base on experimental
studies of new APS lattices



DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

SPX Technical Systems



Two cryomodules with four superconducting rf deflecting cavities in each cryomodule.
Each cavity is equipped with a mechanical/piezo tuner, a fundamental frequency power
coupler and lower
-

higher
-
order
-
mode waveguide dampers.


Eight 10
-
kW rf amplifiers operated in continuous wave mode


Eight low
-
level rf controllers, one per cavity, to independently regulate and control each
cavity field


Fiber
-
based highly
-
stable phase reference lines distribution for timing and
synchronization to LLRF, beam
-
line lasers and storage ring main rf frequency.


Diagnostics for inside and outside of the SPX zones.



Controls system to provide remote monitoring and control to all SPX subsystems,
interfaces to other APS systems, real
-
time data processing and thorough diagnostic
information and tools for faults troubleshooting and postmortem analysis.


Safety interlock system including personnel protection interlocks and access control
interlock


A cryoplant with the design capacity of 320 W at 2K and 500 W at 4.5K


Deionized water system distribution

5

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

6

l
s
P
V
R
2
2

GHz
M
.
f
R
p
s




44
0
Stability Threshold

Monopole stability threshold

2
0
2
2
0
r
k
P
V
R
l
r
r
t


m
M
R
t
/
3
.
1


m
/
M
.
R
t



9
3
Horizontal dipole

Vertical dipole

Dipole Stability Threshold

Stability Threshold

Stability
Threshold

SPX Cavity Longitudinal and Transverse Impedance

Dipole impedance in vertical (deflecting) direction (

/洩

Dipolei浰ed慮einhoi穯z瑡tdie瑩on(

/洩

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

RF Distribution Topology


Narrow
-
band cavities make it difficult to do vector
-
sum of cavities because of
potential large fluctuation of cavities fields due to microphonics. One rf source
per cavity mitigates this problem.

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

7


Centralized (it is not
desirable)


One rf
source/cavity SPX
Baseline

RF Transmitter Configuration

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

8

Master
Oscillator

LLRF

Driver
Ampl

Power Ampl

Waveguide

Circulator

Deflecting
Cavity


Power Supply/modulator

Aux. Controls

o

Phase/ Ampl loops

o

Cavity tuning loop

o

Interlocks

Small for SC cavities

Large for NC cavities

~ 20% to 30%

~ 30 to 40%

Due to beam offset (

)

P
RF

= P
Beam loading

+ P
Cavity detuning

+ P
Cavity loss

+ P
WG

loss

+ P
Overhead


0
+

m


DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

9

Beam
current = 150mA

Beam sigma = 40psec

5 kW source

Common
mode phase
error = 0



10
KW source

Beam
vertical tilt = 0



(Vt > 0 , offset > 0)

(Vt < 0 , offset < 0)

Q
L

Detuning

delta
-
f

[Hz
]

Static Cavity

Phase Error due to
Detuning

[deg
]

Vertical

misalignment


[um
]

Cavity
Input
Power

Pg

[KW
]

Source Power

(1dB wg loss, 20%
overhead
)

[
KW]

Source Power

(1dB wg loss, 40%
overhead
)

[
KW
]

1E+06

0

0

0

1.74

2.63

3.07

1E+06

0

0

500

2.71

4.10

4.78

1E+06

200

8

0

1.78

2.68

3.13

1E+06

200

8

500

2.75

4.15

4.85

1E+06

1000

35

0

2.64

3.98

4.65

1E+06

1000

35

500

3.61

5.45

6.36

2E+06

0

0

0

0.88

1.33

1.55

2E+06

0

0

500

1.96

2.96

3.45

2E+06

200

16

0

0.95

1.44

1.68

2E+06

200

16

500

2.03

3.07

3.58

2E+06

1000

55

0

2.66

4.01

4.68

2E+06

1000

55

500

3.73

5.64

6.58

3E+06

0

0

0

0.59

0.89

1.04

3E+06

0

0

500

1.77

2.68

3.13

3E+06

200

23

0

0.70

1.05

1.22

3E+06

200

23

500

1.88

2.84

3.31

3E+06

1000

65

0

3.25

4.90

5.72

3E+06

1000

65

500

4.43

6.69

7.81

Summary of SPX Cavity RF Power Requirement


SPX deflecting cavity input RF power is between 2.75 kW to 4.43 kW.


Taking into account a 1dB waveguide loss and a 40% RF power overhead, the required
RF power varies between 4. 85 kW to 7.81 kW.


SPX preliminary design calls for 10
-
kW, 2815
-
MHz CW klystron
-
based RF transmitter
which is currently in the APS
-
U SPX baseline.


In response to a recommendation by the CD
-
2 Director’s Review Committee, we will
have

several opportunities to measure cavities
microphonics

culminating in SPX0

system
in
-
ring test in 2014 to

determine if the required RF power level could be
reduced
.


We
will consider solid
-
state RF amplifiers for the SPX defecting cavities if the required
cavity input power ( including a 40% overhead) is 5
-
kW or less.


Since the minimal required RF peak power is directly proportional to the maximum peak
detuning, we need to have a good and realistic estimate of the peak cavity detuning
when determining the required RF peak power.


If the installed RF power is not adequate, the RF transmitter will run against its
maximum output power, which would likely result in cavity trip each time the cavity
detuning exceeds the estimated peak detuning.


DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

10

Technical Systems


High Level RF


Deliver sufficient rf power to eight rf
deflecting cavities ( two cryomodules,
four cavities per cryomodule). Cavities
are operated at 2815 MHz at a
nominal 0.5 MV per cavity.


SPX baseline design consists of eight
10
-
KW CW klystron amplifiers


Required rf power level will be
reevaluated once microphonics of
“dressed” cavity and SPX0 cryomodule
are measured.

11

Technical Systems



Low Level RF


Regulate and control individual cavity
amplitude and phase of the cavity fields


The LLRF system is partitioned into two
separate sector
-
level LLRF system


Four individual LLRF controllers


See Doug Horan’s talk

See Larry
Doolittle’s talk

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Technical Systems


Cavities and Cryomodules


Deflecting cavities will operate cw at 2815 MHz, using the TM
110

cavity mode to produce a head
-
tail chirp of the beam


Mark II cavity with horizontal waveguide damper on the cavity body
utilizes a “dogbone”
-

shape coupling iris for enhanced damping


The cavity design was guided by various beam
-
interaction
requirements, including single
-
bunch current limit and coupled
-
bunch instabilities


Cavity design meets SPX storage ring stabilities threshold limits

12

See Genfa Wu’s and John
Mammosser’s
talks

LOM damper

HOM damper

FPC

Quantity

Value

Unit

Frequency

2815

MHz

1


10
9

0.5

MV

Stored

energy

0.38

J

Loss factor,


0.28

V/pC

18.6



E
peak

41

MV/m

B
peak

100

mT

P
loss

@ = 10
9

7

W

u
Q
t
V
u
k







Q
R
0
Q
I
beam

=
150
mA

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Technical Systems


Dampers


SPX requires eight deflecting cavities with a total of 16 HOM dampers and 8 LOM dampers


Rf windows are used for LOM and FPC


HOM damper is broadband (~ 2.5 GHz
-

~8 GHz)


HOM dampers and cavity have common vacuum


13

HOM waveguide

LOM waveguide

FPC waveguide

Beam induced losses through
waveguide ports

FPC: 160 W

LOM: 1.53 kW

HOM: 265 W

Beam pipe: ~ 15W

k
||

= 0.367 V/pC
(
σ

= 10mm).

See
Geoff
Waldschmidt’s talk

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

SPX Cryomodule Estimated Heat Load

Component


@2K ( W)

Static

Dynamic

Total

Cavity ( 4)


32

32

HOM (8)

3.04

13.52

16.56

LOM (4)

5.44

0.84

6.28

PFC (4)

4.56

1.88

6.44

Beam

tubes

0.60

0.70

1.30

Static cryostat estimate

18.0

18.0

Total

31.64

48.94

80.58

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

14

SPX Cryogenic System


Cryogenic plant and distribution system


Provides helium at 300 kPa, 4.6 K to the distribution system


The helium is cooled to 2.2 K within each cryomodule by heat exchanger with the 2.0K saturated
vapor return stream


The 2.2K, 300 kPa supply is throttled to 2.00K, 3.13 kPa and supplied to the cavities









Cryoplants typically sized for 100% design margin


SPX total heat load per cryomodule is estimated at ~80W


Two (2) cryomodules


SPX production design head load is estimated at 160 W


LHe ( 2.0K) refrigerator is sized for 320 W


DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

15

Quantity

Capacity

System

Refrigeration @2.0K ( static + dynamic)

160 W

Two

cryomodules ( 4 cavities/each

Refrigeration

@4.5K (static)

500 W

Distribution and thermal intercept head
loads

Thermal shied

cooling @80K (static)

4 kW

LN2

Machine Protection Considerations


Protection of SPX rf system hardware from excessive beam
-
generated rf power is
required.


For machine projection considerations, the beam generated cavity voltage was
calculated for pure beam offsets with zero cavity detuning as a function of Q
ext
.


16

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

17

Technical Systems



Timing/Synchronization


Provide stable phase references
needed to drive deflecting cavities
and measure the effects on the
electron beam both inside and
outside of the SPX zones


Provide stable phase reference to
sector beam lines lasers for
synchronization to the x
-
ray beam
pulses


See Frank Lenkszus’ talk

Parameter

Rms
tolerance

Bandwidth

Common
-
mode
phase variation

< 10
°


0.01 Hz


271 kHz

Phase mismatch
between cavities

< 0.038
°

<

0.077
°


< 0.280
°

0.01 Hz


200 Hz
0.01 Hz


1kHz
1

kHz


271 kHz


Beam line laser
synchronization

to
x
-
ray pulse

< 270 fs

0.01 Hz


1 kHz


Key Specifications

Technical Systems


Controls


Integrate SPX system with existing APS
storage ring controls, timing and diagnostics


Provide remote monitoring, control,
interfaces, real
-
time data processing
environment and diagnostics information
and tools for troubleshooting and
postmortem fault analysis


DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

See Ned Arnold’s talk

Technical Systems


Diagnostics

Inside the SPX zone (Sectors 6 and 7):


Provide transverse beam
-
centroid coordination so the electron bunch can be put through
the cryomodules close to the center of the cavities.


Provide beam
-
position readbacks at both end of 6
-
ID chamber. (16 existing BPMs, 6 new)


Quantify the effect of the deflecting cavities by measuring the beam tilt angle at a
location downstream of the first cryomodule. (One rf tilt monitor)

External to SPX zone:


Measure the beam arrival time with respect to a phase reference and provide this
information to a real
-
time data network for use in the low
-
level rf controls of the
deflecting cavities. (One rf BAT monitor, two rf tilt monitors)


Measure residual emittance increase ( mostly in vertical plan). Use vertical beam
-
size
monitor located at a specific vertical betatron phase relative to the cavities. (One beam
size monitor)


Use existing beam position monitors to assure minimal impact of SPX on non
-
SPX beam
lines.


Real
-
time feed back system upgrade provides significant improvements


Access to phase detectors beam tilt monitors supporting SPX


Interfaced to main and SPX low
-
level RF (LLRF) systems


3 db BW > 200 Hz ( correctors only), 1 kHz with LLRF feedback



18

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Technical Systems


Safety Interlock System


Safety Interlock System comprised of Personnel Protection Interlocks (PPI) and Access
Control Interlock System (ACIS).


PPI will address potential hazards to personnel from SPX rf system hardware including rf
radiation leakage from open waveguide flanges, contact with high
-
voltage conductors
and exposure to ionizing radiation generated by the klystrons.


The SPX ACIS will include all hardware, software and control system to interface between
the storage ring access control interlock system (SR ACIS) and the SPX ACIS. The SR ACIS
will issue a permit signal to SPX ACIS only when the SR Zone A is in Beam Permit mode.

19


SPX ACIS functional relationship to other ACISs

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Technical Challenges


Timing and synchronization


Meeting differential mode phase tolerance to keep rms beam motion outside of SPX under
beam stability requirements


Maintaining stability of ~ 20 fs rms over 0.1 Hz
-

1 kHz for phase reference distribution



Cavity and cryomodule


Operating margin for cavity deflecting voltage and Q


Multi
-
cavity alignment


Performance of low
-
loss unshielded intra
-
cavity bellows


Microphonics compensation on fast time scale



Dampers


Fabrication consistency of SiC tiles to eliminate fracturing


Keeping particulates low ( HOM dampers)


Managing dampers heat load under off
-
normal conditions


Preventing water freezing in case of total power loss


20

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Ongoing R&D in Support of SPX Final Design


SPX R&D Goals


Validate SPX concept, critical technologies and mitigate technical risks


Gain experience in design and operation of SCRF system


Demonstrate that SPX system is transparent to the storage ring operation with “parked” cavities


Test and evaluate deflecting cavities, components rf performances


Cavities and cryomodule


collaboration with JLab


Fabrication of Mark II cavities and supporting components


Test and measurement of single cavity in vertical cryostat


Test and measurement of a dressed cavity in horizontal cryostat


Dampers fabrication and high
-
power tests


Testing of low
-
impedance unshielded bellows


High power rf system


Assembling two 5
-
kW/2815 GHz rf amplifiers to support SPX0 cavities power and in
-
ring tests.


LLRF


One LLRF4 system is on hand (developed in collaboration with LBNL). It will be used to support
cavity horizontal test at ANL
-
PHY ATLAS facility


Timing/synchronization


Collaboration with LBNL
to apply their femtosecond timing/synchronization system


Demonstrate stable phase reference to LLRF



21

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Integrated R&D Plan

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

22

Cavity

Fabrication

Chemistry

Vertical Test

Horizontal
Test @ANL

Tuner

Fabrication

Assembly

Stack test

Ready

for cavity

Cavity/tuner assembly

“ dressed cavity”

HLRF

5
-
kW Amplifier Assembly (2)

Test with RF load

Check Interlocks

1
st

5
-
kWAmplifier
Ready for cavity test


LLRF

Qualified

Test with High
-
Q
Emulators


Test with RF load

LLRF Ready for cavity test

SPX0 Cavity/tuner
Qualified


Damper

HOM dampers tests

SiC material test

RF power tests

D
ampers WG design

LOM damper test

RF power test

Thermal test

HOM
Prototype

Assembly

Deliver 4
units to
JLAB

LOM
Assembly

Complete

Test&

Qualification

Deliver 2
units to
JLAB


Dampers WG Fabrication

SPX0
Cryomodule
Fabrication

for 2
-
cavity
@JLab


FPC

Window and WG RF design

Thermal/Mechanical design

Fabrication/Test
/Qualification

Alignment

Design

Fixturing

Bench Test

Ready for SPX0 cryomodule

Test&

Qualification

Finish
SPX Final
Design

Cryomodule
test and
qualification
@JLab

2
nd

5
-
kW Amplifier
shipped to JLAB

Cryomodule
test @ANL

SPX0 Cryomodule ready
for ring installation

Install SPX0 and test with beam

Sept. 2015

Apr. 2014

Oct. 2014

Complete SPX0 testing

Jan. 2015

March 2013

March 2013

Sept. 2012

Jan. 2014

Dec. 2012

Dec. 2013

March 2014

Summary of SPX Technical Risks


Cavity gradient and Q
0

degradation


Reduce cavity operating field


Explore in
-
situ processing


Use electro
-
polishing and other processing methods


Excessive microphonics


Measure microphonics in horizontal test and in in
-
ring test


Measure vibration source(s) and their transfer function between cavity and source(s)


2K/80K heat load is excessive


Develop 5K head shield


Use horizontal test and SPX0 cryomodule test to find the high heat load location and redesign
the thermal shield and interceptor


Inter
-
cavity bellows fail


Extensive test of bellows offline


Develop alternative shielded bellows with low particulates generation


Cavity alignment out of specs


Develop external mechanical alignment for cavities string


Possible damper material failure and excessive particulates


Conducting extensive tests at SPX RF test stand



23

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Summary of SPX Technical Risks(cont.)


Power amplifier too small to maintain control of cavities fields to specified beam orbit
offset


Baseline design is a 10kW klystron
-
based RF transmitter with 40% overhead. We will
reassess RF power requirement during SPX0 in
-
ring test.


Fast rf interlocks cannot prevent damage to cavities caused by beam

generated rf
power


Evaluate in in
-
ring test


Confirm adequate response time for beam abort interlock


Timing and synchronization


Cannot meet long term common mode or differential mode phase specs


Use beam
-
based feedback from storage ring BPMs to LLRF phase to compensate


Use Beam Arrival Time (BAT) monitor for beam arrival time (common mode) errors


Cannot meet long term user beam line synchronization specs


Use feed forward from upstream cavity phase to beam line laser phase to compensate


Unknown perturbations (beam loading, microphonics and environmental EMI)


Collect data during the development phase. Work with other systems developers to
minimize these perturbations as much as possible.

24

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Summary of SPX Technical Risks (cont.)


Uncertainty in cavity/cryomodule heat load (not really a cryogenic systems risk, but the
biggest risk element in terms of being able to cool the cavities)


Allow adequate system margin


Cryoplant performance fails to meet spec


Thoroughly reviewed, mature plant design, commissioning strategy including vendor
participation and system margin.


Operational reliability uncertainty (contamination, rotating machinery failure, etc)



Mature plant design, implementation of proven purification technology, use of mature
subcomponent designs (expanders, compressors, heat exchangers), redundant
components/hot spares, and anticipated maintenance partnerships with other
laboratories (Fermilab, JLab).






25

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Post CD
-
1 SPX Technical Reviews

26

SPX Cavity Helium Vessel, Tuner and

Cavity Down Select

August 30
-
31, 2011

Engineering Specification Document Review of SPX
Cryogenic Refrigeration

February 23
-
24, 2012

Machine Advisory Committee (MAC)

May 1
-
2 2012

SPX0 Cryomodule

June 6
-
7, 2012

SPX R&D (SPX0)

August 23
-
24, 2012

ANL Director’s CD
-
㈠Re癩ew

卥灴敭扥爠ㄱ
-
ㄳ1

㈰ㄲ

DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

SPX ES&H

27


Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS)


APS
-
U Project following Argonne’
s ISMS program requirements


Argonne Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Description

recently
revised and submitted to DOE ASO


Describes framework for integrating ESH requirements with mission objectives


References Argonne LMS procedures which implement specific portions of the ISMS


Identify General Safeguards and Security Requirements


APS
-
U Project required to follow Argonne

s Operations Security Program (OPSEC) Master
Plan


Ionizing radiation, non
-
ionizing and electrical hazards will be addressed in
accordance with ANL rules, procedures and guidelines.


Oxygen deficiency hazards are been analyzed.


Pressure safety is being addressed.


New hazards will be examined and reviewed in accordance with ANL rules,
procedures and guidelines per ISMS.




DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

Summary


Conceptual design of SPX technical systems is complete.


SPX Physics Requirements Document (PRD) is complete and signed
off.


SPX Engineering Design Specifications (ESDs) and Interface Control
Documents (ICDs) are drafted.


SPX preliminary design is progressing well.


Technical challenges have been identified and are being addressed
in the R&D phase in collaboration with JLab and LBNL.


Integration and commissioning plans are being developed.


Safety is integrated into our work planning, test and
commissioning.


We are ready for CD2.


DOE CD
-
2 Review of the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project 4
-
6 December 2012

28