Impact of IT on Higher Education

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8 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Impact of IT on

Higher Education

Ever since the Y2K scare, administrators
have grown nervous about higher
education’s dependence on computers or
Information Technology (IT).


Few understand the full degree of their
operational dependence on computer
systems or the extent to which IT plays
a role in shaping their institution’s
strategic direction.


Alan Greenspan /Ben Bernake


Information Technology has led to
substantial gains in productivity and
innovation in U.S. business and industry,
keeping our country in a leadership position
in the international economy.


Does higher education need technology to
be productive and innovative to maintain its
lead in the world?


Areas of Future Innovation Where
IT Can Have an Impact


Health care


Knowledge worker productivity


Global warming


Aging population


Business process cycle times


Customer intent/needs

Concerns:
Business vs. Education

CEO U President


Growth


Global competition


IT as an enhancer


IT as an inhibitor


Information
overload


Merger &
acquisition


Regulation


Return on assets


Accessibility


Affordability


Accountability


Interdisciplinary


Technology transfer


Student engagement


Cyberinfrastructure


International
experience


Development

What a President/Provost Wants

From a CIO


Background in higher education with a “big picture”
perspective


Expertise and understanding of technology


Understanding of the culture and politics of academia

and what governing boards can and cannot do


A seat at the strategic decision
-
making table


Focus on the institutional mission


Recognition that technology is a people business


A pragmatic revolutionary approach


Understanding that technology choices are temporary in
an enterprise that is millennial


Ability to build a reliable, cost
-
effective infrastructure


Acknowledgement that the CIO is not “special”

IT Services for Students


Students depend on IT for virtually every aspect of
their academic career.




Registration


Tuition payment


Financial aid


Fees and activities


Library and research
information


Course materials


Faculty and student
communication and
collaboration


Residential living and
campus life


Homework assignments, and
tests


Viewing and listening to
lectures


Lab experimentation


Creation and submission of
original papers, art, music


Media production


News reporting


Complex mathematic and
statistical computation


Course evaluations

and more . . .

IT Services for Faculty

Teaching (imparting knowledge) and Research
(creating knowledge) depend on IT infrastructure.


Communications with
students, staff and
colleagues (worldwide)


Distribution of course
information


On
-
line courses


Media on demand


Classroom video capture


Classroom network
access


Student grades


Submission of research
grants and applications


Computational research


Access to journals and
other research data


Publishing


Collaboration with global
colleagues


And more . . .

IT Services for the
Administration

Administrative and asset management functions
come to a halt without IT systems.



Payroll and human
resource management


Budgeting


Accounting


Financial services


Inventory, asset tracking


Building access


Police information


Building and classroom
scheduling


Building access


Heating / air conditioning


Utilities


Security alarms and
surveillance


Sprinkling systems


And on, and on, and on . . .

Disruptive Competition

Public Higher

Education

For
-
Profit Institutions, Internet

Delta, United

GM, Ford

Traditional Library

Southwest

Honda, Toyota

Google

Library & Research Information

Professional Degree / Certificates

Tutoring / Advising

Knowledge Creation

Lifelong Learning

Library & Research Information

Professional Degree / Certificates

Tutoring / Advising

Knowledge Creation

Lifelong Learning

Possible?

# of

Patients

Students

Qualified Faculty

Qualified Staff

Research Projects

Time

Monopoly

Competition

Cost

Innovation

Competition


Online courses from other institutions


For
-
profit colleges with a blended online
classroom flexible experience


Learning objects (multimedia units of a course)


Commercial courses


Google (Its mission is to provide all scholarly
books, periodicals and audio
-
video materials on
line searchable. Google has the combined
business revenues of NBC, CBS, ABC and Fox.)


Offerings by competitors that focus on
satisfying students as consumers


Our students are digital natives . . .


Consumer experience drives expectations.


Desktop


Mobile computing


Web sites


Web experiences


Games


Cast member/participant/group play


Static web content


Real
-
time interaction &
collaboration


Telephones


Integrated mobile info, social, and
recreational devices


Email


Instant video, voice, text messaging


Consumer product shows may be the best indicator
of future IT trends.

Students arrive with different life
experiences and expectations.



They are used to receiving info very fast.


They like to parallel process and multi
-
task.


They prefer graphics before text.


They prefer random access (hypertext).


They function best when networked.


They thrive on instant gratification and instant
rewards.


They prefer games to “serious” work.


They expect to create the context of their
online experience.


They arrive with “entitlement” expectations for
campus workplace services.

Digital natives expect services to
accommodate their preferences.



Information online, not “in line”


Information on
-
demand, free of place or time


Blended classroom and online experience


Flexible schedule for working students


Relevant and timely content


More team collaboration


More content from multiple sources


Interactive content from voice, video and data


Ability to contribute, as well as consume,
content/knowledge


Lines between personal and
academic life are blurring.

Centrally Coordinated and Provided

Commodity Services


Telephone Services


Wire and Cable


Network Connectivity


Wireless Services


Email / Calendar / Collaboration


Mobile Communications


Software Licensing


Web Services / Portals / Web Content Management


DNS Services


Data Centers


Administrative Data Processing

ALIGNMENT

WORKPLACE ARCHITECTURE

ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

INFORMATION

& CONTENT

BUSINESS

PROCESS

TECHNOLOGY

INFRASTRUCTURE

Workplace Architecture Extremes

Chaos



Nothing works with
anything else


All data must be
reentered


Lack of communication
between processes


No synergies


Conflicting methods and
interfaces


Massive management
costs


Incompatible security
models

Rigidity


Systems don’t meet
changing business needs


Focus on making life
easier for IT, not business


Command control
environment


“Lock in” not to vendors
but to IT dictates


Departments go “guerilla”
to get things done.


Inflexibility leads to lack of
use

BALANCE?

Workplace Architecture


The human interface with people,
processes, information, and technology


The way YOU interface with information and
services


The work YOU do each day


The associations and relationships that YOU
have with others


YOUR workplace “entitlements”


Blurring between YOUR personal and
professional / academic life

Entitlement Workplace Tools

Universal, horizontal workplace tools: Collaboration and access from

portals through messaging and personal search

Specialists Workplace Tools

Specialty horizontal workplace tools: Off
-
the
-
shelf,

narrowly deployed


such as group project management tools

Task
-
Specific

Applications

Cross

embedded with transactional applications

Special

Tasks

Board visible

What is the current state of our

workplace architecture?

Institutional silos jumble the context of information and
processes, increase the cost of services, lower the quality
of services,
and

confuse the consumer.


Prospective student portal


Campus Information System


my.utah.edu


Web CT


Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis Data


HumIS


www.utah.edu


Campus web content management system


Campus events calendar, phone directory, map, etc.


Library resources.


And so on . . . .


Workplace Architecture “Acid Test”


Properties


Agile, flexible adaptive, productive
extensible


Service orientation


World
-
class design


Standards and interoperability


Mobility


Benefits of a Process View in
Higher Education

Higher education institutions that
use the process view will achieve
institutionally
-
aligned IT services
that will improve customer
satisfaction and overall quality and
cost within six years.

IT Supports Business Processes


Refines business processes and supports
decision making.


Fosters innovation.


Requires business
-
process analysis
competency.


Faces outward to consumers and suppliers.


Is based on business strategy
-

not physical
infrastructure or rigid vendor solutions


Demands transformation from “IT first” to
“Business first.”

Customer Relations Management
(CRM)


IT is making systematic CRM possible.


General Motors is failing due to inability to
incorporate consumer expectations in products.


Higher Ed must ask consumers about their
experiences and then respond.


Because it was done “that way” yesterday isn’t a
good reason to do it “that way” today.


The key to our success is in being more student
-

centered and sharing accountability for student
achievement.


CRM should engage students from recruitment
through alumni and lifelong giving to the U.


CRM is used effectively by Wal
-
Mart, Amazon, Ball
State, Portland State, et al.

World
-
Wide Emerging Technology
Trends


Innovation will come from other parts of
the world other than the U.S.


The Chinese have skipped the Internet first
generation.


Growth will occur in Asia, and continue to
decrease in Western Europe.


U.S. Industry is compulsively outsourcing
abroad.


Software is moving from forms
-
based
applications to business processes.


Networks are migrating to IP and optical
networking technologies.

Web 2.0


Advanced Internet technology and applications
including blogs, wikis, RSS, social bookmarking,
etc.


Greater collaboration among Internet users,
content providers, and enterprises


User input into the nature and scope of Web
content, including real
-
time control over it


Ability to “mash up” information from different
sources to create the desired context for the
information


Key words: dynamic, interactive, collaborative


Light and dark side


YouTube and blogs as
weapons.


Portal vs.

Content Management


The word “portal” is often used to describe
application user interfaces. This is not the
original concept for the “portal.”


Portals present information, content and
services (including applications) in a context
defined by the consumer role and personal
desires, not dictated by IT or the application.


Portals can allow for the “blurring” line between
a consumer’s personal and professional life.


Content Management creates, organizes, and
describes both structured and unstructured
content so that it can be used at different
delivery points based on roles and context.

Top 10 Technologies


Open source


Virtualization


Information access/personal search


Ubiquitous computing


Business process platform/not from PS


Business Process Management Strategy and BPM
Suite to flowchart process and automate


“Workplace” architecture built upon an
“Enterprise” architecture of information,
processes, and infrastructure.


Video/multimedia on demand


Web 2.0


Mashups

IT Infrastructure


Networks will increase 500% in capacity in
the next five years.


Half of all computers will be laptops.


60% of all colleges and universities have a
campus wide wireless plans.


Computers are increasing in the number of
processors from 2 to 4 to 8 by 2008.


Research networks will go from 622
megabits to 80 gigabits.


On
-
demand, high
-
definition video will
consume a large part of network capacity.


IT Infrastructure Cost


Spending on IT is growing moderately


more is expected
for less, and


Industry is reducing IT cost relative to revenue, yet


We continue to add server hardware for every application
that is installed


Average usage of a typical server is about 17%


For every $1 spent on hardware, we spend $7 or more
on support.


We spend $0.25 for power and cooling for each $1.00
spend in hardware CAPEX


20


25 servers per admin in distributed computing
environment


Data center space?


University operates in a costly, distributed environment.

Percentage of IT Use in Instruction
in the US


Course management software 48.9%


Electronic mail 83.9%


Commercial courseware 29.4%


Computer simulations 17.2%


Internet resources 57.9%


Web sites for class materials 56.2%


Learning objects 22.2%


Online courses 18% of enrollments &
growing; 70% in business training

Here are 9 things that we must do in
the short term.

1.
Create value faster than we can reduce IT costs.

2.
Complete automation of operational processes by 2009. (Get
people out of the equation.)

3.
Attain “corrective phase” security status by 2008 (Stop
using the word “security.” Substitute “risk management.”)

4.
Create a business intelligence competency center by 2008.

5.
Apply a “multi
-
sourcing” discipline to all sourcing
arrangements by 2009.

6.
Operate all revenue
-
generating business processes in a Web
2.0 architecture by 2008.

7.
Establish cross
-
project, enterprise
-
level application
management before 2009.

8.
Retire 10% of applications by 2008. (They are probably close
to worthless anyway.)

9.
Model every mission critical customer and supplier facing
business process by 2007. Flowchart the processes.


TRANSFORM ORGANIZATION from “IT first” to “Business first”

The Need for Change


Mindset (Culture / Vision)


Structure (Organization)


Process (Procedure)


Infrastructure (Technology)



#1 Deterrent




#2 Deterrent

World
-
Wide Emerging Technology
Trends


Improved speech recognition


Fuel cells and improved battery life


More GPS
-
enabled, location
-
aware services


Moore’s Law (increasing chip density)


More network bandwidth( 100 terabyte with
a single fiber) 60% broadband in US


More computing power


More storage

World
-
Wide Emerging Technology
Trends


Search engines will continue to increase
access to books, web sites, recordings,
movies, learning objects, lectures, the desk
top and increased advertising revenue.


Search is moving from search to navigation


Google now makes more in advertising
revenue than ABC, CBS and NBC combined


Instant Messaging will surpass email in
volume of communication in 5 years

Social Trends: Information
Environmentalism


A movement that seeks to reduce
information overload and its effects
on people’s lives.



Privacy is a primary concern.


Social Trends: Voluntary Simplicity


A lifestyle that consciously avoids
luxury, flamboyance, stress and
pretense. Lloyds of London found
70% of the work force falls in this
category.


They are productive but don’t want to
move up the ladder.

Social Trends: Worst
-
Nightmare
Stakeholders


Consumers or employees who use
social networking and blogs to
intimidate firms

Social Trends: Cocooning


Making your home the central focus
for social activities and work


Telecommuting


Home shopping


Gated communities


Home entertainment centers

The State of IT in

Higher Education


The state of Information Technology
(IT) in higher education is fragile and
under funded.


Buildings and personnel are
systematically funded


IT is not.


We have proposed a plan to improve
the condition of IT infrastructure and
adequately fund IT.