Development of a dynamic content management system for the transfer of renewable energy knowledge between Europe and South East Asia

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Development of a dynamic content management
system for the transfer of renewable energy
knowledge between Europe and South East Asia
Dominik Möst
1
, Wolf Fichtner and Otto Rentz
Abstract
To transfer experiences made in the European power markets on success factors and
market potentials of renewable energy projects to Southeast Asia, the ASEM Green
IPP (Independent Power Producers) network has set up a thematic network on Green
IPPs that focuses on renewable energy projects linking researchers, industry repre-
sentatives, policy makers and NGOs from Europe and Southeast Asia. One main
objective of this Green IPP-network is to transfer knowledge and experiences of
Green IPPs between Europe and Southeast Asia. An overview of Green IPPs in Asia
and Europe was generated with regard to successful project structures, innovative
financing schemes, and policy options to support a successful market penetration of
Green IPPs. Derived from this global goal, a website was created to serve as repre-
sentation outwards as well as communication platform for the project itself.
1. Introduction
There is a strong political will in many countries of the world to increase the use of
renewable energy sources in energy supply due to growing environmental issues.
Especially in the European Union, measures have been taken to promote renewable
energy projects. The plan of the EU commission is to increase the share of electric-
ity produced from renewable energy sources to gross electricity consumption from
13.9 % up to 22 % until 2010 and it has therefore set specific targets for each EU
country (Commission of the European Communities, 2001). Special policy actions
aiming at fostering renewable energy projects have been implemented in the Euro-
pean countries to achieve the specific targets. Scientists of different disciplines sup-
port this political decision with ambitious research projects.
In Asia the use of renewable energy is being promoted but policies and markets
are not so advanced as in Europe. Local conditions, which determine the application

1
Institute for Industrial Production, University of Karlsruhe, Hertzstr. 16, 76187 Karlsruhe,
Email: Dominik.Moest@wiwi.uni-karlsruhe.de, phone: +49 / 721 / 608-4689
EnviroInfo 2004 (Geneva)
Sh@ring  EnviroInfo 2004
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340
of decentral renewable energies, are quite different than in Europe. Even in the vari-
ous European countries the use of renewable energies differs. To transfer knowledge
and experiences made on the local power markets on success factors and market
potentials of renewable energy projects between Europe and Southeast Asia, a the-
matic network has been built up.
2. The ASEM Green IPP network
The ASEM Green IPP network has been set up on Green IPPs, i.e. independent
power producers that focus on renewable energy projects. As three Southeast Asian
as well as European core network partners come from ASEM (Asia-Europe Meet-
ing) countries (IIP (Institute for Industrial Production), Germany as coordinator;
ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands), Netherlands; Risoe (Risoe Na-
tional Laboratory), Denmark; CEERD (Centre for Energy Environment Resources
Development), Thailand; UPSL (University of the Philippines Solar Laboratory),
Philippines and ACE (ASEAN Centre for Energy), Indonesia), the contacts between
core and associated network partners from Europe and Asia have helped to reach the
main goal of strengthening the relationship between the two regions. The so called
ASEM Green IPP network was financed within the fifth framework programme by
the European Commission.
Within the scope of this project a Green IPP is defined as an investor-initiated,
grid-connected power producer applying renewable energy technologies. The tech-
nologies considered within this network project are wind, biomass combustion, bio-
mass digestion and small hydro power plants.
The six institutes of the network teamed up in three thematic blocks, each block
comprising one European and one Asian partner, that served as competence centres
within the network. These competence centres (CC) covered the three important
topics determining the future development of Green IPPs (see Figure 1).
3. Development of an information infrastructure
One of the main objectives of the network project was the creation of a website
(www.asem-greenippnetwork.net), which should serve as representation outwards as
well as communication platform for the project itself. The portal provides web-based
access to general information and brochures about the network for interested parties
from science, government, industry and public. It offers access for members of the
project to internal information, documents, data and discussion platforms. Hence,
the website shares environmental knowledge in order to comply with the principles
of sustainable development in the field of Europe – Southeast Asia technology and
knowledge transfer.
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341
CC 1: Project Structures,
Innovative and International
Project Concepts (e.g. CDM)
IIP
CEERD
CC 2: Green Power Markets,
Green Power Certificates,
Policy Instruments
ECN
ACE
CC 3: Technological Development,
Regionally Specific Issues:
Potentials, Climatic Conditions
Risoe
UPSL
Governments
Policy Makers
Project Developers
NGOs
Investors
Banking sector
Project Developers
Plant suppliers
Research Entities
Core Network
Core Network
Associated Partners
Figure 1: Assignment of European and Asian partners to the competence centres
3.1 Classification of users and access to the parts of the website
The users of the developed website can be classified in four main types: non-
registered, registered users, partners of the website (project) and administrator. Thus
the accessible parts of the website can also be differentiated on the basis of the clas-
sification of the users: a public part, a registered users area, a restricted extranet for
exchanges among project partners and full access of the administrator.
Within the public part for non-registered users general information about the
project and the contents of the website can be found.
To benefit from the information and the functions on the website, it is necessary
to register for free and therewith to have access on the registered users area. The
main features of the website can be accessed by registered users, which includes dis-
cussion fora, links and documents library, events calendar, knowledge centre, data-
bases, as well as online publication of the Network's newsletter. During the last two
years of the project, the website has been continuously updated with new project
outputs, including newsletter, database of Green IPP projects, and pre- and post-
workshop outputs (announcements, workshop programme, papers and presentations,
summary of proceedings, and list of participants) and so called knowledge maps.
These knowledge maps give an overview about different topics in the field of re-
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342
newable energies in a short manner to provide relevant and important information
for stakeholders of the project.
Figure 2
Screenshot of ASEM Green IPP Network website
The private area -or extranet- is divided into the following modules:
 A discussion forum to set-up the network (distinct from the one reserved for
registered users), which was used for discussions and communication in the field
of project meetings, the various tasks included in the work program of the proj-
ect, organization of the workshops and other arising questions.
 A newsletter management tool, allowing each team to insert articles and pictures
and to build up the quarterly published newsletter online. The purpose is to col-
lect the whole information; the final layout is still being processed outside the
website.
 A module to insert and update information on projects in the database of Green
IPP projects for each competence centre.
 modules to insert and manage events in the calendar of Green IPP events, terms
in the glossary of terms, documents in the library of documents (three thematic
libraries), links in the library of website links (three regional libraries) and ad-
ministrative modules to monitor the activity through statistics and to accept reg-
istrants in the network directory
 Automated Email replies (registration, loss of password, acceptance of new
member...)
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343
3.2 Selected elements and main features of the website
The main elements of the website, which allow collaborative working, are the online
publication module of the newsletter and the knowledge center, which will be pre-
sented more detailed.
3.2.1 Online publication module of newsletter
For publication of the quarterly newsletter a online publication module has been set-
up. Within this module two modes can be differentiated: a view mode and a editing
mode. Any project member has access to the view mode of the newsletter and is in-
vited to read the entries and to give comments on the contents. The view mode is
very similar to how the newsletter will look when published on the public part of the
website as a downloadable pdf-document.
The editing mode can only be accessed by the partners, who are responsible for
some parts of the issue of the newsletter. This editing mode propose a visual defini-
tion of the articles in layout in pages, and which project partner is supposed to work
on each part. Clicking on any part will open the editor window in which the user can
copy texts and pictures related to his part.
3.2.2 The knowledge center
Within the ASEM Green IPP Network website an information database forms the
basis for the collection and dissemination of the information relevant to the success
of Green IPPs. This area of the website has been called the knowledge centre. By
providing a coherent, well structured framework, the knowledge centre significantly
facilitates an efficient data collection and dissemination of results. Hence, the
knowledge centre aims to provide relevant Green IPP information. The information
within the knowledge centre can be structured in three types of documents:
Knowledge maps: textual papers inserted as a webpage or as a downloadable
document, which give a concise overview about various topics in the field of
renewable energies
Fact sheets: collections of fact sheet data,
Databases: e.g. of projects in Southeast Asia.
The so called knowledge maps have been published on the website dealing with
topics from the renewable energy business like policy instruments, existing financ-
ing approaches for renewable energy projects, financing and risk management in
Southeast Asia, Clean Development Mechanism and present policy and legal aspects
of renewable energy in Southeast Asia. All published knowledge maps can be
downloaded as PDF from the project website inside the knowledge centre.
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Beside the knowledge maps, fact sheets provide interesting and actual informa-
tion for stakeholders of the project. Fact sheets can be found for policies, for re-
sources and on financing sources. Within the policy fact sheets, detailed information
on the considered countries can be found. For the countries Vietnam, Myanmar,
Malaysia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Cambodia and Brunei Darussalam the condensed
information can be downloaded. Resource fact sheets are available for three projects
in Indonesia: the Nagrak Micro Hydro Power Project, the Cibitung Micro Hydro
Power Project and the Mini Hydro Power Plant-Dewata Tea Estate. The financing
sources fact sheets lists lenders and investors in Southeast Asia who provide fi-
nancing sources to the renewable energy sector. It is appointed to help project de-
velopers and enterpriser who are seeking capital for renewable energy projects.
Finally, one database has been designed to collect information on existing renew-
able energy projects to learn experiences in structuring and financing Green IPPs in
Southeast Asia. The database also contains technical information on the projects and
is available for registered users of the website.
3.3 Conception and implementation of the website
The website was implemented with a Content Management solution (IMA dynamic
web editor; (IMA 2003)), thus allowing to benefit from advanced automated func-
tions (database, search engine, real-time statistics...) and collaborative tools for the
extranet (discussion forums, newsletter management...). Additionally, the following
products were used for realization of the website: Cold Fusion 5.0 (development and
deployment of web applications), Javascript (controlling of windows and websites),
MS Access (database), Windows 2003 Server and IIS 6.0 (webserver).
4. Networking activities and knowledge exchange
Beside the sharing of knowledge on the developed website, the objective to transfer
experiences made in European power markets to Southeast Asia has also been
achieved by networking activities basically composed of the following elements:
 Publication and email distribution of the above described periodic newsletter to
communicate network activities and to support the dissemination of relevant in-
formation and network results.
 Organization of workshops in Europe and Southeast Asia with specific focus on
technical (e.g. innovative project financing schemes, future technological poten-
tials), regional (e.g. existing technical and economic potentials of renewable en-
ergy sources, market potential of Green IPPs in Southeast Asia) and policy is-
sues. These workshops have been open to all interested parties.
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 Presentation of new insights, experiences and concepts developed within the
network on leading conferences and via papers in recognized scientific journals
to promote further research activities on these topics.
 Intense discussion of all insights related to policy design with national and inter-
national policy makers. This took place on special workshop segments dedicated
to policy issues as well as in a bilateral way between the different network part-
ners and their national policy representatives.
5. Exemplary content: the wind energy sector
The experiences of the different countries and the sharing of the knowledge for the
various technologies and countries enables a better understanding of the local con-
ditions and a better steering of the national markets. In the following, the wind tech-
nology will be described as an example for one technology of the four researched
within the project: How could the booming development of wind power in some
European countries be explained and what is the economic value of wind energy?
Without political support wind power remains at a competitive disadvantage, be-
cause new wind power stations have to compete with old nuclear and fossil fuel
power stations that produce electricity at marginal costs. Political action is needed to
overcome these disadvantages. Tariff systems based on a fixed price paid per kWh
produced (called fixed tariff systems) have been enormously successful at fostering
wind energy and are enshrined in law in Germany, Spain and Denmark. Further in-
struments used in Europe to support renewable energies are renewable portfolio
standards (RPS), competitive bidding and tendering or auctions.
The fixed feed-in tariffs are used in the three European countries, which are at the
top of the list total installed capacity in 2003. Because the financing schemes in
Europe are not the same in all countries and Germany represents the largest part of
the European wind sector, in the following the German wind energy market will be
considered. With about 14.000 MW of installed wind energy capacity at the end of
2003, Germany is world leader. At the beginning of the development in the early
90
th
, environmental thinking in Germany has fostered the wind energy business
enormously. Private investors, mostly farmers, built up there own wind mill. With
the growth of the size of wind mills and the formation of wind parks, local citizens
participations got more and more important for bringing up the investment. These
wind parks use to apply quite homogenous project structure, i.e. the legal form of a
private limited liability company and a limited partnership (GmbH & Co. KG) and a
financing scheme based on closed-end funds structures. The special feature of the
GmbH & Co KG structure is that the role of the full partner within the limited part-
nership (KG) is taken over by the private limited liability company (GmbH) which
itself has limited liability.
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In the recent years, based on the proven local citizen wind farm concept, a new
financing scheme has evolved in the German wind market: closed-end wind funds.
These funds apply almost identical project structures like the citizen-owned wind
farms did or still do. However, they take advantage of a secondary market for proj-
ect shares in wind farms that has evolved during recent years
(Rentz/Fichtner/Enzensberger/Möst 2003).
The successful development of wind energy in Germany is mainly based on the
EEG law (Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources) enacted by the
government, which assures a fix feed in for electricity production for renewable en-
ergies. The fix-feed in compensation scheme has two main advantages for project
developers, which lead to this enormous grow within the renewable energy business.
Each energy project is exposed to a characteristic set of project risks. This can be
classified in technical, commercial and other risks. One of the main commercial
risks is the market risk of the electricity sale, on the one hand the price uncertainty
and on the other hand the future sales volume (not to mistake with the risk of pro-
duction volume). But both risks have been abolished for the project developer with
the new EEG-law. There is no price uncertainty, because a fixed feed-in tariff is
guaranteed and further more, there is no risk on the sales volume, due to the fact that
grid operators are obliged to purchase electricity available from these installations as
a priority.
Due to the fact, that even the first developed wind farms didn’t reach the end of
the total project duration, only prospected cash-flow calculations can be considered
for profitability calculations. However, given that there is still little experience in the
marketplace regarding real cost developments after several years of operation, any
profitability projection still includes significant uncertainties. Projected rates of re-
turn typically range between 7 and 9 % (excluding tax advantages).
5.1 Economic evaluation of electricity production from wind
energy for energy utilities purposes
Energy utilities are obliged to provide security of supply. In the counterpart wind
energy can not be arranged and problems can arise for the grid, the operation and the
structure of the conventional plant portfolio, especially in regions with high wind
power capacities. Due to this fluctuations of wind energy, energy utilities have to
hold fast adjustable power plants for control energy. So the following disadvantages
arise for energy utilities / grid operators: large need of power plants with good load
following characteristics; scheduling of stand-by capacities; larger amount of start-
up procedures; higher fuel consumption within partial load operation; necessity of
extension of the grid.
In addition, today’s European energy situation is characterised by existing over-
capacities. Additional generation capacity of newly installed wind projects have
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347
nearly no added value for the overall supply system. Only in the long term, further
generation capacities are needed. Consequently in the short term, only fuel costs and
variable costs of replaced plants in operation can be avoided. These avoided elec-
tricity supply costs depend on the replaced mix of power plants. The Federal Minis-
try for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety estimates these
avoided electricity supply costs for the year 2005 to be about 4,3 Cent/kWh and the
avoided CO
2
emissions to 800 g CO
2
/kWh (BMU 2003). Based on own calculations
with a developed short term model, which is illustrated in
(Rosen/Möst/Fichtner/Rentz 2003), we calculate the avoided electricity costs to be
about 1,4 Cent/kWh and the avoided emissions to be 650 g CO
2
/kWh. The model
results indicate that mainly coal-fired plants will be replaced by wind energy.
Beside the economic evaluation of wind energy, also aspects like the financial
burden for final consumers, the consideration of external costs and a discussion
about the situation of wind energy in South East Asia have been considered.
6. Outlook
Due to the successful implementation of the ASEM Green IPP network, a funding
for a continuation has been approved by the EAEF (EC-ASEAN Energy Facility
2
).
Within the continuation of the project, one aim of the project is the
institutionalization of the Green IPP Network in the ASEAN, particularly under the
ASEAN NRSE SSN (New and Renewable Sources of Energy Sub-Sector Network).
This will link directly the network members (renewable energy stakeholders) to the
ASEAN energy ministers and senior officials for mutual cooperation. This will en-
sure that energy policies and programs in the ASEAN will be developed through a
dynamic interaction between the Green IPP Network members, the ASEAN NRSE
SSN country focal points, senior officials and energy ministers.
Acknowledgements
The development of the network and the described website have been content of a
research project together with ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands),
Netherlands; Risoe (Risoe National Laboratory), Denmark; CEERD (Centre for En-
ergy Environment Resources Development), Thailand; UPSL (University of the
Philippines Solar Laboratory), Philippines and ACE (ASEAN Centre for Energy),
Indonesia. In the context of the content management system presented in the paper
we would especially like to thank CEERD for the development and our project part-
ners for the successful implementation of the project and finally the European
Commission for financing.

2
http://www.aseanenergy.org/eaef/
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348
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