Automated Beer Brewing System

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30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 14 μέρες)

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Automated
Beer
Brewing
System

February 2011


Dylan Bosworth

John Mason

William Owen

Lane Roper

Andrew Stockdale

Matt Thompson



Executive

summary

Beer is has been around for hundreds of years. Many people enjoy drinking it, even in
times of economic depression. People have, for the last 10 years or so, been making beer at
home. The advent of cheap microcontrollers has enabled people to brew beer aut
onomously,
to a degree. This project will let an advanced or a beginner brewer brew beer with relative
ease. From the LCD and keypad the user can select from an advanced or beginners menu. The
beginners menu will have beer selections to choose from. The ad
vanced menu will allow the
experienced conosur to control the temperature and times of each process.

The first part of the process is to turn the grains (in this case, malt) into sugars. This
process is accomplished with a stainless steel container, hot
water and grain. Starting with a
stainless steel container, cracked grain is put in it. Hot water is added into the container at
intervals to slowly increase the temperature. This will be achieved through insulation around
the container with hot water adde
d. The starches and enzymes from the grain will mix with the
water allowing them to produce sugars. The challenges of this stage are slowly and in a
controlled manner raising the heat on the water and measuring temperature. The benefits of
completing the
stage in this way are having one less heater in the brew process to heat the
water. The resources for this process are malt, hot water and energy for the pumps.

The enzyme water, which is called Wort, is then put into a second container which is
called the

kettle. This stage is important for adding the flavor, controlling the aroma, making
the color and deactivating the enzymes. The water is added into the kettle by means of a pump.
Heat will be added to bring the temperature up in the kettle. The heat dea
ctivates the enzymes
responsible for turning the starch into sugars. There will also be a mechanical blade that slowly
and in short bursts stirs the mixture. After this process, the water is separated from the solids
by means of a filter. The challenges wi
th this stage are to accurately control the Wort
temperature. More challenges are control of the mechanical blade and reading the
temperature of the mixture. The benefits of completing the stage in this way are conciseness
and repeatability of the Wort pro
duction. This will make it cheaper and have it consume less
power. The resources for this process are herbs and hops.

The Wort must be cooled down from a high temperature to a much lower one. This is
necessary because the yeast in the next stage won’t grow

in high temperatures. The reduction
of heat in the fluid will be accomplished through a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger will be
comprised of a copper tube will be attached to the kettle and the fermenting tank. The copper
tube will be coiled and put i
nto a tube of ice water. The challenges are that the fluid must be
cooled in a repeatable and controlled manner. The benefits of this process are copper and ice is
cheap materials, reducing the overall cost. The resources for this process are ice to put in

the
bucket.

The last stage is the fermenting of the Wort. This will be done in two containers. The
beer yeast is added into the first container with the Wort. The yeast will turn the sugars into
alcohol and produces carbon Dioxide. After the desired time
is reached, the fluid is transferred
into the second container through a filter. The transfer of the fluid is done by gravity, with one
container located above another. The purpose of this is to remove the dead yeast in the bottom
of the container. The dea
d yeast causes a bad and undesirable taste in the beer. Once this
process is complete the fluid is now drinkable beer. The challenge is maintaining the
temperature of the fluid without adding heat. The benefit of completing the process this way is,
it will

reduce the number of pumps and improve of the taste of beer. The resources for this
process are yeast.

Introduction

Over the past few years the country has seen the rise of a new hobby, home brewing.
The public’s interest in this gave rise to a new indust
ry and market. Home brewing kits started
to make their way into the general public, however, most were very basic; brew kettle,
fermenter, clearing jar. While these kits do well enough for some people there are people that
want greater ease of use, functio
nality, and cleanliness. There are comparable models currently
on the market, but for most home brewers the cost of such a system is too high.

We propose to build a fully automated home brewing system that is in the price range
of the average consumer. The

system will be easy to use for both new and experienced
brewers, giving them a fully automated system that has customizable programs. Dependability
of the product will be addressed, so that results will be consistent. The unit will be practical to
have ar
ound the home, not overly large or unsafe. Also there is one major problem that has not
been addressed by other systems.

That issue is a lack of cleanliness throughout the brewing process. Contamination is a
major issue when brewing beer. Especially when h
ome brewing, where the chance of
contamination is much higher. In order to combat this problem there will be two methods of
control. There will be a pre and post brewing sanitation cycle, and limited exposure throughout
the brewing process to any outside e
lements. Using these precautions we hope to yield a better
more consistent wort.

Technical Approach

The problems associated with the home brewing system is that it is labor intensive,
attention to sanitation, and amount of equipment needed. The home brewer will have to move
five to six gallons of liquid and several pounds of grains depending on the reci
pe. They will also
have to pay attention to sanitation otherwise unwanted microbes could be hazardous to the
final product. Home brewing also requires several pieces of equipment that may not be readily
available in a household kitchen. The following will
describe the technical approach to solving
home brewing problems, the steps taken to complete the project, the design that will solve
these problems, the analysis that will be used, and what tests will be preformed to show that
these problems have been sol
ved. Let’s start with technical approach to solving the problems of
a home brewing process.

The home brewing process is very labor intensive and takes several hours to brew a
single five gallon batch of beer. The most effort for the home brewer is transfer
ring the liquids
involved in brewing process: Boiling water, wort extracted from the mash
-
tun, boiling wort, and
cooled wort that is ready for fermentation. This task is usually done by the home brewer by
using a siphon or by tilting the container in order

to pour the liquid where it is needed next. To
solve this problem, food safe pumps will be used to pump the liquids throughout the various
stages of the brewing process. Another Labor intensive process for the home brewer is to stir or
agitate the ingredi
ents at designated times. This is done in the beginning of the mashing
process, called doughing
-
in, to ensure that all the grains become saturated with water and
again during the boiling of wort to keep the sugars from caramelizing. By having mechanical
ag
itators or circulating pumps the need for the brewer to physically stir the mash or the wort is
no longer needed. The home brewing process in total takes a few weeks to go from ingredients
to the final product but most of the work is done in the first few
hours. The process of mashing
is to extract the necessary products from the grains to create wort which takes about an hour.
Boiling is another process for extracting necessary products from ingredients for the wort and it
also takes about an hour dependin
g on the recipe being used. With the automated home
brewing system the home brewer can set the system up and come back when needed for other
manual process unique to different recipes. With the automated home brewing system the
amount of labor intensive wo
rk is reduced through automation making the brewing process
more enjoyable for the home brewer.

The automation of the home brewing system serves as an advantage for the home
brewer by giving them more control over the entire process. The control of temper
ature is
crucial to the brewing process. Specific temperatures are need at defined stages of the brewing
process in order to achieve specific goals; enzyme activation, dissolving of ingredients and
pasteurization are some of the specific goals. With an aut
omated system, a computer chip can
monitor and control the temperature that is needed at each designated time. With an
automated home brewing system the home brewer will not have to worry about keeping track
of timing that is needed during stages of brewin
g. When brewing with a home brew kit the
home brewer needs to keep close eye on the timing during specific stages of the brewing
process to know when to add ingredients or when to move on to the next stage. With the use
of a computer chip the home brewer c
an set timers for each stage and have alarms to notify
them when they are needed to manually add ingredients. Another advantage to the automated
brewing system for the home brewer is that they will not have worry about having to transfer
the fluids from on
e stage to the next. With a brew kit the home brewer will need to pour or
siphon the liquid form one stage to the next. The automated home brew system will use the
computer chip to activate pump and valve when liquid is needed to be transferred. Having a
c
omputer chip to control the beer making process will eliminate simplify the home brewing
process as well as eliminate chances of contamination of unwanted microbes.

The need to keep everything sanitized is greatly encouraged to the home brewer, which
can
be quite a challenge depending on the type of equipment being used. Most home brewers
use a combination of stainless steel, plastic, and glass brewing equipment all of which have
their own ways of being sanitized. Plastic is nice for the home brewer becaus
e it is cheap, but
when scratches from sanitization occur cleaning becomes nearly impossible. Glass is commonly
used and is easy to sanitize. Stainless steel is more expensive but is highly recommended for its
ability to be sanitized. For the automated hom
e brewing system stainless steel will be used for
its ability to be sanitized. When using a home brewing kit, wort is constantly being exposed to
the air which contains wild yeast and other harmful microbes. With the amount of transferring
fluids from the
open container to open container in the home brewing process the wort has
greater chance of having harmful microbes introduces. Having a closed system the automated
home brewing system will cut down the worts exposure to the environment. The home brewing
s
ystem will help make the brewing process easier and ensure a better final product.

In order to solve the problems present in the home brewing process we will have to
follow a set of steps to complete an automated home brewing system. The first few weeks wi
ll
come up with a conceptual design that will solve the problems associated with the home
brewing process. The conceptual design will focus on ways of solving the problems of home
brewing. The transferring of fluids could be solved by use of a pump and gra
vity depending on
which is more beneficial to the next step in the process. Once the best conceptual design has
been chosen a detailed design will be constructed. The detailed design will have the exact size
and dimensions of the parts that will be used in

the automated home brewing system. These
parts will be drawn in Solid Works showing both individual parts and a complete assembly. With
the completed detail drawing the next steps will be to form analysis, a manufacturing schedule,
and a test schedule. Th
e analysis will provide quantifiable numbers that will be a base line for
testing. The manufacturing schedule and test schedule will be a set outline for when parts need
to be completed and tested by. These steps are all on a flexible to a reasonable point

but
should be kept to ensure productivity.

The main processes for home brewing involve mashing, boiling, cooling, and fermenting.
Mashing involves soaking the malted grains for various increments of time with increasing
temperatures of water to activate e
nzymes to break down the larger starches in to smaller
starch chains. When using a home brewing kit mashing is generally done in a cooler. The
coolers insulation allows for the water to remain at a constant temperature for the designated
length of time and

the home brewer has to manually add the hot water. The mash
-
tun for the
automated home brewing system will be built to hold the amount of ingredients needed for a
five gallon batch of beer. There will also be a pump for addition of the water at the needed

temperature and designated time. The pump will also circulate water to achieve maximum
starch conversion. Insulation will be wrapped around the outside to ensure that the
temperature inside will remain at a constant
temperature

for enzyme activation. The
grains will
also be in a removable basket for easy removal, cleaning and sanitation. The kettle is an
essential component in the brewing process. It is where hops are added to the wort along with
other ingredients. Pasteurization is also done in the kettle

just before the wort is cooled and
added to the fermenter. A home brew kit will either come with or instruct the home brewer to
acquire a ten gallon pot. The boiling will be done on a house hold stove or an apparatuses built
by the home brewer. Once boili
ng is completed the home brewer will need to pour, siphon or
chill the liquid for the next stage. The kettle in the automated home brew system will have a
self contained heating coil that will be controlled by a computer chip. A pump circulation
system or
mechanical stir system will be used to prevent the needed sugars from caramelizing
and there for not being able to be converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide by the yeast. Pumps
and gravity will also be implemented to transfer the liquids to the next stage
s of brewing. Once
the wort has been boiled for its allotted time it must be chilled to temperatures that will
activate but not kill the yeast. There are several options for the home brewer for this stage. One
such option is to place the kettle into a cool
er filled with ice and water, another involves placing
sterilized bags of ice directly. With a good imagination the home brewer could create their
cooling system as long the wort is chilled to the proper temperature and is kept sanitary.
Cooling the wort w
ith the automated brew system will consist of coiled tubing that will be
submerged in a water bath. The length of tubing will be calculated using heat transfer modes to
accurately determine the proper amount of energy that will needed to be removed. The fi
nal
stage in the brewing process is fermentation. This is when yeast is added to the wort. The yeast
will convert the sugars, made from the short starch chains, into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Carboys are the fermenter of choice for the home brewer. It is

a glass or plastic container. The
home brewer will siphon the wort into the carboy, add the yeast and then let it sit in a dark
closet that is temperature controlled. Light will kill the yeast cells and they need to stay at a
relatively constant temperatu
re. A variation of a few degrees is not detrimental. Some home
brewer will do double stage fermentation, where after a day or two the fermenting product is
transferred from one carboy to another leaving behind the spent yeast that has settled on the
bott
om. This is the preferred method to produce the best quality product. Double stage
fermentation will be the method utilized by the automated home brewing system. Two conical
fermenters will be in a cascade setting. This will use gravity to transfer the fer
menting product
form one fermenter to the other. The conical fermenters will be made out of stainless steel and
wrapped in insulation to maintain a constant temperature. There will be valves at the bottom
of each fermenter to allow for easy cleaning and sa
nitation. The design of the automated
brewing system is to provide the home brewer with an all in one system that maintains
sanitation throughout the entire process.

Home brewing with the automated home brewing system will take most of the labor
intensive
work out of the process, but in order for this to be achieved diligent analysis will need
to be done. Heat is a major component in the brewing process and needs to be controlled. The
use of insulation will keep heat loss to the surroundings to a minimum. H
eat coils will add heat
when needed and a water bath will remove heat when needed. Heat transfer analysis will be
used to determent several components of the automated home brewing system. They type and
thickness of insulation will be determined by the ana
lysis in order to maintain content
temperature for the durations of time. The amount of heat to bring the kettle to a boil will have
to be calculated as well as the amount of heat needed to be removed in by the water bath. The
automated home brew system wi
ll be in a self contained cart. The structure will have to
support the weight of all the ingredients as well as all the equipment. Statics and structural
analysis will be used to determine if the cart design will be able to support the amount of
weight tha
t is involved. Fluids will be pumped through tubes throughout the entire brewing
process there for fluid mechanics must be considered. Flow rates will need to be analyzed to
ensure that aeration does not occur when it’s unwanted as well as the size of pump

needed to
pump the fluids through the system. All of the analyses will be theoretical based and give a
base line for all the testing that will be done.

To ensure that the automated home brewing system is what was planed out tests will
need to be done. San
itation, Temperature control, systems control are testes that will be done.
To the home brewer sanitation greatly encouraged to produce a quality product. Several swabs
will be taken from a standard home brewing process as well as from the automated home
b
rewing system. They will then be sent to a lab to be analyzed to determine the number of
microbes and bacteria that are present during the entire process. The ability to control
temperature when using a home brew kit can be quite cumbersome. Being an autom
ated
brewing system it will be temperature controlled. The system will be run several times and
temperatures will be taken. There should be minimal to zero deviation from the programmed
temperature. Temperature test will also be needed to ensure that the f
luid through the cooling
tube will reach the temperature needed. These tests will ensure the quality of the product that
will be produced form automated home brewing system.

End Product Requirements

At the conclusion of our senior project we will have a ho
me brewing system that
separates itself from similar products on the market. We plan to distinguish our project by
incorporating automation efficiency, and self
-
cleaning in a safe and compact package for our
end
-
user. Our finished product will be made up o
f an array of stainless steel tanks and copper
tubing that will take our cracked grain and hops all the way to a five gallon keg of delicious
home brewed beer.

So what can we measure? The most important criteria in our design are to ensure that
every step
of the process is executed in the most sterile way possible. The system is being
designed within the accordance of material standards put out by the National Safety
Foundation. The specific standard is NSF.51 Section 7.1.1 which says that all Stainless ste
el used
in food equipment shall be of a type in the AISI 200 series, AISI 300 series, or AISI400 series.
T304 and T316 Stainless steel will be used for our fermenters, Mash
-
Tun, and Boiling Kettle.
Stainless steel is also being used throughout our system f
or its corrosion resistance properties
and easy clean
-
up characteristics. To ensure that our systems output is clean and our process is
sanitary, we will take samples of our Wort at the first stage of production and compare its
microbial levels to our beer

as it exits our second fermenter and is ready to be bottled. We plan
to contact a member of the biology department or a private testing facility to assist us with
measuring these values.



Nature

-
Qualities

-
Characteristics



-
Automated

-
Efficient

-
Self

Cleaning

-
Compact

-
Safe



Function

-
Use

-
Action


-
Brew beer with little user input

-
Safe operation

-
Clean operation





Specifications

-
Detailed description of design
criteria

-
Describe nature and function

-
Temperature Control

-
Heat Input

-
Plumbing

-
Controls

-
Cleaning Cycle

-
User Input

-
Cooling




Using approved materials and alloys isn’t enough. The components in our system will
need to be thoroughly cleaned before and after each use to make certain the next batch will
not be contaminated. We will
incorporate a cleaning cycle into our programming to pump a
mixture of water and iodine through the system to remove any unwanted grain/hops/flavors
for the next batch. When the product is in the users hands it is up to them to keep up a spotless
working s
ystem to guarantee great tasting beer

and that’s not something we can measure.

Our design criteria is built from a chain of decision tables that we used to rank importance
of each components functions. Our proposed design will combine a series of pumps, va
lves,
heating elements that we weighed and chose based on this criterion:



Inexpensive to Run



Safety



Durability



Self Cleaning



Power Supply



Operation Time



Size



Convenience

Good beer is made when accuracy, timing, and cleanliness are all achieved. In order to
control accuracy, the temperature will be monitored throughout the system using sensors
located in the Mash
-
Tun and Boiling kettle to provide feedback to the controller
for heat input
within
±
2
°F
. Controlled volumes of water will be added to the Mash
-
Tun and heated in stages
to activate certain enzymes at certain temperature levels. The appropriate temperature levels
need to be maintained precisely for up to forty minutes

between stages and properly circulated
via a pump to make certain of a consistent temperature throughout. Another design challenge
is keeping the complete system compact and able to run on a 110 Volt household circuit. To do
this, the primary and secondar
y fermenter will be stacked vertically to decrease the footprint
and make use of gravity to transfer fluid from one fermenter to the other. This will reduce the
amount of electricity needed to operate the overall system and lower operating costs. The
pump
used to circulate the Wort will also be used to transfers the Wort to the Boiling Kettle
through an electronically controlled valve to decrease electricity dependence and improve
reliability and efficiency by using one pump to complete several tasks.




S
chedule



Budget and facilities




















Location

Purpose

CSUS Machine Shop

-
Manufacturing

CSUS Riverside 4001


-
Drawing
Schematics by use of the
computers loaded with solid works

-
Using the room as a basic meeting point for
research


Andrew Stockdale’s Home

-
Assembly

-
Planning


Function

Component

Estimated Cost

Mechanical System

Brew Kettle

(10 gallons)

$132.99










Mash
-
Tun

$250

Fermenter 1

$275

Fermenter 2

$275

Cooling tubes

$49.95

Servo motor

$15

Structure Steel
Materials

$300

Pump

$134.95

½ “Stainless
steel Tubing

$22.75

Heating Element

$200

Food Grade
Valve (3)

$150

Electric/Automation

Relays

$60


Electronic Valves

$100

Sensors

$50

Atmel Chip

$
18.78

Arduino
Microcontroller

$32.84

Atmel168
microcontroller

$6.67

LCD 16x2
character display

$4.95

Total Estimated
Cost

20
2
8.88

Budget

$3000.00

Remaining
Funds

$
97
1.12

Qualifications and experience

Name

Qualifications

Andrew Stockdale
-

Background in a variety of

engineering programs such as
Solidworks, Matlab, and Autocad, a fundamental knowledge of
engineering concepts, exceptional planning and communications
skills and detailed knowledge of the beer brewing process


Lane Roper
-

Background in a variety of engin
eering programs such as
Solidworks, Matlab, and Autocad, a fundamental knowledge of
engineering concepts, and a basic knowledge of the beer brewing
process.

Dylan Bosworth
-

Background in a variety of engineering programs such as
Solidworks and Matlab, a f
undamental knowledge of engineering
concepts, and a basic knowledge of the beer brewing process.

William Owens
-



Background in a variety of engineering programs such as
Solidworks and Matlab, a fundamental knowledge of engineering
concepts, and a basic
knowledge of the beer brewing process. Has
a superior knowledge of circuit components and interfaces.

John Mason

Background in a variety of engineering programs such as
Solidworks and Matlab, a fundamental knowledge of engineering
concepts, and a basic
knowledge of the beer brewing process. Has
a superior knowledge of programming and electrical components.

Matt Thompson

Background in a variety of engineering programs such as
Solidworks and Matlab, a fundamental knowledge of engineering
concepts, and a
basic knowledge of the beer brewing process.






Conclusion

In summary, our proposal outlines our plan to create a fully
-
automated home brewing
system that can be easily, safely, enjoyably, and affordably used by anybody wishing to brew
beer. We believe

that these four attributes are the most critical and unavoidable traits for a
successful engineering project


Easy, so that the customer will not be discouraged from using
the product; Safe, in order that no threat to life or wellbeing would be posed; En
joyable, that
we might maximize product sales and customer satisfaction; and finally, affordable so that even
our cost
-
conscious customers can purchase and enjoy our product. There are certainly many
challenges and obstacles that will need to be overcome
throughout the course of this project,
but in so doing, we will further our skills of technicality, reliability/promptness, team focus, and
creativity. When we complete this project in December of 2011, our ultimate goal will be to
have made a product tha
t fulfills everything discussed at the beginning of this paragraph, and
more importantly, to graduate from Sacramento State University as well
-
rounded and fully
knowledgeable engineers!

References

Papazian, Charlie.
T
he Complete Joy of Home
Brewing 3
rd

edi
tion
. New York: Harper, 2003.

Papazian, Charlie.
The Home Brewer’s Companion
. New York: Harper, 2003.

http://www.northernbrewer.com/brewing/review/product/list/
id/3459/category/83/



http://www.midwestsupplies.com/stainless
-
steel
-
immersion
-
wort
-
chiller.html

http://www.midwestsupplies.com/march
-
seal
-
less
-
pump
-
high
-
temperature.html

http://ww
w.amazon.com/304L
-
Stainless
-
Steel
-
Tube
-
Length/dp/B002VREKFQ

http://www.newark.com

http://standards.nsf.org/apps/group_public/dow
nload.php/3941/nsf51
-
97.pdf





Appendices

(Figure 1.

A sample decision table for different components in the Mash
-
Tun)

Decision Table for Mashing





Importance


Inexpensive to Build

10.0%


Inexpensive to Run



5.0%


Safety

30.0%


Durability

15.0%


Self Cleaning



10.0%


Power Supply



5.0%


Operation Time



5.0%


Size

10.0%


Convenience



10.0%













Boiling Water

110V

220V

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

8

0.8

5

0.5

5

0.25

5

0.25

8

2.4

3

0.9

5

0.75

5

0.75



0



0



0



0

4

0.2

7

0.35

9

0.9

7

0.7

9

0.9

6

0.6



6.2



4.05

Transferring Wort

Gravity Fed

Pump

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

10

1

6

0.6

10

0.5

7

0.35

8

2.4

9

2.7

10

1.5

8

1.2

5

0.5

9

0.9

10

0.5

9

0.45

8

0.4

8

0.4

7

0.7

9

0.9

6

0.6

9

0.9



8.1



8.4

Agitation

Mechanical

Circulation Pump

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

Rating(1
-
10 Scale)

Value

6

0.6

9

0.9

5

0.25

5

0.25

8

2.4

9

2.7

7

1.05

5

0.75

3

0.3

8

0.8

5

0.25

5

0.25

5

0.25

5

0.25

5

0.5

7

0.7

5

0.5

7

0.7



6.1



7.3








(
Figure 2
.

A flowchart of the beer making process)





(
Figure 3
.

Objective Tree)




(
Figure 4
.

Function Tree)