AP physics Syllbus - Teacher

tickbitewryΜηχανική

30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

107 εμφανίσεις


AP® Physics B
-

Syllabus

Text:

Serway, Raymond A., and Jerry S. Faughn. 2006.
College Physics
, 7th ed. Belmont
,
Calif.: Brooks/Cole Publishing. ISBN: 0
-
534
-
99724
-
4

About the AP Physics B Course:

Schedule is based on

a rotating class schedule:

Class meets 4

days week for 54 minutes
for lecture, with a double period once a week for labs.


The course will follow the Advanced Placement Physics B Curriculum published by the
College Board. The units of study for this cou
rse coincide strongly with the AP Physics B
materials developed by the National Math and Science Initiative. Additionally, the units
for this course were developed using the AP Physics Objectives and Syllabus Indicators
provided by the College Board to ens
ure an in depth course of instruction.


Students are encouraged at the beginning of the school year to
create or join a study
group in
which to work while in class and outside of class. Cooperative l
earning and peer
assessment are
essential parts of the
course. Course objectives include developing the
student’s critical thinking skills, and investigative skills to read, understand, and
interpret physical information. The student must use the scientific method to analyze a
particular physical problem and u
se basic mathematical reasoning in a physical situation
or problem. The student must perform

e
xperiments, interpret the results, and communicate those results that include error
analysis and uncertainty
.


Grading Policy:


Tests: 50 percent


Tests are ad
ministered after each unit of material. Each test consists of three sections:

1. Multiple
-
choice questions

2. Free
-
response problems

3. Lab
-
based question: may include questions on labs done in class or questions on a lab that
was not performed in clas
s.



Labs: 25

percent

Labs:


All
labs are “hands
-
on” activities.
The time allotted
for lab

is for conducting the experiment
and recording the data. The students perform the analysis and complete the report outside of
class. Students are required to keep

a portfolio containing all their lab reports in case the
college of their choice requires evidence, or documentation prior to

awarding college credit for
physics.

(additional information in the lab section below)




Quizzes

20
-
25
percent


Quizzes:

Quizzes may contain questions and/or problems from the homework, the reading
assignments, and/or recently covered or previously learned material.



Hom
ework and In
-
class Problems

1to 5
percent


Homework assignments are given from the textbook and from AP
Released Exams. Sometimes
students will be graded on

in
-
class problem
-
solving exercises, AP

Released Exams.

Most
homework will not be graded but the student should expect in
-
class quiz over the

homework.

After each semester there is final exam that is 20% of your final grade. Each quarter grade is
40% of your total grade.


Ipad
,pc,
tablet

and Wireless Classroom rules

o

You may bring in your ipad
, pc, or tablet to take notes or to refer to
class documents.

o

You may bring in your ipad,pc, or tablet to turn in a lab report or take
pictures for labs.

o

Refer to Student handbook for rules and guidelines.

o

The teacher at any point can ask for no use of
electronic devices in
the classroom.


Course Outline



INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1:

M
ath and Data Review (August 16
)

A.

Algebra
/Geometry

review

B. Data collection and analysis

C. Vector addition

1. Graphical methods

2. Algebraic methods

I. NEWTONIAN MECHANICS

Chapter 2 & 3
:

Kinematics
(August19
-
Sept
6
)


A. Motion in One Dimension

1.

Position
-
time and velocity
-
time graphs

2. Equations of motion under constant acceleration


B. Motion in Two Dimensions

1. Projectiles

2. Circular motion
(Chapter 7)


Chapter 4

&7:
Newton’s Laws (
Sept9


Sept 27
)


A. Static Equilibrium (First Law)

1. First Condition


translational equilibrium

2. Second Condition


rotational equilibrium (torque)


B. Dynamics of a Single Body (Second Law)


C. Systems of Two or More Bodies (Third Law)


D. Gravitation


E. Applications

1. Inclined planes

2. Atwood’s machines and their modifications

3. Static and kinetic friction

4. Horizontal and ver
tical circles

5. Planetary motion


Chapter

5& 6:
Work, Energy, Power & Momentum
(
Sept 30

Oct17
)


A. Work and Work
-
Kinetic Energy Theorem


B. Conservative Forces and Potential Energy

1. Gravity

2. Springs


C. Conservation of Mechanical Energy


D. Power


E. Simple Harmonic Motion

(*Chapter 13)

1. Springs and Pendulums

2. Energies of SHM


F. Momentum

1. Impulse
-
Momentum Theorem

2. Conservation of Linear Momentum and Collisions

a. Inelastic, completely inelastic and perfectly elastic collisions

b. Two
-
dimensional collisions


II. FLUIDS MECHANICS & THERMAL PHYSICS

Ch
apter 9
: Fluid Mechanics
(
Oct 18
-
Nov 4
)


A. Density and pressure

1. Density and specific gravity

2. Pressure as a function of depth

3. Pascal’s Law


B. Buoyancy


Archimedes’ Principle


C. Fluid flow continuity


D. Bernoulli's equation


E. Applications

1. Hydraulics

2. Effects of atmosphere on weather, baseballs, etc.

3. Flotation and SCUBA

4. Flight

5. Plumbing

Chapter 10 &11:

Thermal Physics
(Nov
5
-
Dec6
)


A. Temperature and Thermal Effects

1. Mechanical equivalent of heat

2. Heat transfer and thermal expansion

a. linear expansion of solids

b. volume expansio
n of solids and liquids

3. Calorimetry


B. Kinetic Theory, Ideal Gases & Gas Laws


C. Thermodynamics

1. Processes and PV diagrams

2. First Law of Thermodynamics

a. Internal energy

b. Energy conservation

c. Molar heat capacity of a gas

3. S
econd Law of Thermodynamics

a. Directions of processes

b. Entropy


4. Heat Engines and Refrigerators

Dec 9
-
12 Review of EXAMS. Practice problems and Test

Dec 16
-
20:

Semester Exam


III.
WAVES

Chapter 13 &14
: Wave motion and Sound (
Jan
13
-
22
)



A. Description and characteristics of waves


B. Standing waves and harmonics

1. Waves on a string

2. Waves in a tube (open and closed)


C. The Doppler Effect (in one dimension)


D. Sound intensity, power and relative sound intensi
ty


E. Musical applications


IV
. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM

Chapter 15 & 16: Electrostatics
(Jan 23

Feb 4
)


A. Coulomb’s Law


B. Electric Fields and Gauss’ Law


C. Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential


D
. Capacitance

1. Graphical description of capacitance (charge vs. voltage)

a. slope


capacitance

b. area


energy stored

2. Capacitors in series and parallel


E
. Applications

1. Point charge distributions

2. Parallel plates

3. Cathode ray tubes

4. Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

5. Condensers, uninterruptible power supplies, tone controls


Chapter 17&18: Current Electricity
(Feb5

Feb21
)


A.

Electric Circuits

1. Emf, Current, Resistance and Power

2. DC circuits

a. Series and parallel circu
its

b. Batteries and internal resistance

c. Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s rules

d. Voltmeters and ammeters

e. Capacitors in circuits (RC circuits)

3. Applications

Chapter
19 & 20
Electromagnetism (Feb 24


March 11
)


A
. Magnetostatics

1. Force of a m
agnetic field on a moving charge

2. Force of a magnetic field on a current carrying wire

3. Torque on a current carrying loop

4. Magnetic fields due to straight and coiled wires


B. Electromagnetic Induction

1. Magnetic flux

2. Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law


C. Applications

1. Mass spectrometers

2. Motors

3. Generators

4. Particle colliders


V. OPTICS

Chapter 22
-
24
: Optics (
March 12

March 31
)


A. Geometric Optics

1. Reflection, Refraction and Snell’s Law

a. Reflection and refraction at a plane surface

b. Total internal reflection

2. Images formed by mirrors

3. Images formed by lenses

4. Ray Diagrams and the thin lens/mirror equation


B. Physical Optics

1. The electromagnetic spectrum

2. Interference and path difference

3. Interference effects

a. Single slit

b. Double slit

c. Diffraction grating

d. Thin film

V
I
. A
TOMIC
& N
UCLEAR
P
HYSICS

Chapter

27
-
30

Modern Physics (
April
April 17
)


A. Atomic Physics and Quantum Effects

1. Photons and the Photoelectric effect

2. X
-
ray production

3. Electron energy levels

4. Compton scattering

5. Wave nature of matter


B. Nuclear Physics

1. Atomic mass, mass number, atomic number

2. Mass defect and nuclear binding energy

3. Nu
clear processes

a. modes of radioactive decay (α, β, γ)

b. fission

c. fusion

4. Mass
-
Energy Equivalence and Conservation of Mass and Energy



April 22


May 2
:

Review of the Fall

and Spring

Semester material

May 5
-
14
:

AP Exam

and Semester Exam



Labs

Labs are designed to foster critical thinking skills.

All l
abs are hands on and in some labs,
Vernier® Sensors with TI Calculator or
LogPro3

software will be used to collect data and
preform analysis.

Students are given an objective, e.g. “Determine the
coefficient of static friction of wood on
wood”, and standard materials


string, ruler, protractor, mass set, light pulley,
CBL,
etc.


In
some cases, s
tudents are allowed to create their own experi
mental design, but ultimately

the
lab designs will

lead to

the collection of data which can be analyzed through graphical methods.


Students must graph by hand using a ruler and graph paper, but are encouraged to
check their
work with a spread
sheet or statistical functions on their graphing calculators. Students

work in
pairs, but each student must submit a lab report which is turned in the day after the conclusion
of each activity, then graded and returned. Each Lab report will follow the below format

• a statement of the problem

• an hypothesis

• a discussion o
r outline of how the procedure will be carried out,

• the data recorded

• a discussion or outline of how the data was analyzed

• a conclusion including error analysi
s and topics for further study



Below you will find the list of labs:


1.

Motion at Incline

in One Dimension



Objective
:

To analyze the motion of objects moving at constant speed and at uniform
accelerated motion. Data should be collected to produce a graph of
x
versus
t
and use
the graph to plot a
v
-

versus
t
-
graph for each object.


Equipment:

Motion detector
and V
ernier
® dynamic carts



2.

Cart at an Incline


Objective:
To determine the acceleration due to gravity
.


Equipment:

Motion detector and
V
ernier
® dynamic cart



3.

Vector Addition


Objective:

To compare the experimental value of a resultant of several vectors to the
values obtained through graphical and analytical methods.


Equipment:

A force table set



4.

Projectile Motion


Objective:

To determine the initial velocity of a projectile and the
angle at which the
maximum range can be attained


Equipment:

Ball Ramp, Photogates





5.

Atwood Machine’s : Newton’s Second Law


Objective:

To determine the acceleration of a system and the tension in the string.


Equipment:

Modified Atwood’s machine,

meter stick, stopwatch or photogate, and a set
of masses



6.

Static and Kinetic Friction


Objective:

Determination of static and kinetic coefficients of friction using two different
methods.

Equipment
:
Rectangular blocks of different materials (felt and
wood), Dual Range Force
Sensor, Motion Detector



7.

Toy Popper Energy


Objective:

Determine the Kinetic, Potential and elastic energy of a toy “popper”
.


Equipment
:
“Popper” Toy, meter stick, electronic balance beam, tape



8.

Linear

Momentum


Objective:

Determine
the velocity of each cart before and after collision.


Equipment
:

dynamic cart track,
two low
-
friction dynamics carts with

Magnetic and Velcro™ bumpers, motion de
t
ectors



9.

Centripetal Acceleration on a Turntable


Objective:

Measure the centripetal acceleration on the turntable. Determine the
relationship between centripetal acceleration, radius, and angular velocity.


Equipment:

Low
-
g
-

accelerometer, turntable, masking tape, meter stick, mass, level







10.
Potential Energy
investigation: Spring and Gravitational


Objective:

To determine the spring constant of the spring, the evaluation of the extent to
which the change in gravitational potential energy of the mass is equal to the change in the
spring potential energy.


Equipment:

Hooke’s law apparatus, a set of masses, and a meter stick.




11.
Potential Energy investigation: Spring and Gravitational


Objective:

To determine the spring constant of the spring, the evaluation of the extent to
which the change in gravitational
potential energy of the mass is equal to the change in the
spring potential energy.

Equipment:

Hooke’s law apparatus, a set of masses, and a meter stick.



12.
Period of Pendulum


Objective:

To determine the effects length and mass have on a pendulum


Equipment:

Stand, String, mass, protractor, stopwatch, measuring stick




13.
Archimedes’ Principle


Objective:

To determine the density of two unknown materials.


Equipment:

Triple
-
beam balance, overflow can, beaker, various metal objects and string




14.
Torricelli’s Theorem


Objective:
To determine the exit velocity of a liquid and to investigate the range
attained with holes at varying heights

Equipment:

Clear plastic bottle with three holes at various heights, plastic container,
water, and meter stick.





15.
Coefficient of Linear Expansion


Objective:
The purpose of this lab is to measure the coefficient of thermal linear
expansion for a selection of metals and compare the results to the theoretical values.


Equipment:

L
inear expansion apparatus, Boiler and plastic tubing,
Centigrade
thermometer, Meter stick,
two

metal rods
Paper towels and pot holders,
Cup to catch
run off
. (This will be teacher guided experiment)


16.
Ideal Gas Law


Objective
:
To verify that the pressure of

a gas (air) at a fixed temperature is inversely
proportional to the gas volume, to verify that the volume of a gas at a fixed pressure is
proportional to the gas temperature and to determine an experimental value for a
constant that relates the temperatur
e in Celsius to the absolute temperature
.


Equipment:


Vernier® Gas Pressure Sensor,
Vernier
®

Temperature Probe, plastic tubing
with two connectors, rubber stopper assembly, flask, ring stand, utility clamp, hot plate,
four 1 liter beakers,
glove, ice



17.
Sound Waves and Beats


Objective
:
To determine the frequency, period, amplitude of sound waves and calculate
the beats between the sounds of two tuning forks.


Equipment:

Vernier ® Microphone, 2 tuning forks




18.
Speed of Sound


Objective
:
To determine
the speed of sound at standard pressure and temperature in
air using a resonant air column.


Equipment:

Vernier ® Microphone
, Vernier ® temperature probe, dog training clicker,
resonance tube with plug, meter stick








19.
Coulomb’s Law

and Static Electricity


Objective
:
To determine the charge on two spherical polystyrene balls. To
make
qualitative observations of the behavior of an electroscope when it is charged by
conduction and by induction


Equipment:

Polystyrene balls, string,
stand, and a meter stick. Electroscope and
electrostatic materials set




20.
Series and
Parallel

Circuits

and RC Circuit


Objective
:
Two Part Lab:


Part 1
:
To
investigate the behavior of resistors in series, parallel, and series
-
parallel
circuits. The lab
should include measurements of voltage and current.

Part 2:

Measure an experimental time constant

of a resistor
-
capacitor circuit.
Compare
the time constant to the value predicted from the component values of the

resistance
and capacitance.

Measure the po
tential across a capacitor as a function of time as it
discharges and as it

charges.


Equipment:

Circuit Board, 4 Resistors, non
-
polarized Capacitors,

single
-
pole, double
throw switch, Voltmeter, ammeter, Vernier ® Voltage and Current Probe, Batteries
,
c
onnecting wires



21.
Magnetic Field Investigation


Objective
:
To
map the magnetic field around a bar magnet and to determine the
strength of the magnetic field


Equipment:

Bar magnet, compasses, meter stick and protractor




22.
Electromagnetic Induction


Objective
:
Build
a

solenoid

and electromagnet. Then
determine the following:



Relationship between magnetic field and the current in a solenoid



Relationship between magnetic field and the number of turns per meter
in a solenoid.



value of the permeability
constant

Equipment:

Bar Magnet, nail, small and large wire, switch, meter stick, DC power
supply, ammeter, cardboard spacers, connecting wires, tape and cardboard, Venier ®
magnetic field sensor


23.
Interference


Objective
:
To determine the wavelength of a source of light by using a double slit and a
diffraction grating of known spacing.


Equipment:

Diode Laser, slits, Meter stick



24.
Index of Refraction


Objective
:
Determine the index of refraction and critical angel of
water and acrylic block


Equipment
:

laser, meter stick, paper, protractor, small plastic tray, water, acrylic block.



25.

Mirrors and Lenses


Objective
:
Two Part Lab

Part 1:

Using a concave mirror, determine three locations where a real image can be
formed and one where a virtual image is formed

Part 2:

Determine the focal length of a converging lens directly and the focal length of a
diverging lens by combining it with a con
verging lens.


Equipment
:

Optics bench, set of lenses and mirrors, light source



26.

Photoelectric Effect Analogy



Objective
:

To understand the concepts in the photoelectric effect

and the equation.

Student
will be able to

visualize some of the concepts in the photoelectric effect by
using

colliding balls to represent scattering particles and obstacles to represent energy
thresholds.


In order to illustrate the concept in a clearer way
, the students will use a
life
-
size mod
el of a photon ejecting an electron

to collect and analyze data.


The lab and
design of the model can be found at the following website:
http:
//dev.physicslab.org/Document.aspx?doctype=2&filename=AtomicNuclear_Photoe
lectricAnalogy.xml

Equipment:



An inclined track to roll a metal 1"
-
diameter metal ball down



PVC tubes cut to approximately 7"
-
lengths with thin rubber bottoms



One metal 1"
-
diameter ball



Two collisions ball:

plastic, aluminum, brass, or wood