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___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

1

Edith Cowan University

Hazard & Risk Management
Guidelines



PREAMBLE


This guide has been prepared to assist you through the process of hazard
identification, risk assessment and the

implementation of suitable measures to prevent
or reduce the likelihood of injury or harm occurring to persons at the workplace.


Why make the workplace safer?


There are four main reasons:




Out of concern for the safety and health of staff, students,
contractors and
visitors.



It makes good business sense and is cost effective.



So that the University’s duty of care to its employees, customers, contractors,
students and visitors can be met.



To ensure that the University complies with statutory safety and

health
requirements.


RESPONSIBILITIES


ECU requires line managers and supervisors in consultation with elected safety and
health representatives to identify hazards and assess the risk of an accident, illness,
injury or harm to the health of a person fro
m exposure to that hazard. There is an
expectation that identified hazards will be assigned a priority rating for corrective
action and that treatments will be implemented as per the hierarchy of controls to
reduce the risk of injury or harm to persons in

that workplace.


Workplace hazard identification, assessment and treatment are an on
-
going process.
It should be undertaken at various times, including:




If it has not been done before.



When a hazard has been identified.



When a change to the workplace oc
curs.



After an incident, accident or workplace injury.



At regularly scheduled times appropriate to the risk profile of the workplace.


The application of the process will allow Faculties and Centres to:




Identify hazards in their workplaces.



Assess the
risks to injury or harm occurring from exposure to the hazard.



Apply risk treatments by determining the most appropriate measures to prevent or
reduce the likelihood of injury or harm.



Monitor and review the effectiveness of the implemented measures.



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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

2

DEFI
NITIONS



Hazard


Anything that has the potential to cause harm, including injury, disease, death,
environmental or property and equipment damage.



Hazard Identification


This is the process of examining each work area and work task for the purpose of
identifying all the hazards, which are “inherent in the job”. Work areas include but
are not limited to machine workshops, laboratories, office areas, field trips, stores and
transport, maintenance and grounds, reprographics, lecture theatres and teaching

spaces. In simple terms, it means identifying all of the possible ways in which people
may be harmed through work
-
related activities.
For further information click here
.



Risk


The chance of something happening that will have an i
mpact on the achievement of
the University’s objectives. Risk is measured in terms of consequence and likelihood.



Risk Assessment


The overall process of risk analysis and evaluation.
For more information click here.



Risk Treatme
nt


This involves the selection and implementation of appropriate options for dealing with
specific risks and hazards.
For more information click here.



Monitor and Review


This involves ongoing monitoring and reviewing of the contr
ol processes to make
sure they are working effectively.
For more information click here
.



MSDS


Material Safety

Data Sheet as provided by the product manufacturer.



Risk Management


This is the culture, process and structures that are directed towards the effective
management of potential opportunities and adverse effects within Edith Cowan
University.



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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

3

WHY SHOULD I DO A RISK ASSESSMENT?


To assess if the hazard identified has the potential to cause injury or harm and assign
an acceptable or unacceptable level of risk.


What will the risk assessment process do?



identify the probability or likelihood of injury or harm occurring;



determine
the consequences;



prioritise identified and reported hazards in order of seriousness;



identify the best methods of reducing the risk; and



allow effective allocation of resources;


Why consultation is an essential part of the risk assessment process


People
’s skills, perception, knowledge and personal experiences contribute to the
process of risk assessment therefore, it is essential that people be consulted in th
is

process. Without consultation hazards will go unchecked, unnoticed and may lead to
an accide
nt and injury. All points of view should be sought and given consideration.



DO I NEED TO DO A RISK ASSESSMENT?


Yes

i)

If it has not been done before.

ii)

When a hazard has been identified.

iii)

When a change to the workplace occurs.

iv)

After an incident, accident or
workplace injury.

v)

At regularly scheduled times appropriate to the workplace.

vi)

Where a legislative requirement dictates, or changes have occurred.

vii)

If a legal precedent has been established.


No

If a risk assessment has been done in the previous 12 months an
d:

i)

There has been
no

change to the process or activities performed.

ii)

There have been
no

reported incidents or
a
ccidents.

iii)

If there has been
no

change to the building/environment infrastructure.

iv)

No

change or substitution of staff undertaking the activity.

v)

There has been
no

change to regulatory requirements, state or national
codes of practice, Australian Standard
s

or guidance notes.

vi)

The process continues
to meet

current regulatory requirements.


Do
Not
Know

i)

Conduct a preliminary risk assessment for guidanc
e.

ii)

Contact the University OS&H Office.

iii)

Consult with your local safety & health representative, your Campus
Working Group, local committee and your immediate supervisor.



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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

4


HOW DO I CONDUCT A RISK ASSESSMENT?


THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE


The risk
assessment procedure can best be illustrated in the following way.



























RISK ASSESSMENT CYCLE


THE
PROCESS


Risk assessment requires good judgement and awareness of the potential risks of a
work activity and work process. It is essential therefore that the person(s) conducting
the risk assessment have knowledge and experience of the activities and proc
ess to be
assessed. Risk assessment will be more complicated or difficult if the information or
data regarding hazards of the work activity or process is incomplete.


In some cases it may be necessary to break down the activity or process into a series
o
f parts and assess each activity and part separately. Before commencing the risk
assessment process it is important to understand the types of hazards, risks and the
types of injuries that are likely to occur in the workplace.
Examples

of injuries
occurring from exposure to hazards
.



Step 1
:

Hazard identification

Step 2
:

Risk
assessment

Step 3
:

Risk treatment (Decide On the
change

required)

Step 4
:

Make the change

Step 5
:

Monitor and review

Check if there is a Law,
Regulation, Australian
Standard, Industry Code of
Practice or guidance material
made about any of the hazards
you have identified?

Follow the information in
the Regulation, Standard,
Code or Guide.


Yes


No

Consult with workplace employees and elected
safety and health representatives to develop an
acceptable standard and then go back to Step No 2


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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

5

THE PROCEDURE


The hazard identification, risk assessment, risk treatment, monitoring and follow
-
up
process consists of five (5) steps. To ensure that the process has been applied
successfully, all steps

need to be undertaken in consultation with the local safety &
health representative and documented. The steps are:


Step 1
-

Hazard Identification
(return)


Is
the identification of
any foreseeable hazard that has the potential to
cause injury or
harm to the health of a person at the workplace.


It i
nvolves recognising things which may cause injury or harm to the health of a
person, for instance the use of hazardous substances or unguarded machinery
.


How do you identify hazards?




Check injury/hazard reports to identify what caused the incident
.



Consult with employees, supervisors and safety and health representatives
.



Identify and analyse work processes/tasks
.



Look and analyse accident/injury trends
.



Conduct walk
-
through surveys
.



U
ndertake workplace inspections, formal and informal
.



Review hazard information from designers or manufacturers
.


Always ask the question

“Is the hazard of a minor nature/risk and can it be fixed
easily or immediately?”


If you can answer
yes

to this questi
on you should note this as your assessment of the
hazard/risk and immediately rectify the problem and record your findings or action.
You then need to monitor and review your risk treatment at a predetermined date.


If the hazard is not of a minor nature,

check to determine if either the University or
WorkSafe Western Australia have a policy, procedure, regulation, code of practice or
guidance note for this hazard?
If any such documents exist you are to refer to the
advice in that document(s).


Decide if
the Hazard is as:




Mechanical Hazard



Hazardous Substances



Biological

Hazard



Ergonomic Hazard
s



Manual Handling Hazards



Radiat
ion Hazard


What to Do Next?


After categorising the hazard you need to select the appropriate:




Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet; and



Obtain copies of the Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet.


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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

6

Then, using the examples of the Hazard Type information provided on the Risk
Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet Record all your identified hazards in the
column provided on the
Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet.

Deliberate
spaces
have been provided on the Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet in that you
may identify additional types of hazards.


Step 2



Risk
Assessment
(return)


Risk assessment is assessing the
likelihood

and
consequence
s of in
jury or harm
caused by exposure to workplace hazards and/or systems of work. If the problem is
obvious and the likelihood of injury and the seriousness of injury are thought to be
high, act immediately to treat the risk by using an interim short
-
term meas
ure. Then
do the research required to fully assess the risk and decide on
long term
solutions.


An important aspect of the risk assessment activity is the concept of what is
reasonably practicable?

What is reasonably practicable?


The risk assessment pro
cess must take into account the following:




Practicable

means reasonably practicable having regard, where the context
permits, to:



(a)

the severity of any potential injury or harm to health that may be
involved, and the degree of risk of it occurring;


(b)

the state of knowledge about:


(i)

the injury or harm to health referred to in paragraph (a);

(ii)

the risk of that injury or harm to health occurring; and

(iii)

means of removing or mitigating the risk or mitigating the
potential injury or harm to hea
lth; and



(c)

the availability, suitability and cost of the means referred to in
paragraph (b)(iii).


In other words,
practicable means reasonably practicable taking into account risk
of harm, severity of any harm, knowledge about these and
the
means of
rectifying the problem.
The issue of for example using costs alone as an assessment
is not considered reasonable.


The process of assessing the risk is undertaken by reviewing any available
information about the hazard and by using your work expe
rience about what sort of
accident or injury the hazard could create and how likely this would be to happen.
When determining how likely it is that a person could be exposed to a hazard or
hazardous event, consideration needs to be given to the following
“exposure factors”:


Likelihood.
This terminology is used as a qualitative description of probability or
frequency. For example, “
Almost Certain” is expected to occur in most
circumstances, “Likely” will probably occur in most circumstances, “Possible”
might
occur at some time, “Unlikely” could occur at some time, “Rare” may occur only in
exceptional circumstances.



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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

7

Frequency


How often
is the person exposed? and
How many people

are exposed?


Consequences
. Means the
outcome

of an event expressed as a n
ear miss injury or
injury expressed in terms of, Insignificant, Minor, Serious, Disastrous or Catastrophic.
The severity of the outcome must be considered when assigning a consequence factor.


NOTE:

-

Always check to determine if the statutory authorities

require any legislative
or recommended exposure levels.


Methods of assessing risk


Using the Risk Score calculator, first determine the consequence of the event, then the
likelihood of the event occurring. The point at which the two categories converge
on
the risk assessment matrix provides a qualitative assessment of the level of risk.



EXAMPLE ONLY
:

If mixing a hazardous substance where exposure to the natural
skin may cause irritation or burning then:


a) Consider the likelihood of the hazardous sub
stance making contact with the skin.
For the purpose of the example we will assume that no protective clothing is being
worn. Therefore assume that it is “Possible”.

b)

The activity is infrequent and may occur twice a year.

c)

Consequences, according to the MS
DS are skin irritation or burn is “Minor”.


Using the Risk Matrix with a Likelihood of
possible

and Consequences of
minor
, we
obtain a Risk Rating of “M” representing a m
edium

risk. With the issue of personal
protective equipment such as gloves, which is
a physical barrier the risk of exposure is
removed.



THE RISK MATRIX






Consequences
&

Likelihood


Insignificant


Minor


Serious


Disastrous


Catastrophic

Rare

L

L

L

L

M

Unlikely

L

L

M

M

S

Possible

L

M

M

S

H

Likely

L

M

S

H

E

Almost
Certain

M

S

H

E

E




INCREASING

INCREASING

M


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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

8

HOW TO INTERPRET YOUR REQUIRED ACTIONS


Low

Staff to m
anage by routine procedures
.

Medium

Head of School,
Line Manager or Supervisor responsibility, with attention
to focus on the need for additional
controls.

Substantial

Executive Dean/Dean to action

and must implement long term controls.

High

Immediate notification,
Chancellery to action
.

Extreme

Immediate action required. Detailed research and management planning
required at Senior and Health
Service Management Team level
. To be
reported to the VC.



What to Do Next? Do your own risk assessment using the principles of the
example


Using the

risk factors offered on the Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet
as well as those that you may
have identified then:




consider the matters such as almost certain; likely; possible etc and;



using the Risk Matrix assign the hazard a consequence of catastrophic,
Disastrous
M
inor

or insignificant and then;



link the likelihood rating of almost certain, r
are etc to the consequence rating and
assign a risk level of E, H,
S,
M or L; and



finally using the information in (i) (ii) or (ii) below assign the risk level a
numerical risk priority rating of 1 to 6. Make a selection.


i)

Extreme (1 & 2)

-

Top Priorit
y


Isolate the hazard immediately. Must
fix the cause(s)
immediately
.

ii)

Substantial/
High (3 & 4)

-

High

Priority


Isolate the hazard as soon as
practicable. Must fix the cause(s) within 1 month.

Regularly monitor the
cause(s) and hazard until rectified.

iii)

Low/M
edium

(5 & 6)

-

Low Priority


Must fix the cause(s) when time
and resources permit, but within 3 months. Regularly monitor the
cause(s) and hazard until rectified.


Using the Hazard & Risk

Summary Treatment Sheet:

record in the columns
provided your risk level of E, H,

S

M, or L and your assigned numerical risk priority
rating factor of 1
-
6 against each hazard identified in Step 1.


Step 3



Risk Treatment (Decide on the change required)
(return)


In many cases, it may be necessary to use more than one treatment measure to manage
exposure to risk. For example, to minimise exposure to a risk involving a chemical
you could decide to replace the chemical with a less toxic

one, implement safer work
procedures and/or use a fume cupboard.


Some treatment measures that are lower priorities may need to be put in place until a
permanent solution can be achieved for example, to minimise exposure to the risk

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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

9

may be achieved by inc
reasing supervision, changing work procedures or erecting a
temporary barrier.


Whatever treatment measures are being chosen, the “hierarchy of control principles”
must be taken into account. In order of priority, consider those at the top of the list,
from elimination, and work down to personal protective equipment as the least
desirable choice.


The General Hierarchy of Hazard Control




*

ELIMINATION

*

SUBSTITUTION

*

ISOLATION

*

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

*

ADOPTION OF SAFE WORK PRACTICES

*

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT



Actions:

(These should be determined by both the person(s) identifying/assessing the
risk and the responsible manager and the elected safety and health representative).


Elimination:
i
s the first choice and this

is a permanent solution and should be
attempted in the first instance.

Substitution:
i
f elimination is not possible

the next preferred option involves
replacing the hazard by one of lower risk.

Isolation (enclose the hazard):
t
his choice is to isolate the

hazard so that people do
not come in contact with it.

Engineering:
controls involve physical barriers or structural changes to the
environment or process.

Administrative:
controls reduce hazard by altering procedures and providing
instructions. eg:

i)

Writte
n Safe Operating Procedures.

ii)

Job rotation to restrict hours worked on difficult jobs.

iii)

Staff trained in the correct operating procedures.


Personal protective equipment:
last resort or temporary treatment

to deal with the
hazard, where the hazard cannot be
removed or reduced by any other means, eg:

i)

Handling of chemicals


gloves, safety glasses, aprons.

ii)

Protecting eyes from flying particles.

iii)

Protecting feet


safety boots.


There is a legal requirement to address each of the control criteria from

elimination through to personal protective equipment and to substantiate and
document why each criteria is not reasonably practicable for the solution of the
hazard.


Administration and the use of personal protective equipment are the lowest
priority on the list of controls. These treatments should NOT be relied on as the
MOST

LEAST


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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

10

primary means of risk control. The higher option in the control priorities must
have been exhauste
d. These treatments require management, enforcement, and
commitment, together with behavioural modification.


Where regulations require specific methods to treat the risk, these must be complied
with. Typical Treatment Procedures embracing the hierarchy
of control principles are
shown

on each of the Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheets. For examples
click on your hazard category below.




Mechanical

Hazards



Hazardous Substances



Biological Hazards

(Biological & Microbiological)

(Animal & Insects)



Ergonomic

Hazards



Manual Handling Hazards



Radiation Hazards


Once you have decided on the control measures the next stage is the implementation
of those treatments.


What to Do Next?


Using the Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet:

Adjacent to the information
where the haz
ard, risk level and the risk priority rating have been recorded provide
information on the recommended solution and controls(s), the name and position of
the person responsible for the action and include an estimated date for completion.


Step 4
: Make the
change


You will need to develop work procedures in relation to the new treatment measures,
which may involve clearly defining responsibilities of management, supervisors and
workers. You must inform all relevant persons about the treatment measures being

implemented; in particular, the reasons for the changes.


You should provide adequate supervision to verify that the new treatment measures
are being implemented and used correctly. Any maintenance in relation to the
treatment measures is an important pa
rt of the process. Work procedures should
detail maintenance requirements and verification of the maintenance to ensure the
ongoing effectiveness of the treatment measures.


What to Do Next?


Using the Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet:

In the final column insert
the date when the matter was completed.


Step 5

-

Monitor and
review
(return)


Hazard identification, risk assessment and treatment are an on
-
going process.
The
final step is to monitor and review the ef
fectiveness of the implemented treatment
measures.

A further brief risk assessment should be conducted after a given time
frame and assessed against the original assessment. To assist in the assessment of the
final outcome
ask questions to determine whet
her:


i)

The chosen treatment measure was implemented?

ii)

Are these measures being used?


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Hazard & Risk Management Guidelines

11

iii)

Are the measures being used correctly?

iv)

Chosen treatment measures are working?

v)

Have the changes made to treat exposure to the assessed risks resulted in
what
was intended?

vi)

Has exposure to the assessed risks been elimination or adequately reduced?

vii)

Are there are new problems.

viii)

Have implemented treated measures resulted in the introduction of any new
problems?

ix)

Have implemented treatment meas
ures resulted in the worsening of any
existing problems?


Record Keeping


Adequate record keeping of the risk management process will help demonstrate to the
University and
WorkSafe Western Australia

that you have been actively working to
ensure safety and health at the University. Records must show that the process has
been conducted properly including information about the hazards, associated risks and
that treatment measures have been implemented.


Should you require advice or assistance on any part of this process please do not
hesitate to contact a representative of the Occupational Safety & Health team on the
Joondalup Campus.


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:


Mike Gavin, Manager Occupational S
afety and Health

Telephone

6304 2302

Mobile


0417 185 145

E
-
mail


m.gavin@ecu.edu.au

Belinda Owen
, Occupational Safety and

Health Officer

Telephone

6304 2725

E
-
mail


b.owen@
ecu.edu.au


File Number:



96/3669

Originator:



M. Gavin, Manager Occupational Safety and Health

Approved by:

Occupational
S
afety & Health Campus Working Groups
& the University Occupational Safety & Health Policy
Committee


Date Approved:




Revision
No

Date of
Revision

Details of Revision

Approved
Date

No 1

Dec 04

Risk Matrix revised from a 4x5 to a 5x5 format.


No 2

Aug 08

General amends



P:/03/OSH/Policy/Risk management/Risk Management for Risk Assessment procedure

R1
.doc

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Hazard Management & Risk Assessment Guidelines

12

SUMMARY O
F HAZARD, RISK ASSESSMENT & TREATMENT PROCEDURE


Step 1:

Hazard Identification

Describe the activity or task undertaken.

Use the appropriate Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet to help Identify and list the hazard(s).

What is the hazardous event that could take place?


TIP: Be aware that more than one event may take place.



Check accident/injury trends/data and if an incident has occurred in the past.



Consult with those who do the job.



Conduct inspections and review ha
zard information.



Think about what could happen if something went wrong.


If the hazard is not of a minor nature, check to determine if either the University or WorkSafe Western Australia have a poli
cy,
procedure, regulation, code of practice or guidance note for this hazard?
If any such documents exist you are to refer to the
advice in that document(s).


Record all your identified hazards onto the Hazard & Risk Summary Sheet into the column provided


Step 2:

Risk Assessment
:


Do not forget the meaning of “Reasonably Practicable” and use the appropriate Risk Assessment & Treatm
ent
Reference Sheet to assist in understanding the risk associated to a hazard.




What is the severity of any potential injury?



What is the degree or risk of it occurring?



What do you know about the process?



What means are available to remove the hazard or

reduce the risk to a reasonable practicable level?



What are the costs?


Having given consideration to the above matters now
determines how likely or probable it is that the hazardous event
will take place and the person will be exposed to the hazard. Use

the expressions likelihood, frequency and
consequences etc:




Almost certain

could happen any time.



Likely
could happen sometime.



Moderate
could happen but very rarely.



Unlikely
could happen, but probably never will.



Rare
remote.



What is the frequency of
exposure?, then



What are the consequences?, catastrophic?,
disastrous
?,
serious
?, minor or insignificant?



Link the
likelihood rating to the consequence rating

to give a risk level of either: Extreme, High,
Substantial,
Medium or

Low.


Then finally assign t
he Risk Level a priority risk rating of between 1 to 6.




Extreme (1 & 2)

-

Top Priority


Isolate the hazard immediately. Must fix the cause(s)
immediately
.



Substantial/High

(3 & 4)

-

Medium Priority


Isolate the hazard as soon as practicable. Must fix the cause(s) within
1 month. Regularly monitor the cause(s) and hazard until rectified.



Low
/Medium

(5 & 6)

-

Low Priority


Must fix the cause(s) when time and resources permit, but

within 3 months.
Regularly monitor the cause(s) and hazard until rectified.


Record the information onto the Hazard & Risk Summary Sheet.


Step 3:

Risk Treatment (Decide on the change required)


Whatever treatment measures are being chosen, the “hierarch
y of control principles” must be taken into account.
Consider those at the top of the list, from elimination, and work down to personal protective equipment as the least
desirable choice.


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hazard Management & Risk
Assessment Guidelines

13

Tip:
Identify and list short and long
-
term solutions

to e
ither eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk. Determine by
how much the risk would reduce if your solutions were implemented.
Reassess the risk in relation to your proposed
solutions
, by repeating all the previous steps.





Elimination:

i
s the first cho
ice and this

is a permanent solution and should be attempted in the first instance.



Substitution:
i
f elimination is not possible

the next preferred option involves replacing the hazard by one of lower
risk.



Isolation (enclose the hazard):
t
he next choice
is to isolate the hazard so that people do not come in contact.



Engineering:
controls involve physical barriers or structural changes to the environment or process.



Administrative:
controls reduce hazard by altering procedures and providing instructions.



P
ersonal Protective Equipment:

this is the last preferred strategy.


It is critical to note that selection of the lowest order of the hierarchy of controls in the first instance is not
acceptable. There is a legal requirement to address each of the control

criteria from elimination through to
personal protective equipment and to substantiate and document why each criteria is not reasonably practicable
for the solution of the hazard.


Where regulations require specific methods to treat the risk, these must be complied with.


Typical prioritised control procedures and options are listed on each of the Risk Assessment & Treatment
Reference Sheets. These should be used as a guide in dete
rmining the appropriate control procedures.


Record the information onto the Hazard & Risk Summary Sheet.


Step 4:

Make the Change


You will need to develop work procedures in relation to the new treatment measures, which may involve clearly defining
resp
onsibilities of management, supervisors and workers. You must inform all relevant persons about the treatment
measures being implemented; in particular, the reasons for the changes.


You should provide adequate supervision to verify that the new control m
easures are being implemented and used
correctly. Any maintenance in relation to the treatment measures is an important part of the process. Work procedures
should detail maintenance requirements and verification of the maintenance to ensure the ongoing
effectiveness of the
control measures.


Record the information onto the Hazard & Risk Summary Sheet.


Step 5:

Monitor & Review


Hazard identification, risk assessment and control is an on
-
going process.
The final step in the process is to monitor and
revi
ew the effectiveness of measures.

A further risk assessment should be conducted after a give time frame and assessed
against the original assessment to determine if:




The chosen treatment measure was implemented?



Are these measures being used?



Are the
measures being used correctly?



Chosen treatment measures are working?



Have the changes made to control exposure to the assessed risks resulted in what was intended?



Has exposure to the assessed risks been eliminated or adequately reduced?



Any new problems.



Have implemented treatment measures resulted in the introduction of any new problems?



Have implemented treatment measures resulted in the worsening of any existing problems?



Obtain sign off on the treatment


Record Keeping


Records are to be maintained an
d signed off by the line manger supporting the process and agreeing to the recommended
controls.




Risk Assessment & Control Mechanical Hazards


14

Edith Cowan University

Risk Assessment & Treatment
Reference Sheets






WORKPLACE HAZARDS


Recognition of a hazard or potential hazard before it contributes to an accident/injury is
an essential aspect of a
successful safety and health program. While everybody in the
workplace must actively participate for the program to be successful, managers and
supervisors must play the key role in treating the hazards within the workplace.
Without their understanding o
f the system of hazard identification, risk assessment, risk
treatment and the review of identified hazards, they will be unable to carry out their
legal and moral duties.


TYPES OF HAZARDS


Hazards in the workplace can be divided into five major groups an
d these are:


EXAMPLES OF INJURY OCCURRING FROM EXPOSURE TO HAZARDS
(return)


HAZARD



OUTCOMES

(example of injury or harm)

Mechanical



Falling objects, falls, slips and trips
of people, being hit, hitting objects,
being caught in

or between
machinery and equipment, over
-
turning vehicles

fractures, bruises, lacerations,
dislocations, concussion, cuts,
amputation, permanent or fatal
injuries

Hazardous

Substances


Acids, cleaning agents, anaesthetic
gases

toxic effects, dermatitis,
respiratory illness, cancers

Biological


Viruses, bacteria, fungi, toxins and
needle stick injuries

hepatitis, Legionnaire’s disease,
儠ne癥爬⁴r瑡湵猬⁈f嘯A䥄pⰠ
a汬erg楥猬⁩湦ic瑩潮

Ergonomic &
Manual
Handling


Overexertion/repetitive movement,
manual h
andling, t
ool and
equipment design, job and task
design, furniture and work station
design

bad backs, sprains, strains,
fractures, Occupational Overuse
Syndrome

Radiation


Exposure to x
-
ray, gamma rays,
alpha and beta particle, uv light,
infra
-
red and
microwaves


Radiation sickness, cancer,
leukemia, skin burns



Risk Assessment & Control Mechanical Hazards

15

Mechanical Hazards

Return

to hazard identification

Return

to risk assessment


These are usually the most common types of hazards found in the workplace. They are
usually resulting from machinery, being stuck by, slips, trips and falls and even being
caught between moving parts of a machine.


Risk Assessment & T
reatment Reference Sheet



Do any of the
equipment and processes

that you use have any of the following
associated hazards?


No

Hazard Type

Risk Factors

MH
1.

Machinery Hazard

eg. Entanglement, crushing,
trapping, cutting, stabbing,
shearing, abrasion,
tearing?

MH
2.

Gravitational Hazard

Such as slip, trip or fall or being
hit by a falling object.

MH
3.

Kinetic Energy Hazard

Such as being hit by the activities
of another person or a moving
vehicle or object.

MH
4.

Electrical Hazard

Such as contact with
an electrical
conductor resulting in current
flow through the body.

MH
5.

Stored Energy Hazard

Such as pressurised containers,
vessels.

MH
6.

Noise or Vibration Hazards

Such as exposure to noise or
vibration

MH
7.

Thermal Hazards

Such as hot /cold surfaces

or
components, cryogenic gases, fire,
explosion, exothermic reactions.

MH
8

Hazardous Conditions

Such as equipment in poor
condition, unsuitable use of
equipment, unsafe system of
work, insufficient training.

MH
9.

Physico
-
chemical Hazards


Such as
corrosive or flammable
chemicals, asphyxiants.

MH
10



MH
11



MH
12



MH
13





Risk Assessment & Control Mechanical Hazards


16

R
isk Treatment
O
ptions


Risk treatment

measures for hazards associated with equipment and processes should
be considered in the following priority order:


Priority One


Elimination

The best way to eliminate the risk is to remove the hazardous equipment or discontinue
the hazardous process.
D
on’t use the equipment. Don’t use the process
.


Priority Two


Substitution/Reduction

Substitute the hazardous part of the equipment or hazardous part of the process with a
safer option.
Find a safer piece of equipment or better way to perform the process
.


Priority Three


Isolation

Isolate the people from the equipment or process. For example, put the equipment or
perform the process in a booth or a separate room. Provide remote activation /
treatment of the equipment or process.
Keep it away from
people
.


Priority Four
-

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls involve the use of measures to change the equipment or the
environment in which the process is undertaken. Treatment measures can include;



modifying the design of a piece of equipment;



mod
ifying the workplace layout in which a process is carried out;



installing guarding to prevent exposure to the hazardous parts of a piece of
equipment or process; and



providing enclosures, fume cupboards, local exhaust ventilation or automation.

Engineer a
better way.


Priority Five
-

Procedures and Training

Systems of work or safe work procedures can often help to reduce risk associated with
equipment and processes. All staff and students must be trained in the safe systems of
work or safe work procedures
. Periodic inspections and audits should be conducted to
ensure that the systems or procedures are being followed.

Examples include:



performing the task out of normal hours or restricting access to a certain area;



reducing the duration or frequency staff o
r students perform a specific task; and



good housekeeping.


Priority Six


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE includes overalls, aprons, footwear, gloves, safety glasses, face shields and
respirators. PPE can often be used in combination with other ri
sk treatment to further
reduce exposures to hazardous parts of equipment and processes. However, if they are
used as the only control measure they should be generally regarded as a short
-
term
solution or a last resort. Staff and students must be trained
in correct fit use and
maintenance of the PPE. In addition, you should make sure that the equipment is the
right one for the job and readily available.

return


Edith Cowan University acknowledges that the
above information
was kindly provided by Monash
University.



Risk Assessment & Control Hazardous Substances


17

Hazardous Substances

return to hazard identification


return to risk
assessment



Hazards as
sociated to hazardous substances occur from the use, handling and storage of
flammable solvents, corrosives, acids and poisons.


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet



To assist in conducting a risk assessment on a hazardous substance activity or
the use of
a hazardous substance, use the information and follow the procedure provided
electron
ically at the following address:

http://www.hr.ecu.edu.au/osh/html/hazards_home_page.cfm


Risk Assessment & Control Biological Hazards


18

Biological Hazards






(Return)


These types of hazards although not as common as say the above, they are still a
concern. They may be found in hospitals, pathology centres, research laboratories meat
works and sewers.


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet


Biological Hazards
-

M
icrobiological Exposure Hazards
(Animals/insects)


Do you have any of the following
hazards

when working with either microorganisms or
human blood and bodily fluids?


No

Hazard Type

Risk Factors

BH1
.

Undertake procedures or activities that
could result in

Spills or splashes of liquids
containing the microorganisms
or human blood and bodily
fluids.

BH2
.

Perform procedures or use equipment
that.

Produces aerosols

BH3
.

Use any sharps that are brought into

Direct contact with either
microorganisms or human blood
and bodily fluids?

BH
4



BH
5




R
isk Treatment
O
ptions


Risk treatment

is action taken to treat the risks to the
safety and health

of staff and
students. The primary duty is to eliminate any risk to health arising from the use of a
microbiological hazard. Where elimination of risk is not practical, you must reduce the
risk as far as practicable.
Risk treatment

measures for hazards
associated with
microbiological hazards should be considered in the following priority order:


Priority One


Elimination

Eliminating the risk by the use of the microbiological hazard that creates the risk is the
most effective way of protecting the health

of staff and students. When considering the
possibility of eliminating a microbiological hazard you need to begin by answering
questions like:



why is this microbiological material used?;



why is it necessary to carry out this function?; and



how could thi
s function be achieved by doing things differently?


Examples of elimination are: Use of an avirulent mutant.

Don’t use the biological hazard. Don’t use the process
.



Risk Assessment & Control Biological Hazards


19

Priority Two


Substitution/Reduction

Substitute the microbiological hazard for a less hazardous form. Use less of the
microbiological hazard.


Examples of substitution are:



using a risk group 1 rather than a risk group 2 organism; and



use screened sour
ces of human blood rather than unscreened sources of human
blood.

Find a less hazardous microorganism or find a better way to
perform the process
.


Priority Three


Isolation

Isolation involves separating people from the microbiological hazard by distance

or
barriers to prevent or reduce exposure. Barriers may take the form of a totally closed
system or process, an enclosure with exhaust extraction or an isolated / restricted access
room. e.g. PC2 laboratory requirements and practices.
Keep it away from
you.



Priority Four
-

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are physical treatments (such as equipment) that eliminate or
reduce the generation of airborne biological hazards, suppress or contain the potential
for airborne biological hazards or limit
the area of contamination in the event of spills or
leaks. Engineering controls often entail partial enclosure, exhaust ventilation or
automation.
Engineer a better way.


Priority Five
-

Procedures and Training

Systems of work or safe work procedures can
often help to reduce exposure to
microbiological hazards

Examples include:



performing the task out of normal hours or restricting access to a certain area;



reducing the duration or frequency staff or students perform a specific task;



good housekeeping;
and



cleaning up spills immediately.


Priority Six


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE includes overalls, aprons, footwear, gloves, safety glasses, face shields and
respirators. PPE can often be used in combination with other risk treatment to further

reduce exposures to microbiological hazards. However if they are used as the only
control measure they should be generally regarded as a short
-
term solution or a last
resort. Staff and students must be trained in correct fit use and maintenance of the P
PE.
In addition, you should make sure that the equipment is the right one for the job and
readily available.
(return
to risk assessment
)



Edith Cowan University acknowledges that the
above information
was kindly provided by Mon
ash
University.




Risk Assessment & Control Biological Hazards

20

Biological Hazards






(Return)


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet


Biological Hazards


Animal / Insects



Do you have any of the following hazards when working with animals or insects?


No

Hazard Type

Risk Factors

BH

8.

Direct contact with

A live animal or insect that
is capable of inflicting
physical damage.

BH

9.

Routine handling of

Large numbers of
animals
or insects that shed
allergenic material known to
cause sensitisation (e.g.
grasshopper colonies).

BH

10.

Contact with.

An animal or insect that is
capable of causing
poisoning or a toxic reaction

BH

11.

Contact with.

An animal or insect, or
parts
thereof, that may harbour
microorganisms that could
result in zoonotic infections

BH
12



BH
13



BH
14



BH
15








Risk Assessment & Con
trol Biological Hazards

21

R
isk Treatment
O
ptions

Risk treatments

are actions taken to treat risks to the
safety & health

of staff and
students. The primary duty is to eliminate any risk to health arising during work with
animals or insects. Where elimination of risk is not practical, you must reduce the risk
as far a
s practicable.
Risk treatment

measures for hazards associated with working
with animals or insects should be considered in the following priority order:


Priority One


Elimination

Eliminati
on

from the use of the animal or insect that creates the risk is
the most
effective way of protecting the health of staff and students. When considering the

possibility of eliminating an animal or insect from your protocol you need to begin by
answering questions like:



why is this biological system (e.g. animal or ins
ect) used? (What is its purpose or
function in the process?);



why is it necessary to carry out this function?; and



how could this function be achieved by doing things differently?


Don’t use the biological hazard. Don’t use the process.


Priority Two


Su
bstitution/Reduction

Substitute the animal or insect that creates the risk for a less hazardous form.

Find a less hazardous animal or insect or find a better way to perform the process
.


Priority Three


Isolation

Isolation involves separating people from the animal or insect that creates the risk by
distance or barriers to prevent or reduce exposure. Barriers may take the form of a
totally closed system or process, an enclosure with exhaust extraction or an isolat
ed /
restricted access room. e.g. PC2 laboratory requirements and practices.
Keep it away
from you.



Priority Four
-

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are physical treatments (such as equipment) that eliminate the
generation of airborne biologica
l hazards, suppress or contain the potential for airborne
biological hazards or control the animal that is the potential source of injury.
Engineering controls often entail partial enclosure, exhaust ventilation or automation.
Engineer a better way.
e.g.

Local exhaust ventilation for high exposure activities such
as cage washing. A cow crush is an example of a remote handling device to minimize
the potential for physical injury.


Priority Five
-

Procedures and Training

Systems of work or safe work proc
edures can help to reduce exposure to animal or
insect that creates the risk, like:



reducing the duration or frequency staff or students perform a specific task; and



good housekeeping.

Priority Six


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE includes overalls, aprons, footwear, gloves, glasses, face shields and respirators and
PPE can often be used in combination with other risk treatments to further reduce
exposures to airborne allergens or to reduce the potential for direct harm due to b
ites,
skin contact etc . If PPE is used as the only treatment measure they should be generally
regarded as a short
-
term solution or a last resort. Staff and students must be trained in
correct fit use and maintenance. In addition, you should make sure t
hat the equipment
is the right one for the job and readily available.
(return
to risk assessment
)

Edith Cowan University acknowledges that the
above information
was kindly provided by Monash
University.



Risk Assessment & Control Ergonomic &
Manual Handling Hazards

22

Ergonomics

(return)

Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet

Ergonomic hazards are related to the interaction between the person, machine, and the
environment.


Ergonomic
Hazards


To assist in:



conducting a risk assessment on an ergonomic hazard;



the set up of a work station using the basic principles of ergonomics; and



gaining an understanding of risk treatments and controls refer to the information
and procedures provided

electronically at the following address
http://www.hr.ecu.edu.au/osh/resource/Ergocheck3.pdf



R
isk Treatment
O
ptions

For

Ergonomic & Manual Handling Hazards


Risk treatment

is action taken to control risks to the safety and health of staff and
students. The primary duty is to eliminate any risk arising during work that involves
ergonomics

or manual handling
. Where the elimination of a risk is not practical, you
must reduce

the risk as far as practicable.
Risk treatment

can best be accomplished by
a combination of:




job redesign

or redesign
;



use of
ergonomic aids and equipment such as furniture
; and



provision of specific training.


Job redesign includes:




modifying the
workplace layout/workstation;



rearranging the material/work flow;



modifying the object or load being handled;



modifying the task so that a team lift can be used; and



modifying the task so that different actions & movements are required to
perform the task;

and



modify the tools & equipment used.


The focus should always be to firstly
to design the task to suit the person and where
practicable
eliminate the hazards by job redesign. If

this strategy

proves to be
impractical the task should be modified
in
or m
echanical assistance should be provided
to reduce the frequency and/or the muscle force required to perform the task in
conjunction with the supply of

appropriate
ergonomic equipment.


Following any modification to the task

and/or the introduction of equip
ment
or training
to

the workplace, a review and reassessment should always be carried out to ensure no
new hazards have been introduced.
(return

to risk assessment
)


Note:
information, training and instruction of employees in
m
anual handling or
ergonomic

techniques must not be used as the sole or primary means to treat the risk
.


Edith Cowan University acknowledges that the above information was kindly provided by Monash
University.


Risk Assessment & Control Manual Handling Hazards

23

Manual handling

(return

to hazard identification
)

(return to risk assessment)


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet


Manual Handling


To assist in:



conducting a risk assessment on a manual handling hazard;



gaining an understanding
of risk treatments and controls refer to the information

and procedures provided electronically at the following address
:
http://www.hr.ecu.edu.au/osh/html/manual_handling_risk_assessment.cfm






Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

24

Ionising Radiation

Hazards


Internal Exposur
e

(return)


Contamination Hazard (internal) for all Radioisotopes (alpha, beta and gamma)


This section applies to any situation where radioisotopes may enter the body by ingestion or
through wounds (generally unsealed sources). It
also applies to potential skin exposure
(usually the hands) when a person must handle sources of ionising radiation that may
contaminate the hands.


As a standard procedure radiation detection badges should be worn at all times by persons
working with radi
oisotopes to monitor levels of exposure.


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet


Do you work with any of the following?


No

Hazard Type

Risk Factors

R1.

Unsealed sources* of radioactive material?

Personal exposure.

R2.

Unsealed sources* of
radioactive materials

that emit neutrons** .

Personal exposure.

R3.

Sealed sources* whose containment has

been breached.

Personal exposure.


*

An unsealed source is one in which the radioactive material may readily escape, e.g. a
liquid source in a
glass vial.

*

A sealed source is one where the radioactive material is contained.

**

For neutron or x
-
ray sources


this risk assessment process is inadequate
-

you will
need to seek advice from the University Radiation Safety Officer.


Determine the
Hazard Potential



Total Activity
Used/Handled In A Single

Operation

Radioisotope
Radiotoxicity

Group^^


> 20,000 MBq

( > 540 mCi)

>

2000 MBq

to

<

20,000 MBq

(
>

54 mCi

to

< 540 mCi)

>

20 MBq

to

< 2000 MBq

(
>

0.54 mCi
to

< 54 mCi)

>

0.2 MBq
to

< 20 MBq

(5.4

Ci to
< 0.54 mCi)

< 0.2 MBq

(< 5.4

Ci)

1

(Am
-
241)


Very High



Very High


High


Medium


Low

2

(I
-
125, Co
-
60,

Ra
-
226)

Very High



High


Medium


Low


Low

3a

(P
-
32)

High

(Use finger
TLD)


Medium


Low


Low


Low

3b

(Co
-
57, Fe
-
55,

Na
-
22, P
-
33,
S
-
35)

High

(Use finger
TLD)



Medium


Low


Low


Very Low

4

(H
-
3, C
-
14, Cr
-
51,
Tc
-
99m)


High



Medium


Low


Very Low


Very Low


Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

25

^^ Consult AS2243.4 Table C3 for

a more comprehensive listing. If your radioisotope is not
listed in this standard contact the University Radiation Officer for advice.


To determine the likelihood of contamination and consequences refer to the model risk
Calculator.


Typical examples ar
e offered below

.

Likelihood of
Contamination

Procedure

Examples

Rare

Simple storage.

Material stored in proper storage.

Unlikely

Very simple wet operations.

Using aliquots of stock solutions.

Possible

Normal chemical operations

Complex wet operations.

Analysis of simple chemical
preparations.

Multiple operations.

Operations with complex glass
apparatus.

Northern blots.

Likely

Work with volatile radioactive
compounds.


Simple dry operations work.

Using
14
C
-
Toluene.

Performing an iodination.

Manipulation

of powders.

Almost
Certain

Complex dry operations.

Work with radioactive gases.

Where powders are likely to become
airborne.



Determine the Risk of Internal or Skin Contamination



Hazard Potential

Likelihood

of Internal
Contamination

Very Low

Low

Medium

High

Very High

Rare

Very Low

Low

Low

Medium

Medium

Unlikely

Very Low

Low

Low

Medium

High

Possible

Low

Low

Medium

High

Extreme

Likely

Medium

Medium

High

Extreme

Extreme

Almost Certain

Medium

High

Extreme

Extreme

Extreme


Risk Treatment Options


Risk Treatments

are actions taken to control risks to the safety and health of staff and
students. The primary duty is to eliminate any risk to health arising during work with
ionising radiation. Where elimination of risk is not practical, you must redu
ce the risk as far
as practicable.


Risk control

measures for hazards associated with working with ionising radiation should be
considered in the following priority order:





Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

26

Priority One

Elimination

Eliminating the risk by eliminating the use of the radioisotope that creates the risk is the most
effective way of protecting the safety and health of staff and students. When considering the
possibility of eliminating a radioiso
tope from your protocol you need to begin by answering
questions like:




Why is the radioisotope being used? (What is its purpose or function in the process?)



Could I use a non
-
radioactive technique?

e.g. Use a fluorescent tracer instead of a radioisotope
as a biological tracer.

Don’t use the ionising radiation hazard. Don’t use the process.


Priority Two


Substitution/Reduction

Substitute the ionising radiation hazard for a less hazardous form or reduce the activity being
used. The radiotoxicity rating
can be used to identify lower hazard radioisotopes. You can
readily calculate the minimum amount of radioisotope needed. e.g. Use S
-
35, which is in
radiotoxicity group 4, instead of P
-
32, which is in radiotoxicity group 3a. Use P
-
33, which is
in radiotox
icity group 3b, instead of P
-
32, which is in radiotoxicity group 3a.

Find a less hazardous radioisotope or find a better way to perform the process.


Priority Three


Isolation

Isolation involves separating people from the ionizing radiation hazard by dist
ance or
barriers to prevent or reduce exposure. Barriers may take the form of a totally closed system
or process, an enclosure with exhaust extraction or an isolated / restricted access room.


e.g. Restricting radiation use to a special secure laboratory.

Keep it away from you.



Priority Four
-

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are physical controls (such as equipment) that eliminate or reduce the
generation of airborne ionizing radiation hazards, suppress or contain the potential for
airborne
ionizing radiation hazards. Engineering controls often entail partial enclosure,
exhaust ventilation or automation.

Engineer a better way.

e.g. Use of a fume cupboard
where there is potential for an airborne radiation hazard.


Priority Five
-

Procedures a
nd Training

Systems of work or safe work procedures can often help to reduce exposure to ionizing
radiation hazards. Examples include:



Secondary containment (e.g. spill trays) to minimize the potential for spread of a spill.



Reducing the duration or freq
uency staff or students perform a specific task.



Good housekeeping.


Priority Six


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE includes overalls, aprons, footwear, gloves, safety glasses, face shields and respirators.
PPE can often be used in combination with

other risk controls to further reduce exposures to
radioactive contamination. However if they are used as the only control measure they should
be generally regarded as a short
-
term solution or a last resort. Staff and students must be
trained in correct

fit use and maintenance of the PPE. In addition, you should make sure that
the equipment is the right one for the job and readily available.





Edith Cowan University

acknowledges that the Radiation information provided in this document was
kindly provided by Monash University.



Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

27

Ionising Radiation


External Exposure


External Exposure Hazard
for Gamma Emitting Radioisotopes (beta and gamma)


Risk Assessment & Treatment Reference Sheet


Application: Note that skin exposure risks are considered in the previous section.

Do you work with any of the following ionizing radiation hazards?


As a
standard procedure radiation detection badges should be worn at all times by persons
working with radioisotopes to monitor levels of exposure.


No

Hazard Type

Risk Factors

R4

Unsealed radioactive sources that emit high energy beta
radiation*

Personal
exposure.

R5.

Unsealed radioactive sources that emit gamma radiation.

Personal exposure.

R6

Radioactive materials that emit neutrons**

Personal exposure.

R7.

X
-
ray equipment or sealed source apparatus where a "beam" is
produced
#

Personal exposure.

R8.

Radioactive materials that are considered to be sealed sources.

Personal exposure.


*

For Beta Emitters: P
-
32 can present a
moderate external hazard
. S
-
35 and P
-
33 generally
present a low external hazard, however the attached reference table should
be consulted for
estimated dose rates at typical distances and typical activities.

**

For neutron or x
-
ray sources


this risk assessment process is inadequate
-

you will need to seek
advice from the University Radiation Safety Officer.

#


If so, you will

need to seek advice from the University Radiation Safety Officer.

Note 1:

Alpha emitters do not present an external hazard.

Note 2:

The formula for calculating dose rates for gamma emitters, together with some standard
dose rates for commonly used radio
isotopes, is attached.



Duration of exposure over a one week period (7 days)

Dose Rate
*

>

16 hrs &
<

40
hrs

>

8 hrs & < 16
hrs

>

1 hrs & < 8
hrs

>

5 min & < 1
hrs

< 5 min

> 500

Sv/h

to
<

1500

Sv/h
+


Unacceptable


Unacceptable


Unacceptable


Extreme/
Unacceptable


High

> 50

Sv/h

to
<

500

Sv/h


Unacceptable


Unacceptable


Unacceptable


Extreme


Medium

>25

Sv/h

to
<

50

Sv/h


Unacceptable


Extreme


High


Medium


Low

>10

Sv/h

to
<

25

Sv/h


Extreme


High


Medium


Low


Low

> 5

Sv/h

to
<

10

Sv/h


High


High


Medium


Low


Low

> 1

Sv/h

to
<

5

Sv/h


High


Medium


Low


Low


Low


1

Sv/h

Low

Low

Low

Low

Low


*

Equivalent dose rate is typically used for this risk assessment process.

+

Dose rates above 1500

Sv/h present an
unacceptable risk regardless of the exposure
time.


Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

28

Risk Treatment Options


Risk controls

are actions taken to control risks to the safety and health of staff and students.
The primary duty is to eliminate any risk to health arising during work with animals or
insects. Where elimination of risk is not practical, you must reduce the risk as f
ar as
practicable.
Risk control

measures for hazards associated with working with animals or
insects should be considered in the following priority order:


Priority One

Elimination

Eliminating the risk by eliminating the use of ionizing radiation is the
most effective way of
protecting the health of staff and students. Consider the questions:



Why is ionising used?



Is it necessary to carry out this function?



Could this function be achieved by doing things differently?

Don’t use the ionising radiation h
azard. Don’t use the process.


Priority Two


Substitution/Reduction

Substitute the ionizing radiation hazard for a lower energy emitter and/or use a lower activity.
e.g. Use P
-
33 (low energy beta emitter) instead of P
-
32 (high energy beta emitter).

Find

a less hazardous radioisotope or use a lower activity.


Priority Three


Isolation

Isolation is separating people from the ionising radiation hazard by distance or shielding.
Barriers may take the form of a totally closed system or process, an enclosure w
ith exhaust
extraction or an isolated / restricted access room.
Keep it away from you.


Priority Four
-

Engineering Controls

Engineering controls are physical controls (such as equipment) that eliminate or reduce the
ionizing radiation emission that can r
each the person. Engineering controls for ionsing
radiation often entail shielded enclosures with safety interlocks.
Engineer a better way.

e.g. Design a remote handling device to insert a high activity source into a Mossbauer
spectrometer.


Priority Five

-

Procedures and Training

Systems of work or safe work procedures can often help to reduce exposure to hazardous
substances. Examples include:



Reducing the duration or frequency staff or students perform a specific task.



Performing dry runs prior to work
ing with radiation. (i.e. do procedure without radiation
first).


Priority Six


Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

PPE includes lead aprons, footwear, gloves, safety glasses and face shields. PPE can often be
used in combination with other risk controls
to further reduce exposure to ionizing radiation.
However if PPE is used as the only control measure it should be generally regarded as a short
-
term solution or a last resort. Staff and students must be trained in correct fit use and
maintenance of the P
PE. In addition, you should make sure that the equipment is the right
one for the job and readily available.


(return

to risk assessment
)



Risk Assessment & Control Radiation Hazards

29


Attachment to radiation
reference sheet: Calculating Dose Rate




Dose Rate Estimates for Some Commonly Used Gamma Emitters


Dose rate =



A





D
2



Gamma dose
rates (

) for a number of gamma emitting radioisotopes are listed in appendix C of
Australian Standard 2243.4 Safety in Laboratories
-

Part 4 Ionizing Radiations. This can be viewed as a
PDF document via the library database (Note: you must have a current

authcate to access this). The
following table summarises dose rates for specific distances from certain radioisotopes of known activity.



Radioisotope




Sv/h from
1GBq at 1 m


Dose Rate

Sv/h From:

1 MBq

1 mCi (37 MBq)

at 0.3 m

at 1m

at 0.3 m

at 1

m

Iodine
-
125

74

0.82

0.074

30.44

2.74

Chromium
-
51

6.3

0.07

0.006

2.59

0.23

Technicium
-
99m

33

0.37

0.033

13.57

1.22


Dose Rate Estimates for Some Commonly Used Beta Emitters


Unfortunately, there is no simple formula to relate exposure to dose rate for

beta emitters. The following
are based on Health Physics experience.





IN SOLUTION

POINT SOURCES

Radioisotope

Emax

(MeV)

Approximate
Range in
Air
1

Dose rate on the
external surface
of a water
-
based
solution in a
plastic eppendorf
tube containing
1MBq
P32 (beta
+
Bremmstrahlung
)

Dose rate on
the surface of a
water
-
based
solution
containing
1MBq

Dose rate at
a distance of
1mm from
an
unshielded
point source
of 1MBq

Dose rate at
a distance of
10cm from
an
unshielded
point source
of 1MBq

Dose rate at
a dis
tance of
30cm from
an
unshielded
point source
of 1MBq

Dose rate
at a
distance
of 1m
from an
unshielde
d point
source of
1MBq

Phosphorus
-
32

1.7

6 m

Up to 60,000
µSv/hr (depending
on plastic
thickness and
type)

N/A

4,860,000
µSv/hr

748 µSv/hr

40.5 µSv/hr

1.5

µSv/hr

Sulfur
-
35

0.167

0.35 m

N/A

0.0012 µSv/hr

4,860,000
µSv/hr

85 µSv/hr

0.5 µSv/hr

Zero at
this
distance
as the
radiation
does not
travel this
far

Carbon
-
14

0.156

0.32 m

N/A

0.0011 µSv/hr

4,860,000
µSv/hr

42.5
µSv/hr

Zero at this
distance as
the
radiation
does not
travel this far

Hydrogen
-
3
(tritium)

0.018

< 5 mm

N/A

0.0001 µSv/hr

2,430,000
µSv/hr

Zero at this
distance as
the radiation
does not
travel this far


Edith Cowan University

acknowledges that the Radiation information provided in this document
was kindly provided by Monash University.









= Gamma dose rate from 1 GBq at 1 metre

A = Activity of source in GBq

D = distance from the source in metres


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_
Hazard Management & Risk Assessment Guidelines Hazard & Risk C
ontrol Summary Sheet



30

HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS

A
SSESSMENT
D
ETAILS



Faculty/Centre
:






Campus:







School/Department
:





Building
:


Room No
:









Other
:














Assessment Date
:















Area/ Task/ Process Description
:















Details of the Assessment Team
:

Name/Position

Signature









How To Use The Hazard &

Risk Treatment Summary Sheet


1.

Select the hazard type from the group of the 5 major hazard categories. In consultation with the assessment team review the
process
and identify the hazards. Using the Hazard & Risk Control Summary Sheet provide a brief des
cription of the hazard in the column
titled provided. For assistance and guidance on typical hazards associated to your selection refer to the Risk Assessment &
Control
Reference Sheet.

2.

Use the matrix to assess:



The possible outcome presented by each
hazard (Consequence)



The possibility of that outcome occurring (Likelihood)

3.

Cross reference the consequence and likelihood to determine the Risk Level of high etc and record the result in the box provi
ded.

4.

Then, prioritise the risk level to a Risk priority

rating of 1


6 and record the result in the box provided.

5.

Outline the recommended solutions that is the preventative/corrective action in the column provided. Refer to the Corrective

Action
Planning and Review notes below.

6

Nominate the person respo
nsible for the corrective actions. Provide the details.

7

Provide a realistic date by which the actions should be completed/implemented. Provide the details.

8

Copies of the Summary Sheet are to be provided to the Faculty/Centre Safe
ty Committee for information. If appropriate copies are to
be forwarded to the HoS/Manager.


Corrective Action Planning & Review


For each of the identified hazards that are assessed a corrective action / continuous
improvement plan should be developed and reviewed as required.


When developing corrective action or control strategies t
he
HIERARCHY OF
CONTROLS

must be considered. The single most important outcome of a risk
assessment is to implement effective and sustainable controls to prevent or
significantly reduce the chance of injury, illness or exposure.


The top two levels of Eli
mination and

Substitution Controls are by far the

most effective in preventing or reducing risks because they rely much less

on human behaviour. As corrective actions are planned

every

effort should be made to implement the top 2 levels of control.



1

Elimination

2

Substitution

3. Isolation

4. Engineering
Controls

5. Safe Work
Practices eg
Training

6.

Personal
Protective
Equipment

Most

Effective

Least

Effective


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Hazard Management & Risk Assessment
Guidelines Hazard & Risk Control Summary Sheet










31

Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet

(A consolidated list of identified hazards and their solution)


ECU Workplace:
















HAZARD

RISK
LEVEL

RISK
PRIORITY

OF

1
-

6

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION

BY WHO

ESTIMATE
DATE

TO BE
FIXED

DATE
FIXED

































































Signature of Assessor: _________________________________

Name Position of Assessor: ______________________________________________________

Return


Hazard Management & Risk Assessment Guidelines

32

Hazard & Risk Treatment Summary Sheet

(A consolidated list of identified hazards and their solution)


ECU Workplace:
















HAZARD

RISK
LEVEL

RISK
PRIORITY

OF

1
-

6

RECOMMENDED SOLUTION

BY WHO

ESTIMATE
DATE

TO BE
FIXED

DATE
FIXED

































































Signature of Assessor: _________________________________

Name Position of Assessor:
_________________________________________________