302 MACHINE DESIGN
Assignment No. 1
It is required to select a flat belt drive for a compressor running at 720 rpm, which is
driven by a 25kw, 1440 rpm motor. Space is available for a centre distance of 3m. The
belt is open type.
A leather belt is used in flat belt drive to transmit 15kw from a motor pulley running at
1440 rpm to another pulley running at 480 rpm. The centre between the pulleys is twice
the dia. of bigger pulley. The belt should operate at a velocity of 20m/s appro
max. stress in the belt should not exceed 2.25MPa, the density of the leather is
950kg/m3 & the coefficient of friction is 0.35. the belt thickness is 5 mm. calculate the
length & width of belt.
Design a v
belt drive to transmit 7.5kw from an induct
ion motor running at 1440 rpm to
a fan running at approx. at 480 rpm. The service is for 24 hours per day. Centre
distance is 1.25m.
belt drive transmits 25HP from a 250mm dia. v
pulley, operating at 1800 rpm to a
900mm dia. pulley. The centre distance
is 1m & the groove angle is 40 degree. Take
u=0.2 if the wt. of the belt is 0.01N/cm3 & allowable stress is 2 N/mm2 for belt
material, what will be the number of belts required if C
size V belt having 2.3 cm2
sectional area are used?
Are the angles
of groove in a v belt pulley equal to the angle of v belt? If not, why?
Design belt drive to transmit 110kw for a system consisting of two pulley of dias. 0.9m
& 1.2m, centre distance of 3.6m, a belt speed 20 m/s, u=0.3, a slip of 1.2% at each
pulley & 5%
friction loss at each shaft, 20% over load.
Select a suitable flat belt & pulley for transmiting 30 kw at 100 rpm from one shaft to
another shaft running at 250 rpm. Also design both driver & driven shaft considering
that the wt. of the pulley is 1.3 times
that of the wt. of the rim. The driver pulley is
located at the centre of the two bearings 300mm apart. The driven pulley is overhung
What is power rating or a belt?
what do u understand by v flat pulley
A centrifugal blower is to be belt driven
around 600 rpm by a 15kw, 1450rpm electric
motor. It has been decided to use min. possible centre distance to make the system
compact. Select suitable flat leather belt for the purpose.
Assignment No. 2
1 A compressor is to actuated from 10 kW electric
motor. The speed of the motor shaft is
970 rpm and that of compressor is to be 330. The compressor operates in two shifts.
The minimum centre distance should be 550 mm. Design a suitable chain drive.
2. Sketch a 6 x 19 wire rope and name its parts.
Chain drives are not suitable for timing applications, why?
4. Explain in brief the hoisting and hauling chains.
5. A compressor is to be actuated from a 10kW electric motor. The speed of motor shaft is
970 rev/min and that of a compressor is to be 330.The compressor operates in two
shifts. The minimum centre distance should be 550mm. Calculate a suitable chain
6. A workshop crane is to lift a load of 35kN through a wire rope and a hook. The weight
of the hook,etc is 5kN .The load may be lifted with a maximum acceleration of 1.0
m/sec2. Select a suitable wire rope.
How many cotton ropes 32mm diameter
will be required to transmit 375kW over pulley
12m apart at a speed of 30m/s.
8. It is desired to transmit 225kW by 44mm diameter ropes of cotton running at
20m/s.Show how many ropes are required if the speed ratio of 4:1 is to be produced
from the sour
ce to its appliance. Design a suitable drive.
9. For maximum operating life and efficiency what are the points to be considered for a
10. a)Write 7 practical applications of Wire Rope. b) What is the reason of obsoleting wire
rope these days
? c) Write the Design procedure of Chain Drive.
Assignment No. 3
A compressor running at 300 rev/min is driven by a 15 kW 1200 rev/min motor
through a 14 ½ degree full depth gears. The center distance is 0.375 m. The motor
pinion is to be of C
ed steel hardened and tempered, and the driven gear is to be
of cast steel. Assuming medium shock condition:
Determine the module, the face
width, and the number of teeth on each gear.
Determine the power capacity of a pair of helical turning gears ha
ratio of 10:1. The teeth are 20 degree full depth involute, 6 mm module. The pinion has
25 teeth and rotates at 5000 rev/min. The active face width is 76 m
m and the material is
40 steel untreated.
Discuss the design procedure of spur gears.
A helical cast steel gear with 30o helix angle has to transmit 35 kW at 1500 rpm. If the
gear has 24 teeth, determine the necessary module, pitch diameter and fa
ce width for
20o full depth teeth. The width of the face is 3 times the normal pitch. Tooth factor is
5. Enlist approximate values of efficiencies of worm drive with different number of starts.
6. A compressor running at 250 r.p.m. is driv
en by a 15 kW 870 r.p.m. motor through a 14
½ o full depth spur gears. Estimate he module, the beam width and number of teeth on
each gear. Assume suitable materials for pinion and gear. Sketch the teeth.
7. What are the limitations of Buckingham equation
in gear design?
8. What conditions must be satisfied in order a pair of spur gears have a constant velocity
9. In case of helical gears distinguish between normal pitch & axial pitch
10. Difference between beam strength & endurance strength of
a gear tooth.
Assignment No. 4
1. A full journal bearing of diameter 0.075 m and a length 0.125 m is to support a load of
20 x 103 N at the shaft speed of 1000 rev/min. The bearing temperature is to be limited
to 77 degree C in a room temperature of 38 degree C. The viscosity of the oil used is
0.0098 kg/ms at 116 degree C. Find the amount of artificial cooling required by means
2. A full journal bearing of 50 mm diameter and 100 mm long has a bearing pressure of
1.4 N/m2. The sped of the journal is 900 rpm and the ratio of journal diameter of the
diametral clearance is 1000. The bearing is lubricated with
oil whose absolute viscosity
at the operating temperature of 75
C may be taken as 0.011 kg/m
s. The room
temperature is 35
C. Find:(a) The amount of artificial cooling required.(b) The mass of
lubricating oil required, if the difference between the outlet
and inlet temperature of the
oil is 10
C. Take specific heat of the oil as 1850 J/kg/
3. A single row angular contact ball bearing number 310 is used for an axial flow
compressor. The bearing is to carry a radial load of 2500 N. Assuming light shock l
determine the rating life of the bearing.
4. What are rolling contact bearings? Discuss their advantages over sliding contact
Design a journal bearing for a centrifugal pump. The load on the bearing is 3.5 kN and
the journal diameter is 75
mm.The shaft runs at 900r.p.m.The ambient temperature may
be taken as 25
6.. A journal Bearing is proposed for a centrifugal pump. The diameter of the journal is
0.15m and the load on it is 40kN and its speed is 900rev/min.Complete the design
tions for the bearing.
7. Design a bearing and journal to support a load of 4500N at 600rev/min using a
hardened steel journal and a bronze backed Babbitt bearing. T
he bearing is lubricated
by oil rings .Take room temperature as 21ºC and the total temperature as 80ºC.
8. Distinguish between Hydro
dynamic bearings and Hydro
a) What is bearing? b) What are the required properties of bearing material
s? c) What is
a journal bearing? d) What are the types of journal bearings depending upon the nature
of contact? e) What are the types of journal bearing depending upon the nature of
lubrication? f) What is known as self
10. A semi
ptical spring is to carry a load of 5000 N and consists of 8 leaves 46 mm
wide, two of the leaves being of full length. The spring is to be made 1000 mm between
the eyes and is held at the center by a 60 mm wide band. Assume that the spring is
ressed so as to induce an equal stress of 500 N/mm2 when fully loaded.
Design the spring giving: (a) thickness of leaves
(b) eye diameter (c) length of leaves
(d) maximum deflection and camber
Assignment No. 5
1. A multiple disk clutch, steel on bronze is to transmit
kW at 750 rpm. The inner radius
of contact is 40 mm and the outer radius of contact is 70 mm. The clutch operat
es in oil with
an expected coefficient of friction 0.10. The average allowable pressure is 350kN/m2.
(a) How many total disks of steel and bronze are required?
(b) What is the average pressure?
2. A multi
disc clutch has three discs on the driving shaf
t and two n the driven shaft. The
inside diameter of the contact surface is 120 mm. The maximum pressure between the
surfaces is limited to 0.1 N/mm2. Design the clutch for transmitting 25 kW at 1575 rpm.
Assume uniform wear condition and coefficient of
friction as 0.3.
3. Design of a disc clutch is based on uniform wear condition. Why?
4. A band brake has to absorb 4.5 kW at 150 r.p.m. For long life, the maximum pressure
between band and drum is 0.7 MPa. The width of band is 50 mm and ǿ = 0.12. Find t
of wrap if the brake drum diameter is 300 mm.
5. Design a suitable clutch for a 150cc scooter to develop 5.8 HP at 5500rpm. At max.
torque it develops 4 HP at 3200rpm. Space restricts the outer diameter of the clutch to
6. Discuss the
role of computers in design process.
7. What do you understand by self energizing internal expanding shoe brakes?
8. A multi disc clutch employs 3 steel & 2 bronze discs having OD 30mm & ID 200mm. If
µ= 0.22 & normal pressure is 0.13 MPa, find the power
transmitted by clutch at 750 rpm.
9. What does morphology mean when applied to CAD process?
10.. What is the general structure of CAD software?
304 REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING
Assignment No. 1
What are different applications of
refrigeration and air conditioning?
Define the following terms: COP, Ton of refrigeration.
Explain the following with sketches: Heat Pump, Refrigerator and Heat Engine. Derive
relation between COP & EPR
Explain the working of Reversed Carnot cycle. What ar
e its limitations?
Explain with diagram the working of bootstrap air cooling system. Derive the relation for
COP of the cycle.
Explain the working of Bell Coleman Cycle. Draw TS plot for the same.
relation for COP of the cycle.
Explain with diag
ram the working of regenerative air cooling system. Derive the relation
for COP of the cycle.
Assignment No. 2
Describe a simple vapour compression cycle giving clearly its flow diagram. Draw ph &
TS Plots for the same.
State merits and demerits of vapour
compression refrigeration system over air
Explain the effect of suction pressure, discharge pressure, sub
cooling, super heating and
pressure drop in valves on coefficient of performance of vapour compression
Explain compound compression with multiple expansion valves in series with flash
chambers but no intercooling. Find out COP of the system.
Explain with flow diagram and ph diagram, the working of two evaporator system with
individual compression and multi
Find out COP of the system.
Discuss the working of ammonia water vapour absorption system explaining the function
of each component.
What are the characteristics of ideal absorbent and refrigerant mixture in
Explain temperature concentration and enthalpy concentration diagrams.
Assignment No. 3
Discuss the physical and thermodynamic properties of the following refrigerants R
(a) Give the chemical formula for following refrigera
(b)Name three refrigerants which are commonly used in commercial refrigerators.
What are secondary refrigerants? Give examples.
Explain different leak detection methods used to detect leakage of refrigerants in
Explain environmental aspects of conventional refrigerants. Suggest some replacements
What are Cascade systems? Discuss with the help of an example.
With the help of a schematic diagram, explain steam jet refrigeration
system. Draw TS
What do you mean by the term cryogenics? Discuss its engineering applications.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of non conventional refrigeration systems
Explain in detail working, advantages and
applications of Vortex tube
Discuss Lined and Claude methods for liquification of air.
Explain the working of split type and window type air conditioner.
With the help of suitable diagrams, explain the following psychrometric Processes:
Cooling with dehum
Heating with dehumidification,
Explain the working of the followings:
Shell and tube type condenser, Evaporative type condenser
Automatic expansion valve and thermostatic expansion valve
Central air conditioning plan
Assignment No. 1
1 What do you mean by impulse
2. Define ideal fluid and show how it differs from real fluid
3. Obtain an expression for force exerted by jet of water on a vertical plate in
the direction of jet.
4. In case of Pelton turbine, to get maximum reaction of a jet, it should be
turned through 180°, but in practice, it is turned by lesser degree. Why?
5. A rectangular plate weighing 60N is suspended v
ertically by a hinge on the top
horizontal edge. The centre of gravity of the plate is 10cm from the hinge. A horizontal
jet of water of 2.5cm dia, whose axis is 15cm is below the hinge, impinges normally to
the plate with the velocity of 6m/s.Find the
horizontal force applied at the centre of
gravity to maintain the plate in vertical position.Find the change in velocity of jet if the
plate is deflected 30
, and the same horizontal force continues to act at the centre of
gravity of the plate.
at is Euler's equation for energy transfer in a turbo machine?
7. Explain the term dynamic machine.
8.. A jet of water 5cm diameter impinges on a curved vane and is deflected through an
angle of 172
. The vane moves in the same direction as tha
t of the jet with velocity of
35m/s. If the rate of flow is 170 liters/s, determine the component of force on the vane
in the direction of motion. How much would be the power developed by the vane and
what would be the vane efficiency?
How these parameters
would change if instead of one vane there is a series of vanes
fixed to a wheel and moving in the direction of the jet with velocity of 35m/s.
9.. With neat diagram prove that the work done per second on a series of moving
curved vanes by a jet of water strikes at one of the tip of vane is given by
Assignment No. 2
1. Discuss about general concepts of jet impingement and impulse momentum
2. Discuss about jet impingement on stationary and moving vanes?
3. Do calculation for work done force exerted and efficiency of jet for various
modes of jet striking?
4. Discuss about basic components of a turbo machine and its clas
sification on the basis
of purpose, fluid dynamic action and operating principal?
5. Explain Euler’s equation for energy transfer in a turbo machine.
6.. How are hydraulic turbines classified?
7 . How specific speed of turbine is defined
8. Which of the inward / outward radial flow impulse turbine has better control of speed
9. The three
jet Pelton turbine is required to generate 10,000 kW under a net head of
400m. The blade angle at outlet is 15
and the reduction in the relative velocity while
passing over the blade is 5%. If the overall efficiency of the wheel is 80%, C
and speed ratio = 0.46, then find: (i) the diameter of the jet (ii) total flow in m
(iii) the force exerted by
a jet on the buckets. If the jet ratio is not to be less than 10,
find the speed of the wheel for a frequency of 50 hertz/sec and the corresponding
Assignment No. 3
1. Explain the purpose of providing scroll casing and guide vanes f
or a reaction turbine.
2. Why is the efficiency of Kaplan turbine nearly constant irrespective of speed variation
3. What are the functions of draft tube? Sketch different types of draft tubes.
4. Define the terms Gross head and Ne
t or Effective head.
5. An inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameter as 0.9m and 0.45m
respectively. The turbine is running at 200 r.p.m and width of turbine at inlet is 200mm.
The velocity of flow through the runner is constant a
nd equal to 1.8 m/s. The guide
blades make an angle of 10
to the tangent of the wheel and the discharge at the outlet of
the turbine is radial. Draw the inlet and outlet velocity triangles and determine.
The absolute velocity of water at inlet of runner,
The velocity of whirl at inlet,
The relative velocity at inlet
The runner blade angles
Width of the runner at outlet
Mass of water flowing through the runner per second
Head at the inlet of turbine
Power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbin
6. Explain general concepts for Francis and Kaplan turbine?
7. Discuss Component parts and operation velocity triangles and work output; working
proportions and design parameters for the runner for Francis and Kaplan turbine?
8. What do you mean by degree of reaction? And find value for the same in Francis and
Assignment No. 4
scuss about Layout and installation of centrifugal pumps? and their main elements
and their functions?
2. Explain various types of centrifugal pumps and their classifications?
3. Discuss about various pressure changes in a pump
manometric heads vane shape and its effect on head
4. Make calculations for the various loses in the pumps? And also power output and
efficiency of the various pumps?
5. Define specific speed and deduce an
expression for it for centrifugal pump.
. 6. What is meant by cavitation? What is Thoma’s cavitation factor, what is its
significance for water turbines?
7. Why does cavitation occur and how it can be checked in fluid machines?
fine the term unit speed, unit power and specific speed as used in connection with
the operation of a hydraulic machine.
9. Explain minimum starting speed and impeller diameters at the inner and outer .
408 INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS
ASSIGNMENT NO. 1
1. Write short notes on Applications of hydraulics in automation
Mention the advantages of flexible automation.
Discuss the various levels of automation.
Classify and explain Industrial Automation w.r.t.
their industrial applications.
List the various electric and electronic control elements used in automation.
What are the broad classes of industrial automation?
7. Write a short note on: Low cost automation.
8. What are basic elements of an Auto
9. What is the socio economic impact of Automation? Write its achievement in daily life
10. Write down scope of automation and note down all automation strategies
ASSIGNMENT NO. 2
1. Define robotics name at least 2 practical robots
that are manmade.
2. Draw neat sketch to describe degrees of freedom of the robotic arm.
3. Define work cell & explain the process of machine vision.
4. Write short notes on:
(a) Vacuum grippers (b) mechanical grippers (c) magnetic
5. Explain various robotic joints.
6. Discuss classification of robots & various applications of robots in industry.
7. What are basic elements of an Automated System?
What is the importance of work envelope of a robot?
Write an essay on t
he type of robot used in splay painting application.
Write notes on the languages available, features required of programming language and
classification of commands in respect of robot programming languages
ASSIGNMENT NO. 3
1. Explain Conda effect
with suitable diagram
2. Explain with neat sketch working of
cone jet sensors
3. Explain with neat sketch working of
4. Explain with neat sketch working of
bitable flip flop
What are the different functions of a teach pendan
Explain the following terms with reference to a robot: repeatability and accuracy.
7. What are the different types of robotic drive systems?
8. Explain with neat sketch working of
back pressure sensor
9. Explain with neat sketch working of
vortex amplifier & turbulence amplifier.
Sketch any fluidic device and explain its operation. State its applications.
ASSIGNMENT NO. 4
What are applications of transfer devices?
How is transfer devices classified? Explain the constructio
nal details of a transfer device
for a job orienting operation.
Describe anyone type of job rotating devices.
What are feeders? Explain the working of reciprocating feeders & centrifugal feeders.
Explain the vibratory bowl feeders in detail.
Define PLC. Explain various components of PLC.
7. State PASCAL’s law, Bernoulli’s equation, venture effect & continuity equation.
8. Why cylinders cushioning is done? Write down basic cylinder mountings.
9. Write formulae’s to calculate the horse po
wer, torque, RPM, pump outflow.
10. Write down basic fundamental rules of DC valves construction/ symbol
216 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Assignment No. 1
1. Define Environment
2. Define Habitat
3. Define Ecology
4. Ozone is a pollutant in Troposphere
while life saver in stratosphere. Justify
5. Explain Multidisciplinary nature of environmental science
6. List the four spheres in the earth’s environment.
7. Write a note on components of Environment.
8. Discuss the scope of environmental studies
e the need of environmental studies.
10. How an individual can improve the environment.
Assignment No. 2
1. Effects of constructing dams on forest and people.
2. Environment impacts of mineral extraction.
3. Importance of water
4. Write briefly about w
5. Discuss the various renewable and non
renewable resources of energy in detail.
6. Effects of deforestation
7. effects of overgrazing
8. Define desertification and explain causes and effects of desertification
9. Explain uses of forest
10. Write the problems due to use of modern techniques in agriculture.
Assignment No. 3
1. Ecosystem and its components
2. Trophic level.
3. Food Chain with examples.
4. An ecosystem is called a self regulatory and dynamic system. Why?.
5. What is meant by ecological succession and explain its types.
6. Food Web with Examples
7. Gross and net productivity
8. Discuss about Desert Ecosystem
9. Discuss zones of lake.
10. Explain in detail succession on bare rock.
Assignment No. 4
versity and its levels
2. Endangered species.
3. Discuss value of biodiversity
4. Discuss the threats to biodiversity
5. Discuss the various biogeographical regions of India.
6. Pollution and its types
7. Pollutant, Source
8. Differentiate between Sink
9. Discuss Air pollution causes and effects.
10. Discuss Noise pollution in detail (causes, effects and control
1.3 NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES
1.Explain Renewable and non
renewable energy sources.
2.Explain energy consumption as a measure in india.
3.Explain Solar radiation system.
4.What is attenuation and measurement of solar radiation?
5.Explain general description and design procedures of flat Platte and concentrating collectors.
Applications of solar energy in water, space and process heating, solar refrigeration and
7.Discuss economic analysis of solar systems
8.Explain Principle of wind energy conversion
1. What are design considerations of h
orizontal and vertical axis wind Machines.
2. Explain Basic components of wind energy conversion system
3. Explain Magnetic Hydrodynamic (MHD) Generator.
4. What is Thermo
electric effects ,thermo
electric devices and types of thermo
5. Explain thermo ionic emission and materials.
6. Explain Fuel Cells and their types, components and working .
7. Explain thermo
8. Explain the Concept of bio
1. Explain bio
is Bio gas generators and plants
explain their types constructional features and
3.Discuss Fuel properties of bio gas
4. Explain various Sources of geothermal energy.
5.Explain Basic principles Tidal and wave energy.
6.Explain components of t
7. Discuss the working of wave energy plants.
8. Explain double basin tidal power plants.
1. Discuss Advantages/disadvantages and applications of tidal power plant.
2 .What is the principle of solar photovoltaic power
3.With the help of a neat sketch, describe a solar heating system using water heating solar
4.Write notes on
Describe horizontal axis type aero generator.
7.Describe the main consideration in selec
ting a site for wind generators.