3.0 NASA Program/Project Life Cycle

thunderclingΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

151 εμφανίσεις

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



19



3.0


NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e

C
y
cle








O
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

f
und
a
me
n
ta
l
concepts

u
s
e
d

w
i
t
hi
n

N
A
S
A

f
o
r

t
h
e

manag
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

i
s

t
h
e

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
/
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
l
i
f
e

c
yc
l
e
,

w
h
i
c
h

c
o
n
s
i
s
t
s

o
f

a

c
a
t
e
g
o
r
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

e
v
e
r
y
t
h
i
n
g
t
h
a
t

s
h
o
u
l
d

be

d
o
n
e

t
o

a
cc
o
m
p
l
i
s
h

a

pr
o
g
r
a
m

o
r

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
i
n
t
o

dis
t
in
c
t

p
ha
s
es
,

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

b
y

K
ey

D
e
c
i
s
i
o
n

P
o
i
n
t
s
(K
D
P
s)
.

K
D
P
s

a
r
e

t
h
e

e
v
e
n
t
s

a
t

w
hi
c
h

t
h
e

d
e
cisi
o
n

a
u-
t
h
o
r
i
t
y

de
t
e
r
mine
s

t
h
e

r
e
adines
s

o
f

a

pr
o
g
r
a
m/
pro
jec
t

t
o
pr
o
g
r
es
s

t
o

t
h
e

nex
t

p
ha
se

o
f

t
h
e

li
f
e
c
yc
l
e

(
o
r

t
o

t
h
e

n
e
x
t
K
D
P
)
.

P
h
a
s
e

b
o
u
n
d
a
r
ie
s

a
r
e

d
e
f
i
n
e
d

s
o

t
h
a
t

t
h
e
y

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
m
or
e

o
r

les
s

n
a
t
ur
a
l
p
o
i
n
t
s

f
o
r

Go

o
r

N
o
-
G
o

d
e
c
i
s
i
o
n
s
.
De
cisi
o
n
s

t
o

pr
o
c
ee
d

m
a
y

be

q
u
a
li
f
i
e
d

b
y

lie
n
s

t
h
a
t

m
u
s
t
be

r
em
o
v
e
d

w
i
t
hi
n

a
n

a
g
r
ee
d

t
o
t
im
e

p
e
r
i
o
d
.

A

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
o
r

pro
jec
t

t
h
a
t

f
a
i
l
s

t
o

p
as
s

a

K
D
P

m
a
y

be

al
l
o
w
e
d

t
o


g
o
b
a
c
k

t
o

t
h
e

dr
a
wi
n
g

b
o
a
r
d


t
o

t
r
y

ag
a
i
n

l
a
t
e
r

o
r

i
t

m
a
y
be

t
e
r
mi
n
a
t
e
d
.


A
l
l

sys
t
e
m
s

s
t
a
rt

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

r
e
co
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
o
f

a

n
ee
d

o
r

t
h
e
di
s
c
o
v
e
r
y

o
f

a
n

op
p
o
r
t
un
i
t
y

a
n
d

pr
o
c
ee
d

t
h
ro
u
g
h

v
a
r
i-
o
u
s

s
t
a
g
e
s

o
f

d
e
v
el
op
me
n
t

t
o

a

f
in
a
l

d
i
s
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
.

W
h
i
l
e
t
h
e

mos
t

dr
a
m
a
t
i
c

i
m
p
a
c
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

a
n
a
l
ysi
s

a
n
d

o
p
t
im
i-
z
a
t
i
o
n

a
ct
i
v
i
t
ie
s

as
so
ci
a
t
e
d

w
i
t
h

sys
t
e
m
s

e
n
g
in
e
e
r
i
n
g

a
r
e
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d

i
n

t
h
e

e
a
r
l
y

s
t
a
g
es
,

d
e
cisi
o
n
s

t
h
a
t

a
f
f
e
c
t

cos
t

c
o
n-
t
i
n
u
e

t
o

b
e

a
m
e
n
a
b
l
e

t
o

t
h
e
sys
t
e
m
s

a
ppr
o
a
c
h

e
v
e
n

a
s

t
h
e

en
d

o
f

t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

l
i
f
e
t
i
m
e
a
pp
r
o
a
c
h
es.


Decomposing the
program/project life cycle into phases
or
g
anizes the entire process into more manageable pieces.
The program/project life cycle should provide managers
with incremental

visibility into the progress being made at
points in time that fit with the management
and budgetary
en
v
ironments.


N
P
R

7120.5
,

N
A
S
A

S
pac
e

F
l
i
g
h
t

P
r
o
g
r
a
m

a
n
d

P
r
o
j
e
c
t
M
a
n
a
ge
m
e
n
t

R
e
qui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

de
f
i
n
e
s

t
h
e

m
a
j
or

N
A
S
A
l
i
f
e
-
c
y
c
l
e

p
ha
s
e
s

a
s

F
o
r
m
ul
a
t
i
on

a
n
d

I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
.
F
or

Fli
g
h
t

S
y
st
e
ms

a
n
d

G
r
o
u
n
d

S
up
p
o
r
t

(
F
S
&
G
S
)
p
r
o
jec
ts
,

t
h
e

N
AS
A

l
i
f
e
-
c
y
c
l
e

p
ha
s
e
s

of

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d

I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

d
i
v
id
e

i
n
t
o

t
h
e

f
o
l
l
o
w
i
ng

s
e
v
e
n
i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
a
l

p
ieces
.

T
h
e

p
ha
s
e
s of

t
h
e

p
r
o
je
c
t

li
fe

c
y
c
l
e
a
r
e
:



P
r
e
-
P
h
a
s
e

A
:

C
o
nce
p
t

S
t
udie
s

(
i
.
e
.
,

ide
n
t
i
f
y

f
e
a
s
i
b
l
e
a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
es)



Pha
se

A
:

C
o
nce
p
t

a
n
d

T
e
c
hn
o
lo
g
y

D
e
v
el
op
me
n
t

(
i
.
e
.
,

de
f
i
n
e

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

an
d

ide
n
t
i
f
y

an
d

in
i
t
i
a
t
e

n
e
c
e
s
s
a
r
y
t
e
c
h
n
o
lo
g
y)



Pha
se

B
:

P
r
elimin
a
r
y

D
esi
g
n

a
n
d

T
e
c
hn
o
lo
g
y

C
o
m-
p
le
t
i
o
n

(
i
.
e
.
,

es
t
ab
lis
h

a

pr
elimin
a
r
y

desi
g
n

a
n
d

d
e-
v
el
o
p

n
e
ces
s
a
r
y

t
e
c
h
n
o
lo
g
y)



Pha
se

C
:

Fi
n
a
l

D
e
s
i
g
n

a
n
d

F
a
b
r
ic
a
t
i
o
n

(
i
.
e
.
,

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

desi
g
n

a
n
d

b
u
i
ld/c
o
d
e

t
h
e

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
ts)



Pha
se

D
:

S
y
st
e
m

A
s
s
e
mbl
y
,

In
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

an
d

T
e
s
t
,
L
a
un
c
h

(
i
.
e
.
,

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
e

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
,

a
n
d

v
e
r
i
f
y

t
h
e
sys
t
em
,

pr
e
p
a
r
e

f
o
r

o
p
er
a
t
i
o
n
s
,

a
n
d

l
a
u
n
c
h)



Pha
se

E
:

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

an
d

S
u
s
t
a
i
n
m
e
n
t

(
i
.
e
.
,

o
p
e
r
a
t
e
a
n
d

m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n

t
h
e

sy
s
t
em)



Pha
se

F
:

C
lo
s
e
ou
t

(
i
.
e
.
,

dis
p
o
sa
l

o
f

sys
t
e
m
s

a
n
d

a
n
a
l
y-
s
i
s

o
f

d
a
t
a)


Figu
r
e

3.0
-
1

(
N
A
SA

p
r
o
g
r
a
m

li
f
e

c
y
c
le)

a
n
d

Figu
r
e

3.0
-
2
(
N
A
SA

pro
je
c
t

li
f
e

c
y
c
le)

ide
n
t
i
f
y

t
h
e

K
D
P
s

a
n
d

r
e-
v
i
e
ws

t
h
a
t

ch
a
ra
c
t
e
r
ize

t
h
e

p
ha
s
es.

S
e
c
t
i
on
s

3.1

a
n
d

3.2
c
o
n
t
a
in

n
a
r
r
a
t
iv
e

de
s
c
r
ip
t
i
on
s

o
f

t
h
e

p
u
rp
o
s
es,

m
a
j
o
r
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies,

pr
o
d
u
c
ts,

a
n
d

K
D
P
s

o
f

t
h
e

N
A
SA

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
li
f
e
-
c
y
c
le

p
ha
s
es.

S
e
c
t
i
on
s

3.3

t
o

3.9

c
o
n
t
a
in

n
a
r
r
a
t
i
v
e
de
s
c
r
ip
t
i
on
s

o
f

t
h
e

p
u
rp
o
s
es,

m
a
j
o
r

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies,

p
r
o
d-
u
c
ts,

a
n
d

K
D
P
s

o
f

t
h
e

N
A
SA

pro
je
c
t

li
f
e
-
c
y
c
le

p
h
a
s
es.
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

3.10

de
s
c
r
i
b
es

t
h
e

N
A
SA

b
ud
g
et

c
y
c
le

w
i
t
hin
w
hi
c
h

pr
o
g
r
a
m/
pr
o
je
c
t

m
a
na
g
e
r
s

a
n
d

sy
st
e
m
s

e
n
g
i-
n
e
e
r
s

m
u
s
t

o
p
er
a
t
e
.



3.1

Pr
o
g
r
am

F
o
r
mul
a
tion


T
h
e

pr
o
g
r
a
m
F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
p
ha
se

es
t
ab
lishe
s

a

co
s
t
-
e
f
f
ect
iv
e

pr
o
g
r
a
m
t
h
a
t

i
s

dem
o
n
s
t
r
abl
y

c
a
p
ab
l
e

o
f

m
e
e
t
i
n
g
A
g
e
n
c
y

an
d

m
i
s
s
i
o
n

di
r
ec
t
o
r
a
t
e

g
oa
l
s

a
n
d

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
e
s
.
T
h
e
pr
o
g
r
a
m

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
A
u
t
h
o
r
iz
a
t
i
o
n

D
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
(
F
AD
)

a
u
t
h
o
r
ize
s

a

P
r
o
g
r
a
m

M
anag
e
r

(PM
)

t
o

i
n
i
t
i
a
t
e
t
h
e

p
l
a
nni
n
g
o
f

a

n
ew

pr
o
g
r
a
m

a
n
d

t
o

p
e
r
f
o
r
m

t
h
e

a
n
a
l-
y
s
e
s

r
e
q
ui
r
e
d

t
o

f
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
e

a

s
o
u
n
d

pr
o
g
r
a
m

p
l
a
n
.

M
a
j
o
r
r
e
vi
e
w
s

l
e
adi
n
g

t
o

a
ppr
o
v
a
l

a
t

K
D
P

I

a
r
e

t
h
e

P
/
S
R
R
,
P/
S
D
R
,

P
A
R
,

an
d

g
o
v
e
r
ni
n
g
P
r
o
g
r
a
m

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
C
o
unc
i
l

(P
M
C
)
r
e
vi
e
w
.

(
S
e
e

ful
l

lis
t

o
f

r
e
vi
e
w
s

i
n

t
h
e
pr
o
g
r
a
m
a
n
d

pro
jec
t

li
f
e

c
yc
l
e

f
igu
r
e
s

o
n

t
h
e

nex
t

p
a
g
e
.
)
A

s
um
m
a
r
y

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
d

g
a
t
e

pr
o
d
u
c
t
s

f
o
r

t
h
e

pro
-
20




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle





NASA

Life
-
Cycle

Phases

A
pproval

For
m
u
l
a
t
i
on

Implement
a
tion



Key

Decision

Points



KDP

0

KDP

I

KDP

II



KDP

III



KDP

IV



KDP

n





P/SRR


P/SD
R





Major

Program

Reviews


Uncoupled

&

Loosely

Coupled

Progr
ams


Or

Or



PSR

PSRs,

PIRs,

and

KDPs

are

conducted

~

every

2

yea
r
s


Single
-
Project

&

Tightly

Coupled

Programs


PDR

CDR


SI
R


TR
R


ORR

FRR

P
L
A
R

C
ERR


PSR



F
igu
r
e

3.0‑
1

NAS
A

p
r
og
r
a
m

li
f
e

c
y
cle

CD
R

C
r
itica
l

D
esi
g
n

R
eview

CER
R

C
r
itica
l

E
v
e
n
t
s

R
eadines
s

R
eview

D
R

D
e
c
ommissionin
g

R
eview
FR
R


F
lig
h
t

R
eadines
s

R
eview
KD
P

Ke
y

D
ecisio
n

P
oi
n
t

MC
R

M
issio
n

C
on
c
ep
t

R
eview

MD
R

M
issio
n

D
efinitio
n

R
eview

OR
R

Ope
ra
tiona
l

R
eadines
s

R
eview
PD
R

Pr
elimina
r
y

D
esi
g
n

R
eview
P
F
A
R


P
os
t
-
F
lig
h
t

A
ssessme
n
t

R
eview

PI
R


P
r
o
gr
a
m

I
mpleme
n
t
a
tio
n

R
eview


PLA
R

P
os
t
-
Launc
h

A
ssessme
n
t

R
eview
PR
R


P
r
odu
c
tio
n

R
eadines
s

R
eview
P/SD
R

P
r
o
gr
am/
Sy
s
t
e
m

D
efinitio
n

R
eview

P/SR
R

Pr
o
gr
am/
Sy
s
t
e
m

R
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

R
eview

PS
R

P
r
o
gr
a
m

St
a
tu
s

R
eview

SA
R


S
y
s
t
e
m

A
cc
eptan
c
e

R
eview
SD
R


S
y
s
t
e
m

D
efinitio
n

R
eview
SI
R


S
y
s
t
e
m

I
nt
e
gra
tio
n

R
eview

SR
R


S
y
s
t
e
m

R
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

R
eview

TR
R

T
es
t

R
eadines
s

R
eview



N
A
S
A

Life
Cycle

Phases

A
pproval

For
m
u
l
a
t
i
on

Implement
a
tion




Project

Life
Cycle

Phases


Pre
-
Phase

A:
Concept
Studies


Phase

A:
Concept

&

Technology
Develo
p-
ment

Phase

B:
Preliminary
Design

&
Technology
Completion


Phase

C:

Final

Design

&
Fabrication

Phase

D:
System

Assembly,
Integr
a-
tion

&

Test,
Launch


Phase

E:
Operations

&
Sustainment


Phase

F:
Closeout


Key

Decision

Points



KDP

A

KDP

B

KDP

C



KDP

D



KDP

E



KDP

F






Human

Space

Flight

Reviews





MC
R





SRR


SD
R





PD
R





CDR/PR
R





SI
R





TR
R





S
A
R

OR
R

Launch




FRR

P
L
A
R

CERR





P
F
A
R

DR


Robotic

Mission

Reviews



MC
R



SRR



MD
R



PD
R



CDR/PR
R



SI
R



TR
R



OR
R



FRR

P
L
A
R

CERR

DR


Supporting

Reviews

Peer

Revi
e
w
s
,

Subsystem

Reviews,

and

System

Reviews


F
igu
r
e

3.0‑
2

NAS
A

p
r
oje
c
t

li
f
e

c
y
cle

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



21

3.1

P
r
o
g
r
a
m

F
or
m
ul
a
tion



Program Formulation

Purpose

T
o

establis
h

a

c
os
t
-
ef
f
e
c
ti
v
e

p
r
o
gr
a
m

th
a
t

i
s

demo
n-
st
r
abl
y

capabl
e

o
f

meetin
g

A
gen
c
y

an
d

missio
n

di
r
e
c-
t
o
rat
e

goal
s

an
d

obje
c
ti
v
es

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



Ident i f y Pr ogr am st akehol der s and user s



D
e
v
elo
p

p
r
o
gr
a
m

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

based on user e
x-
pectations
an
d

a
ll
o
c
a
t
e

the
m

t
o

initia
l

p
r
oje
c
ts



D
efin
e

an
d

app
r
o
v
e

p
r
o
gr
a
m

a
c
quisitio
n

st
r
a
t
e
g
ies



D
e
v
elo
p

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e
s

t
o

othe
r

p
r
o
gr
ams



Sta
r
t

de
v
elopme
n
t

o
f

t
echnolo
g
ie
s

th
a
t
cu
t

ac
r
oss
multipl
e

p
r
oje
c
t
s

withi
n

th
e

p
r
o
gr
am



D
e
r
i
v
e

initia
l

c
o
s
t

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
s

a
n
d

app
r
o
v
e

a

p
r
o
gr
a
m
budget

based on the project

s lifecycle costs



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d
p
r
o
gr
a
m

F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

t
echnica
l
a
c
tivitie
s

define
d

i
n

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
tisf
y

p
r
o
g
r
a
m

F
o
r
mul
a
tio
n

r
evie
w
s


e
n-
t
r
an
c
e/su
c
c
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

detaile
d

i
n

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



P
/
S
R
R



P/SDR







gram
F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

pha
se

c
a
n

be

f
o
u
n
d

i
n

N
P
R
7120
.
5
.
F
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

al
l

pr
o
g
r
a
m

ty
p
e
s

i
s

t
h
e

s
a
m
e
,

i
n
v
o
l
v
i
n
g
o
n
e

o
r

m
or
e

pr
o
g
r
a
m

r
e
vi
e
w
s

fo
l
l
o
w
e
d

b
y

K
D
P

I

w
h
e
r
e
a

d
e
cisi
o
n

i
s

mad
e

a
ppr
o
vi
n
g

a

pr
o
g
r
a
m

t
o

b
e
g
i
n

i
m
p
l
e-
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
.

T
y
p
ic
a
l
l
y
,

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

n
o

i
n
ce
n
t
i
v
e

t
o

m
o
v
e

a

p
r
o-
g
r
a
m

i
n
t
o

i
m
p
le
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

u
n
ti
l

i
t
s

f
i
r
s
t

pro
jec
t

i
s

r
e
a
d
y
f
o
r

i
m
p
le
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n.


3.2

Pr
o
g
r
am

Impleme
n
t
a
tion


D
u
r
i
ng

t
h
e

p
r
o
g
r
am

I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

p
ha
s
e
,

t
h
e

P
M
wo
r
k
s

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

M
i
s
si
o
n

Di
r
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e

A
s
so
ci
a
t
e

A
dmi
n-
i
s
tr
a
t
or

(M
D
AA
)

a
n
d

t
h
e

c
on
s
t
it
ue
n
t

p
r
o
jec
t

m
a
n-
a
g
e
r
s

t
o

e
x
e
c
u
t
e

t
h
e

p
r
ogr
am

p
l
an

co
s
t

e
ff
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y
.
P
r
ogr
am

r
e
vi
e
w
s

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
ogr
am

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
s
t
o

c
o
n
tr
i
bu
t
e

t
o

A
g
e
n
c
y

a
n
d

m
i
s
s
i
o
n

di
r
e
c
t
o
r
a
t
e

g
o
a
l
s
a
n
d

o
b
ject
i
v
e
s

w
i
t
hi
n

f
u
n
di
ng

c
on
s
t
r
a
i
n
ts
.

A

s
u
m-
m
a
r
y

of

t
h
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
d

g
a
t
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

for

t
h
e

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

p
ha
s
e

c
an

b
e

fo
u
n
d

i
n

N
P
R

7120
.
5
.
T
h
e

p
r
ogr
am

li
fe

c
y
c
l
e

ha
s

t
wo

dif
f
e
r
e
n
t

i
m
p
le
m
e
n
t
a-
t
i
on

p
a
t
h
s
,

de
p
e
n
di
ng

on

p
r
ogr
am

ty
p
e
.

E
a
c
h

i
m
p
l
e-
m
e
n
t
a
ti
on

p
a
t
h

ha
s

di
ff
e
r
e
n
t

ty
p
e
s

of

m
a
j
or

r
e
v
i
e
w
s
.

For uncoupled and loosely coupled programs, the I
m-
plementation phase only requires PSRs

and PIRs to
assess the program’
s performance and make a re
c-
ommendation on its authorization

at KDPs
approx
i-
mately

every two years. Single
-
project and tightly
coupled programs are more complex. For single

pr
o-
ject programs, the Implementation phase program r
e-
views shown in Figure 3.0
-
1 are synonymous (not
duplicative)

with the project reviews in the projec
t life
cycle (see Figure 3.0
-
2) through Phase D. Once in
operations, these programs usually have biennial
KDPs preceded by attendant PSRs/PIRs. Tightly co
u-
pled programs during

implementation

have program
reviews tied to the project reviews to ensure the
pr
oper integration of projects into the larger system.
Once in operations, tightly coupled programs also
have biennial PSRs/PIRs/KDPs to assess the pr
o-
gram’s performance and authorize its continuation.






Pr
o
g
r
am

I
mpleme
n
t
a
tion

P
ur
p
ose

T
o

e
x
ecu
t
e

th
e

p
r
o
gr
a
m

an
d

c
onstitue
n
t

p
r
oje
c
ts

an
d

ensu
r
e

th
e

p
r
o
gr
a
m

c
o
n
tinue
s

t
o

c
o
n
t
r
ibu
t
e

t
o
A
gen
c
y

goal
s

an
d

obje
c
ti
v
e
s

withi
n

fundin
g

c
o
n-
st
r
ai
n
ts

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



I
niti
at
e

p
r
oje
c
t
s

th
r
oug
h

di
r
e
c
t

assi
g
nme
n
t

o
r

c
o
m-
petiti
v
e

p
r
o
c
es
s

(
e
.
g
.
,

R
e
q
u
e
s
t

f
o
r

P
r
oposa
l

(
R
FP
)
,
Announ
c
eme
n
t

o
f

Oppo
r
tuni
ty

(
A
O
)



M
oni
t
o
r

p
r
oje
c
t

s

f
o
r
mul
a
tion
,

app
r
o
v
a
l
,

impleme
n-
t
a
tion
,

i
nt
e
gra
tion
,

ope
ra
tion
,

an
d

ultim
at
e

d
e-
c
ommissioning



A
djus
t

p
r
o
gr
a
m

a
s

r
esou
rc
e
s

an
d

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts
change



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

p
r
o
gr
a
m

I
mpleme
n
t
a
tio
n

t
ec
h-
ni
ca
l

a
c
tivitie
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
tisf
y

p
r
o
g
r
a
m

I
mpleme
n
t
a
tio
n

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
an
c
e/

su
cc
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



PSR/PI
R
(un
c
ouple
d

an
d

loosel
y

c
ouple
d

p
r
o
gr
ams

only)



R
e
v
i
e
w
s

syno
n
ymou
s

(no
t

duplic
a
ti
v
e
)

wit
h

th
e
p
r
oje
c
t

r
evie
w
s

i
n

th
e

p
r
oje
c
t

li
f
e

c
y
cl
e

(se
e

F
i
g-
u
r
e

3.0
-
2
)

th
r
oug
h

P
has
e

D

(
s
i
n
g
l
e
-
p
r
o
j
e
c
t

an
d
tig
h
tl
y

c
ouple
d

p
r
o
gr
am
s

only)

22




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle




3.3

Pr
oje
c
t

Pr
e
-
Phase

A:

C
on
c
ept

S
tudies


T
h
e

p
u
rp
o
se

o
f

t
hi
s

p
ha
s
e
,

w
hi
c
h

i
s

usu
al
l
y

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
e
d
m
or
e

o
r

les
s

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
al
l
y

b
y

c
o
nce
p
t

s
t
u
d
y

g
rou
ps
,

i
s

t
o
d
e
vi
se

v
a
r
i
o
u
s

f
e
asi
b
l
e

c
o
nce
p
t
s

f
ro
m

w
hi
c
h

n
ew

p
r
o-
j
ect
s

(
p
r
o
g
r
a
m
s
)

c
a
n

be

s
el
ec
t
e
d
.

T
y
p
ic
al
l
y
,

t
hi
s

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
c
o
n
sist
s

o
f

l
o
o
s
e
l
y

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
d

ex
a
mi
n
a
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

n
ew

i
d
e
a
s
,



Pr
e

Phase

A:

C
on
c
ept

S
tudies

P
ur
p
ose

T
o

p
r
odu
c
e

a

b
r
oa
d

spe
c
tru
m

o
f

idea
s

an
d

al
t
e
r
n
a-
t
i
v
e
s

f
o
r

mission
s

f
r
o
m

whic
h

ne
w

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
s
/
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
s
ca
n

b
e

sele
c
t
ed

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

P
r
o
du
c
ts

(
N
o
t
e
:

A
O

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
s

wil
l

h
av
e

de
f
ine
d

th
e
deli
v
e
r
abl
e

p
r
odu
c
t
s
.)




Ide
n
tif
y

mission
s

an
d

a
r
c
h
i
t
e
c
t
u
r
e

c
o
n
s
i
s
t
e
n
t

w
i
t
h
cha
r
t
er



Ide
n
tif
y

an
d

i
n
v
ol
v
e

user
s

an
d

othe
r

stakeholders



Ide
n
tif
y
the role
s

of

humans

in
p
e
rforming mission obje
c-
tives

(
i.e.,
flight and ground crew)


Ide
n
tif
y

an
d

pe
r
f
o
r
m
t
r
adeof
f
s

an
d

anal
y
ses

of altern
a
tives (AoA)



Ide
n
tif
y

r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s
,

whic
h

include:


M
ission,



S
cien
ce
,

and


T
o
p
-
le
v
e
l

s
y
s
t
em.



D
e
f
in
e

measu
r
e
s

o
f

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

an
d

measu
r
e
s

o
f
pe
r
f
o
r
man
c
e



Ide
n
tif
y

t
o
p
-
le
v
e
l

t
echnica
l

pe
r
f
o
r
man
c
e

measu
r
es



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

p
r
elimina
r
y

e
v
alu
a
tion
s

o
f

possibl
e

mi
s-
sions



Pr
epa
r
e

p
r
o
gr
am/p
r
oje
c
t

p
r
oposal
s
,

whic
h

m
a
y

i
n-
clude:


M
issio
n

justific
a
tio
n

an
d

obje
c
ti
v
es;


P
ossibl
e

C
onOps;


H
igh
-
le
v
e
l

WBSs;


Lifecycle c
ost
,

schedul
e
,

an
d

r
is
k

estim
a
t
es
;

and


T
echnolog
y

assessme
n
t

an
d

m
a
tu
ra
tio
n

st
rat
e-
g
ie
s
.



Pr
epa
r
e

p
r
elimina
r
y

missio
n

c
on
c
ep
t

r
epo
r
t



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

P
r
e
-
P
has
e

A

t
echnica
l

a
c
tivities
f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
tisf
y

MC
R

e
n
t
r
an
c
e/su
c
c
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



MCR



I
n
f
o
r
ma
l

p
r
oposa
l

r
eview


w
i
t
h
ou
t

ce
n
t
r
a
l

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

an
d

m
o
s
t
l
y
o
r
ie
n
t
e
d
t
o
w
a
r
d

sm
al
l

s
t
udies
.

I
t
s

m
a
j
o
r

pr
o
d
u
c
t

i
s

a

lis
t

o
f

s
u
g
g
es
t
e
d

pro
jec
ts
,

b
a
s
e
d

o
n

t
h
e

ide
n
t
i
f
ic
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

n
ee
d
s

a
n
d
t
h
e

di
s
c
o
v
e
r
y

o
f

op
p
o
r
t
un
i
t
ie
s

t
h
a
t

a
r
e

p
o
t
e
n
t
i
al
l
y

c
o
n-
sis
t
e
n
t

w
i
t
h

N
AS
A

s

m
i
s
s
i
o
n
,

c
a
p
a
b
i
l
i
t
ies
,

p
r
i
o
r
i
t
ies
,

a
n
d
r
e
s
o
u
r
ces.


It is important in Pre
-
Phase A to define an accurate group of
stakeholders and users. This ensures that mission goals and
operations concepts meet the needs and expectations of the
end
-
users.
Although not formally implemented, an

HSI Team
begins to form

and focus the project on human
-
centered design
concepts
.


A
d
v
a
nc
e
d

s
t
udie
s

m
a
y

ex
t
en
d

f
o
r

se
v
er
a
l

y
e
ar
s

a
n
d

m
a
y
be

a

s
e
q
uenc
e

o
f

p
a
p
e
r
s

t
h
a
t

a
r
e

o
n
l
y

l
o
o
s
e
l
y
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
e
d
.
T
he
se

s
t
udie
s

ty
p
ic
al
l
y

f
o
c
u
s

o
n

es
t
ab
lishi
n
g

m
i
s
s
i
o
n
g
oa
l
s

an
d

f
o
r
m
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

t
o
p
-
l
e
v
e
l

sys
t
e
m

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
an
d

C
o
n
O
p
s
.

C
o
nce
p
t
u
a
l

desi
g
n
s

a
r
e

o
f
t
e
n

o
f
f
e
r
e
d

t
o
de
m
o
ns
t
r
a
t
e

f
e
a
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

an
d

s
u
p
p
o
rt

pr
o
g
r
a
m
m
a
t
i
c

es
t
im
a
t
es
.

T
h
e

e
m
p
hasi
s

i
s

o
n

es
t
ab
lishi
n
g

f
e
asi
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
n
d
desir
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

r
a
t
he
r

t
h
a
n

op
t
im
a
l
i
t
y
.

An
a
l
y
s
e
s

a
n
d

d
e
s
i
g
n
s
a
r
e

acc
or
di
n
g
l
y

lim
i
t
e
d

i
n

b
o
t
h

de
p
t
h

a
n
d

n
u
m-
b
e
r

o
f

o
p
t
i
o
n
s
, bu
t each
option
should include
consideration of

operational needs such as crew time,
training time, maintenance
time, and

associated logistics.



3.4

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

A:

C
on
c
ept

and

T
echnol
o
gy

D
e
v
elopme
n
t


D
u
r
i
n
g

Pha
se

A
,

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

a
r
e

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
e
d

t
o

f
u
l
l
y

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
a

b
a
s
elin
e

m
i
s
si
o
n

c
o
nce
p
t

a
n
d

b
e
g
i
n

o
r

assum
e

r
e
s
p
o
n-
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
o
r

t
h
e

d
e
ve
l
op
m
e
n
t

o
f

n
ee
d
e
d

t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
i
e
s
.

T
h
i
s
w
o
rk
,

a
l
o
n
g

w
i
t
h

i
n
t
era
ct
i
o
n
s

w
i
t
h

s
ta
k
eh
o
lde
r
s
,

h
e
l
p
s
es
t
ab
lis
h

a

m
i
s
si
o
n

c
o
n
ce
p
t

an
d

t
h
e

pr
o
g
r
a
m

r
e
q
ui
r
e-
me
n
t
s

o
n

t
h
e

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
.


I
n

Pha
se

A
,

a

t
e
a
m

o
f
t
e
n

as
so
ci
a
t
e
d

w
i
t
h

a

pr
o
g
r
a
m

o
r
in
f
o
r
m
a
l

pro
jec
t

o
ffice

r
e
add
r
es
s
e
s

t
h
e

m
i
s
si
o
n

c
o
n-
ce
p
t

t
o

e
n
su
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

j
us
t
ific
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

p
ra
c
t
i-
c
a
l
i
t
y

a
r
e

su
ff
icie
n
t

t
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t

a

p
lac
e

i
n

N
AS
A

s

b
u
d
g
e
t
.
T
h
e

t
e
a
m

s

ef
f
o
rt

f
o
c
u
s
e
s

o
n

a
n
a
l
yzi
n
g

m
i
s
si
o
n

r
e
q
ui
r
e-
me
n
t
s

a
n
d

es
t
ab
lishi
n
g

a

m
i
s
si
o
n

a
r
c
h
i
t
ec
t
u
r
e
.

A
c
t
i
v
i-
t
ie
s

b
e
c
o
m
e

f
o
r
m
a
l
,

a
n
d

t
h
e

e
m
p
hasi
s

shift
s

t
o
w
a
r
d

es
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
i
n
g

op
t
im
a
l
i
t
y

r
a
t
he
r

t
h
a
n

f
e
asi
b
i
l
i
t
y
.

T
h
e

e
f
f
o
rt
add
r
es
s
e
s

m
or
e

de
p
t
h

a
n
d

c
o
n
side
r
s

m
a
n
y

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
s
.
G
oa
l
s

a
n
d

o
b
ject
iv
e
s

a
r
e

s
o
lidifi
e
d
,

a
n
d

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

d
e-
v
el
o
p
s

m
or
e

defin
i
t
i
o
n

i
n

t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

r
e
q
ui
r
eme
n
ts
,

t
o
p-
l
e
v
e
l

sys
t
e
m

a
r
c
h
i
t
ec
t
u
r
e
,

a
n
d

C
o
n
O
ps
.

C
o
nce
p
t
u
a
l

d
e-
si
g
n
s
a
r
e

d
e
v
el
o
p
e
d

a
n
d

exhi
bi
t

m
or
e

e
n
g
in
e
e
r
i
n
g

d
e
t
a
i
l
NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



23

3.1

P
r
o
g
r
a
m

F
or
m
ul
a
tion



t
ha
n

i
n

a
d
v
a
nc
e
d

s
t
udies
.

T
e
c
hnic
a
l

r
isk
s

a
r
e
i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d
i
n

m
or
e

de
t
a
i
l
,

a
n
d

t
e
c
hn
o
lo
g
y

d
e
v
el
op
me
n
t

n
ee
d
s

b
e-
c
o
m
e

f
o
c
u
s
e
d
.


An HSI Team is form
alized

in Phase A to ensure
that human needs and capabilities are incorp
o-
rated into the early concepts and designs. This
team focuses on various domains throughout the
project lifecycle, such as operations resource
management, training, human factors, safety,
h
abitability and environment, and maintainability
and supportability. During Phase A,
HSI

is a key
component of developing the project roadmap to
stay in line with operational objectives.

An HSI
Plan is developed
to serve as a dynamic doc
u-
ment to facilita
te integration of HSI domains
throughout the lifecycle

and to ensure the pr
o-
gram establishes and executes a human
-
centered

design process
. An
outline

for a Pr
o-
ject/Program HSI Plan is provided

in Appendix
R
.



I
n

Pha
se

A
,

t
h
e

e
f
f
o
rt

f
o
c
u
s
e
s

o
n

al
l
o
c
a
t
i
n
g

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s

t
o
p
a
r
t
i
cu
l
a
r

i
t
e
m
s

o
f

h
a
r
d
w
a
r
e
,

s
o
f
tw
a
r
e
,

and
humans
.
S
ys
t
e
m

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
n
d

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

r
e
q
ui
r
eme
n
ts
,

a
l
o
n
g
w
i
t
h

a
r
c
h
i
t
ec
t
u
r
e
s

a
n
d

desi
g
n
s
,

b
e
c
o
m
e

f
i
r
m

a
s

s
y
s
t
e
m
t
rad
e
o
f
f
s

a
n
d

subsys
t
e
m

t
rad
e
o
f
f
s

i
t
er
a
t
e

b
a
c
k

a
n
d

f
o
r
t
h
,
while
collaborating with subject matter experts,

24




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle








P
ur
p
ose

Phase

A:

C
on
c
ept

and

T
echnol
o
gy

D
e
v
elopme
n
t

T
o

de
t
e
r
min
e

th
e

f
easibili
ty

an
d

desi
r
abili
ty

o
f

a

sugges
t
e
d

ne
w

majo
r

s
y
s
t
e
m

an
d

establis
h

a
n

initia
l

baselin
e

c
omp
a
t
i-
b
le

wit
h

NAS
A

s

st
r
a
t
e
g
i
c

plans

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

initi
at
e

a

p
r
oje
c
t

plan



D
e
v
elo
p

t
o
p
-
le
v
e
l

r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

an
d

c
onst
r
ai
n
ts



D
efin
e

an
d

docume
n
t

functional allocations and
s
y
s
t
e
m

r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

(ha
r
d
w
a
r
e
,

so
ft
w
a
r
e
,

and human
)



Alloc
a
t
e

p
r
elimina
r
y

s
y
s
t
e
m

r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

t
o

ne
x
t

l
o
w
e
r

le
v
el



D
efin
e
s
y
s
t
e
m

so
f
t
w
a
r
e

fun
c
tionali
ty

desc
r
iptio
n

an
d

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts



D
efin
e

an
d

docume
n
t

i
nt
e
r
na
l

an
d

e
x
t
e
r
na
l

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts



Ide
n
tif
y

i
nt
e
grat
e
d

lo
g
istic
s

and maintenance
suppo
r
t

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts



D
e
v
elo
p

c
o
r
r
espondin
g

e
v
alu
a
tio
n

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

an
d

met
r
ics



D
ocume
n
t

th
e

C
onOps



Baselin
e

th
e

missio
n

c
on
c
ep
t

r
epo
r
t



D
emonst
r
a
t
e

th
a
t

c
r
edibl
e
,

f
easibl
e

desi
g
n(s
)

exist



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

an
d

a
r
chi
v
e

t
r
ad
e

studies



D
e
v
elo
p

missio
n

a
r
chi
t
e
c
tu
r
e


Develop Pre
-
Launch Integration plan



I
niti
at
e

e
n
vi
r
onme
n
ta
l

e
v
alu
a
tion/N
a
tiona
l

E
n
vi
r
onme
n
ta
l

P
oli
c
y

A
c
t

p
r
o
c
ess



D
e
v
elo
p

initia
l

o
r
bita
l

deb
r
i
s

assessme
n
t

(NAS
A

Sa
f
e
ty

Standa
r
d

1740.14)



Establis
h

t
echnica
l

r
esou
r
c
e

estim
at
es



Establish a Human Systems Integration (HSI) Team and develop an HSI Plan



D
efin
e

li
f
e
-
c
y
cl
e

c
os
t

estim
a
t
e
s

an
d

de
v
elo
p

s
y
s
t
em
-
le
v
e
l

c
os
t
-
ef
f
e
c
ti
v
enes
s

model



D
efin
e

th
e

WBS



D
e
v
elo
p

SO
W
s



A
c
qui
r
e

s
y
s
t
em
s

en
g
inee
r
in
g

t
ool
s

an
d

models



Baselin
e

th
e

SEMP



D
e
v
elo
p

s
y
s
t
e
m

r
is
k

anal
y
ses



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

initi
at
e

a

r
is
k

manageme
n
t

plan



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

I
niti
at
e

a

c
onfigu
ra
tio
n

manageme
n
t

plan



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

initi
at
e

a

d
a
t
a

manageme
n
t

plan



P
r
epa
r
e

en
g
inee
r
in
g

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
t
y

plan
s

(
e
.
g
.
,

c
o
n
tamin
a
tio
n

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

p
l
a
n
,

ele
c
t
r
oma
g
neti
c

i
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
/
e
l
e
c
t
r
o
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c
c
omp
a
tibili
t
y

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

r
eliabili
t
y

plan
,

quali
t
y

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

pa
r
t
s

manageme
n
t

plan
,
logistics plan
)



Pr
epa
r
e

a

sa
f
e
ty

an
d

missio
n

assu
r
an
c
e

plan



P
r
epa
r
e

a

so
f
t
w
a
r
e

de
v
elopme
n
t

o
r

manageme
n
t

pla
n

(se
e

NP
R

7150.2)



P
r
epa
r
e

a

t
echnolog
y

de
v
elopme
n
t

pla
n

an
d

initi
at
e

ad
v
an
c
e
d

t
echnolog
y

de
v
elopme
n
t



Establis
h

huma
n

ra
tin
g

plan

and perform initial evaluations



D
efin
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

app
r
oac
h

an
d

docume
n
t

i
t

i
n

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

plans



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

P
has
e

A

t
echnica
l

a
c
tivitie
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
tisf
y

P
has
e

A

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
an
c
e/su
cc
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



SRR



MD
R

(
r
oboti
c

missio
n

only)



SD
R

(huma
n

spa
c
e

flig
h
t

only)

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



25

3.4

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Phase

A:

C
on
c
ept

a
nd

T
e
chnol
o
gy

D
e
v
elopment




i
n

t
h
e

e
f
f
o
rt

t
o

s
e
e
k

ou
t

m
or
e

c
o
s
t
-
e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

d
e
s
i
g
n
s
.

A method of determining life cycle
cost (i.e.,
system
-
level
cost
-
effectiveness

model)
is developed in order to
compare
cost impacts for each of
the different
altern
a-
tives.

(
T
rad
e

s
t
udie
s

s
h
o
u
l
d

pr
e
c
e
de

r
a
t
h
e
r

t
ha
n

f
o
l
l
o
w


sys
t
e
m

desi
g
n

d
e
cisi
o
n
s.
)

Ma
j
o
r

pr
o
d
u
c
t
s

t
o

t
hi
s

p
o
i
n
t
in
c
l
ud
e

a
n

acce
p
t
e
d

f
un
ct
i
o
n
a
l

b
a
s
elin
e

f
o
r

t
h
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
a
n
d

i
t
s

m
a
j
o
r

en
d

i
t
e
m
s
.

T
h
e

ef
f
o
rt

a
l
so

pr
o
d
uce
s

v
a
r
i
o
u
s

e
n
g
in
e
e
r
i
n
g

a
n
d

m
a
na
g
eme
n
t

p
l
an
s

t
o

pr
e
p
a
r
e

f
o
r
m
a
na
g
i
n
g

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

s

d
o
w
n
s
t
r
e
a
m

pr
o
ces
s-
es
,

su
c
h

a
s
v
e
r
ific
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

o
p
er
a
t
i
o
n
s
,

a
n
d

f
o
r

i
m
p
l
e-
me
n
t
i
n
g

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

s
p
e
ci
a
l
t
y

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
s.



3.5

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

B:

Pr
elimina
r
y
D
esign

and

T
echnol
o
gy
C
ompletion


Du
r
i
ng

P
ha
s
e

B
,

a
c
t
i
v
i
tie
s a
r
e

p
e
r
fo
r
m
e
d

t
o

e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
an

in
i
tia
l

p
r
o
jec
t

b
a
s
e
li
ne
,

w
hi
c
h

(acc
o
r
di
ng

t
o

N
P
R

7120.
5

a
n
d

N
P
R

7123.1
)

i
nc
l
ude
s


a

fo
r
ma
l

f
l
o
w

d
o
w
n
of

t
h
e

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
-
l
e
v
e
l

p
e
r
fo
r
m
a
n
c
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

t
o

a
c
o
m
p
le
t
e

s
e
t of

sy
st
e
m

a
n
d

su
bsy
st
e
m

desig
n

s
p
e
c
i-
f
ic
a
ti
ons

for

b
o
t
h

f
li
g
h
t

a
n
d

g
r
o
u
n
d

e
le
m
e
n
t
s


a
n
d

c
o
r
r
e
s
p
o
n
di
ng

p
r
e
limin
a
r
y

desig
n
s
.


T
h
e
t
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l
r
e-
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e
s
ufficie
n
t
l
y
de
t
a
ile
d

t
o

e
s
t
a
b
li
s
h

f
i
r
m

s
ch
e
d
ul
e

a
n
d

co
s
t

e
s
tim
a
t
e
s

for

t
h
e

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
.
I
t

a
l
s
o

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

n
o
t
e
d
,

e
s
p
ecial
l
y

for

A
O
-
d
r
i
v
e
n

p
r
o-
j
e
c
ts
,

t
h
a
t

P
ha
s
e

B

i
s
w
h
e
r
e

t
h
e

t
o
p
-
l
e
v
e
l

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
a
n
d

t
h
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

f
l
o
w
e
d

d
o
w
n

t
o

t
h
e

n
ex
t

l
e
v
e
l
a
r
e

fin
a
liz
e
d

a
n
d

p
l
ac
e
d

u
n
de
r

c
o
nfigur
a
t
i
on

c
o
n
t
r
ol
.

W
h
i
l
e

t
h
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

ba
s
e
li
n
e
d

i
n
P
ha
s
e

A
,

t
h
e
r
e

a
r
e

j
u
s
t

e
n
o
u
g
h

c
h
ang
e
s

r
e
s
u
l
ti
ng

f
r
o
m
t
h
e

trad
e

s
t
udie
s

a
n
d

a
na
l
y
s
e
s

i
n

l
a
t
e

P
ha
s
e

A

a
n
d
e
a
rl
y

P
ha
s
e

B

t
h
a
t

c
h
ang
e
s

a
r
e

i
n
e
v
i
t
a
b
l
e
.

H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

b
y
mid
-
P
ha
s
e

B
,

t
h
e

t
o
p
-
l
e
v
e
l

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

f
i-
n
a
liz
e
d
.

It is important in Phase B to

validate design
decisions against the ori
ginal goals and o
b-
je
c
tives and
ConOps
.
All aspects of lifecycle
costs must be considered, including design
decisions that affect HSI domains (
training,
operations resource management, human
factors, safety, habita
bility and environment,
and maintainability and supportability
).


A
c
t
ual
l
y
,

t
h
e

P
ha
s
e

B

ba
s
e
li
n
e
c
on
si
s
t
s

of

a

c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
of

e
v
ol
vi
ng

ba
s
e
li
n
e
s

c
o
v
e
r
i
ng

t
e
c
hnica
l

a
n
d

b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
a
s
p
e
c
t
s

of

t
h
e

p
r
o
je
c
t
:

sy
st
e
m

(
a
n
d

su
bsy
st
em
)

r
e-
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

a
n
d

s
p
eci
f
ic
a
ti
on
s
,
desig
n
s
,

v
e
r
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
d

o
p
er
a
t
i
ons

p
l
an
s
,

a
n
d

s
o

on

i
n

t
h
e

t
e
c
hnica
l

p
o
r-
ti
on

of

t
h
e

ba
s
e
li
ne
,

a
n
d

s
ch
e
d
ules
,

co
s
t
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
i
o
n
s
,
a
n
d

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

p
l
ans

i
n
t
h
e

b
usi
n
e
s
s

p
o
r-
t
i
o
n
.

E
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
m
e
n
t

of

ba
s
e
li
n
e
s
i
m
p
l
i
e
s

t
h
e

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
of

c
o
nfigur
a
ti
on

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

p
r
o
ce
d
u
r
es
.

(
S
e
e

S
e
c
t
i
on

6.5.)


I
n

P
ha
s
e

B
,

t
h
e

ef
fo
r
t

s
hift
s

t
o

e
s
t
a
b
li
s
hi
ng

a

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
al
l
y

c
o
m
p
le
t
e

p
r
e
limin
a
r
y

desig
n

s
o
l
u-
t
i
o
n

(
i
.
e
.
,

a

f
u
n
c
ti
o
na
l

ba
s
e
li
n
e
)

t
h
a
t

m
eet
s

mi
s-
si
o
n

g
oa
l
s

a
n
d

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
es
.

T
rad
e

s
t
udie
s

c
o
n-
ti
n
u
e
.

I
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
s

a
m
ong

t
h
e

26




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle




Phase

B:

Pr
elimina
r
y

Design

and

Tec
h-
nology Completion

P
ur
p
ose

T
o

de
f
in
e

th
e

p
r
oje
c
t

i
n

enoug
h

detai
l

t
o

e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h

a
n
initia
l

baselin
e

capabl
e

o
f

meetin
g

missio
n

needs
T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tiv
i-
tie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



Baselin
e

th
e

p
r
oje
c
t

plan



R
e
v
i
e
w

an
d

upd
at
e

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
s

de
v
elope
d

an
d
bas
e-
line
d

i
n

P
has
e

A



D
e
v
elo
p

ope
r
a
tion
s

pla
n
s

based o
n

m
a
tu
r
e
d

C
onOps



Upd
at
e

en
g
inee
r
in
g

special
t
y

plan
s

(
e
.
g
.
,

c
o
n
tamin
a
tio
n

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

ele
c
t
r
oma
g
neti
c

i
nt
e
r
f
e
r
en
c
e/
ele
c
t
r
oma
g-
neti
c

c
omp
a
tibili
t
y

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

r
eliabili
t
y

plan
,

quali
t
y

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

pa
r
t
s

manageme
n
t
plan
, logistics plan
)



Upd
a
t
e

t
echnolog
y

m
a
tu
ra
tio
n

planning



R
epo
r
t

t
echnolog
y

de
v
elopme
n
t

r
esults



Upd
a
t
e

r
is
k

manageme
n
t

plan



Update HSI Plan



Upd
a
t
e

c
os
t

an
d

schedul
e

d
a
ta



F
inali
z
e

an
d

app
r
o
v
e

t
o
p
-
le
v
e
l

r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

and fl
o
w-
d
o
w
n

t
o

th
e

ne
x
t

le
v
e
l

o
f

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts



E
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h

an
d

baselin
e

d
e
s
i
g
n
-
t
o

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
(ha
r
d-
w
a
r
e

an
d

so
f
t
w
a
r
e
)

an
d

d
r
a
wing
s
,

v
e
r
ific
a
tion an
d

v
al
i-
d
a
tio
n

p
l
a
n
s
,

an
d

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
s

a
t
l
o
w
e
r

le
v
els



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

an
d

a
r
chi
v
e

t
r
ad
e

studie
s


r
esults



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

desi
g
n

anal
y
se
s

an
d

r
epo
r
t

r
esults



Perform
human systems integration assessments to
infl
u-
ence

design, requirements,
and
verification



C
ondu
c
t

en
g
inee
r
in
g

de
v
elopme
n
t

t
est
s

an
d

r
e
po
r
t

r
esults



S
e
l
e
c
t

a

baselin
e

desi
g
n

s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n



Baselin
e

a

p
r
elimina
r
y

desi
g
n

r
epo
r
t



D
efin
e

i
nt
e
r
na
l

an
d

e
x
t
e
r
na
l

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e

desi
g
n

solu
tion
s

(
e
.
g
.
,

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

docume
n
ts)



D
efin
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

ope
ra
tion
s

a
s

w
el
l

a
s

PI/
c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t

p
r
o
posa
l

manageme
n
t
,

r
evie
w
,

an
d

a
cc
es
s

an
d

c
o
n
tin
gen
c
y

pla
n-
ning



D
e
v
elo
p

app
r
op
r
i
at
e

le
v
e
l

sa
f
e
ty

d
a
t
a
pac
k
age



D
e
v
elo
p

p
r
elimina
r
y

o
r
bita
l

deb
r
i
s

assessme
n
t



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

Phas
e

B

t
e
c
hn
i
c
a
l

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
t
i
s
f
y

P
has
e

B

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e
/
s
u
cc
e
s
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a
f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



PDR



Sa
f
e
ty

r
eview

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



27

3.5

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Phase

B:

P
relimin
a
r
y

D
esign

a
nd

T
e
chnol
o
gy

C
ompletion




m
a
j
or

e
n
d

i
t
e
ms

a
r
e

de
f
i
n
e
d
.

E
n
gi
n
ee
r
i
ng

t
e
s
t
i
t
e
m
s

m
a
y

b
e

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
d

a
n
d

u
s
e
d

t
o

de
r
i
ve

d
a
t
a

for

f
u
rt
h
e
r
desig
n

wo
r
k
,

a
n
d

p
r
o
je
c
t

r
i
s
k
s

a
r
e

r
e
d
uce
d

b
y

s
u
c-
ce
s
s
f
u
l

t
e
c
h
no
lo
g
y

d
e
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t
s

a
n
d

d
e
m
o
n
s
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
.
Assessments of human
-
in
-
the
-
loop
performance for both
ground and flight personnel are conducted, and the infl
u-
ence on system design
are

reported at PDR.
P
ha
s
e

B

c
u
l
m
i
n
a
t
e
s

i
n

a

s
e
r
ie
s

of

P
D
R
s
,

c
o
n
t
a
ini
ng

t
h
e
s
y
s
t
e
m
-
l
e
v
e
l

P
DR

a
n
d

P
D
R
s

for

l
o
w
e
r

l
e
v
e
l

e
n
d

i
t
e
m
s
a
s

a
p-
p
r
op
r
i
a
te
.

T
h
e

P
D
R
s

r
efle
c
t

t
h
e

s
ucce
s
s
i
ve

r
efi
n
e
m
e
n
t

of

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

i
n
t
o

desig
n
s
.

(
S
e
e

t
h
e

d
o
c
t
r
i
n
e
of

s
ucce
s
s
i
ve

r
e
f
i
n
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

S
u
b
s
e
c
ti
on

4.4.1.
2

a
n
d
Fi
g-
u
r
e

4
.
4
-
2
.
)

D
e
s
i
g
n

i
ss
ue
s

u
n
c
o
v
e
r
e
d

i
n

t
h
e

P
D
R
s
s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

r
e
s
ol
v
e
d

s
o

t
h
a
t

f
ina
l

desig
n

c
an

b
egi
n

w
i
t
h
u
n
a
mb
i
g
u
o
u
s

d
e
s
i
g
n
-
t
o

s
p
eci
f
ic
a
ti
on
s
.

F
r
o
m

t
h
i
s

p
o
i
n
t
o
n
,

a
l
m
o
s
t

al
l

c
h
ang
e
s

t
o

t
h
e

ba
s
e
li
n
e

a
r
e

ex
p
e
c
t
e
d

t
o
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t

s
ucce
s
s
i
ve

r
e
f
i
n
e
m
e
n
ts
,

n
ot

f
u
n
d
a
m
e
n
t
a
l
c
h
ang
es
.

P
r
i
or

t
o

ba
s
e
lini
n
g
,

t
h
e

sy
st
e
m

a
r
c
h
i
t
e
c
t
u
r
e
,
p
r
e
limin
a
r
y

design
,

a
n
d

C
o
nOp
s

m
u
s
t

h
a
ve

b
ee
n

v
a
l
i-
d
a
t
e
d

b
y

e
n
o
u
g
h

t
e
c
hnica
l

a
na
l
ysi
s

a
n
d

desig
n

wo
r
k
t
o

e
s
t
a
b
li
s
h

a

c
r
ed
ib
l
e
,

f
e
as
ib
l
e

desig
n

i
n

g
r
e
a
t
e
r

d
e
t
a
i
l
t
h
an

wa
s

s
ufficie
n
t

for

P
ha
s
e

A.




3.6

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

C:

F
inal

D
esign

and

F
ab
r
i
c
a
tion


D
u
r
i
n
g

Pha
s
e

C,

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

ar
e

p
e
r
fo
r
m
e
d

t
o

e
s
t
ab
l
is
h

a
c
o
m
p
le
t
e

desi
g
n

(
al
l
o
c
a
t
e
d

b
a
s
e
li
n
e),

f
ab
r
i
c
a
t
e
o
r

p
r
o-
d
uce

h
ard
w
ar
e
,

a
n
d

c
o
de

s
o
f
t
w
ar
e

in

pr
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r
i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n.

T
rade

s
t
udies

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

and results are
used to validate the design against project goals, obje
c-
tives, and
ConOps
.

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g

t
e
s
t
un
i
ts

m
or
e

c
lo
s
e
l
y

r
e
s
e
mb
li
n
g

a
c
t
ua
l

h
ard
w
ar
e

ar
e

b
u
i
l
t
a
n
d

t
e
st
e
d

t
o

e
s-
t
ab
l
is
h

c
o
nfide
n
ce

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

desi
g
n

wil
l
f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

in

t
h
e

ex
p
e
c
t
e
d

e
n
v
i
ro
n
m
e
n
ts.

E
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
p
e
c
ia
l
t
y

a
n
a
l
ys
i
s

r
e
s
u
l
ts

ar
e

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
e
d

i
n
t
o

t
h
e

desi
g
n,

a
n
d

t
h
e

m
a
n
u-
fa
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

pr
o
ce
s
s

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
ro
l
s

a
r
e
defi
n
e
d
a
n
d

v
a
li
d
a
t-
e
d
.

Al
l

t
h
e

p
l
a
nni
n
g

in
i
ti
a
t
e
d

b
a
c
k
in

Pha
s
e

A

f
o
r

t
h
e

t
e
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

o
p
er
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t,
pr
o
ce
s
s
es

a
n
d

a
n
a
l
ys
i
s,

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
s
p
e
c
ia
l
t
y

a
n
a
l-
ys
i
s,

a
n
d

m
a
n
ufa
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

pr
o
ce
s
s
es

a
n
d
c
o
n
t
ro
l
s

i
s

i
m-
p
le
m
e
n
t
e
d
.

C
o
nfigur
a
t
i
o
n

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t c
on
t
i
n
ues

t
o

t
ra
c
k

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
ro
l

desi
g
n

ch
ang
es

a
s

d
e
t
a
i
l
e
d

i
n
t
e
r
faces

ar
e

defi
n
e
d
.

A
t

e
a
c
h
st
ep

in

t
h
e

s
ucce
s
s
iv
e

r
efi
n
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

fi
n
a
l desi
g
n,

c
o
r
r
e
s
p
o
n
di
n
g

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

v
e
r
ifi
c
a-
t
i
o
n

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

a
r
e

p
l
a
n
n
e
d

in

g
r
e
a
t
er
de
t
a
i
l
.

D
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
i
s

p
ha
s
e
,

t
e
c
hni
ca
l

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s,

s
c
h
e
d
u
les,

a
n
d

b
ud
g
ets

ar
e

c
lo
s
e
l
y

t
ra
c
k
e
d

t
o

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t
u
n
desir
ab
le

t
r
e
nd
s

(
s
u
c
h

a
s

a
n

u
n
ex
p
e
c
t
e
d

g
r
o
w
t
h

in

s
p
ac
e
cr
a
ft

mas
s

o
r

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

in

i
ts

co
s
t)

ar
e

r
e
co
g
niz
e
d

e
a
r
l
y

e
n
o
u
g
h

t
o

ta
k
e

c
o
r
r
e
c
t
iv
e

a
c
t
i
o
n.

T
h
e
s
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies
f
oc
u
s

o
n

pr
e
p
a
r
i
n
g

fo
r

t
h
e

C
D
R
,

P
RR

(if
r
e
q
ui
r
e
d),

a
n
d
t
h
e

S
I
R
.


Pha
s
e

C

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
s

a

s
e
r
ies

o
f

C
D
Rs

c
o
n
t
a
ini
n
g

t
h
e
sy
s-
t
em
-
l
e
v
e
l

C
D
R

a
n
d

C
D
Rs

c
o
r
r
e
s
p
o
n
di
n
g

t
o

t
h
e

dif
f
e
r-
e
n
t

l
e
v
el
s

o
f

t
h
e

sy
st
em

hier
ar
c
h
y
.

A

C
D
R

f
o
r

e
a
c
h
e
n
d

i
t
em

s
h
o
u
ld

b
e

he
ld

p
r
i
o
r

t
o

t
h
e

s
t
a
r
t

o
f

f
a
b
r
i
c
a-
t
i
o
n/
pr
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

h
a
r
d
w
a
r
e

a
n
d

p
r
i
o
r

t
o

t
h
e

s
t
a
r
t
o
f

c
o
di
n
g

o
f

d
e
l
iv
er
ab
le

s
o
f
t
w
ar
e

pr
o
d
u
c
ts.

T
y
p
i
c
a
l
l
y
,
t
h
e

s
e
q
ue
n
ce

o
f

C
D
Rs

r
efl
e
c
ts

t
h
e

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

p
r
o
ce
s
s
t
h
a
t

wil
l

o
c
c
ur

in

t
h
e

n
ext

p
ha
s
e

t
h
a
t

i
s,

f
ro
m

l
o
w
er
l
e
v
e
l C
D
Rs

t
o

t
h
e

sy
st
em
-
l
e
v
e
l

C
D
R
.

Pro
je
c
ts,

h
o
w
e
v-
e
r
,

s
h
o
u
ld

t
a
i
l
o
r

t
h
e

s
e
q
ue
n
ci
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
e
v
i
e
ws

t
o
m
e
et
t
h
e

n
ee
d
s

o
f

t
h
e

pr
o
je
c
t.

I
f

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

a

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
r
un

o
f

pr
o
d
u
c
ts,

a

P
RR

wil
l

b
e

p
e
r
fo
r
m
e
d

t
o

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
e
pr
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

p
l
an
s,

fac
i
l
i
t
ies,

a
n
d

p
e
r
s
o
n
ne
l

ar
e

r
e
a
d
y

t
o
b
e
g
in

pr
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n.

Pha
s
e

C

c
u
lmi
n
a
t
es

w
i
t
h

a
n

S
I
R
.

The
supporting team is trained

and preliminary mission operations
plans are created.
T
h
e
fi
n
a
l

pr
o
d
u
c
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

p
ha
s
e
i
s

a
pr
o
d
u
c
t

r
e
a
d
y

fo
r

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n.



3.7

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

D:

S
y
s
t
em
A
s-
sembl
y
,

I
n
t
eg
r
a
tion

and

T
es
t
,
L
aunch


D
u
r
i
n
g

Pha
s
e

D
,

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

ar
e

p
e
r
fo
r
m
e
d

t
o

a
s
s
e
m
b
l
e
,
i
n
t
e
g
r
a
te
,

t
e
s
t,

a
n
d

l
a
u
nc
h

t
h
e

sy
st
em.

T
h
e
s
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies
f
oc
u
s

o
n

pr
e
p
a
r
i
n
g

f
o
r

t
h
e

FR
R
.

A
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

i
nc
l
ude

a
s
s
e
mbl
y
,

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n,

v
e
r
ifi
c
a
t
i
o
n,

a
n
d

v
a
li
d
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e
sy
st
em,

i
nc
l
udi
n
g

t
e
s
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

fli
g
h
t

sy
st
em

t
o

e
x-
p
e
c
t
e
d
e
n
v
i
ro
n
m
e
n
ts

w
i
t
hin

m
ar
g
in.

Ot
h
er

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

i
n
c
l
ude
preparing operational procedures,
r
e -
h e a r s a l s a n d
t
r
a
ini
n
g

o
f

o
p
er
a
t
i
n
g

p
e
r
s
o
n
ne
l

and
crew members
,

a
n
d

i
m
p
le
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

lo
g
i
s
t
ics

a
n
d

s
p
a
r
es

p
l
a
nni
n
g
.

F
o
r

fli
g
h
t
pro
je
c
ts,

t
h
e

f
oc
u
s

o
f

a
c
t
i
v
i-
t
ies

t
h
en

s
hifts

t
o

p
r
e
l
a
u
n
c
h
i
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

l
a
u
nc
h.

A
l
t
h
o
u
g
h

al
l
t
h
e
s
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

a
r
e
c
o
n
d
u
c
t
e
d

in

t
h
i
s

p
ha
s
e

o
f

a

pro
je
c
t,

t
h
e

p
l
a
nni
n
g

f
o
r
t
h
e
s
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

w
a
s

in
i
ti
a
t
e
d

in

Pha
s
e

A.

T
h
e

p
l
a
nni
n
g
fo
r

t
h
e

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
ies

c
a
n
n
o
t

b
e

d
e
l
a
y
e
d

u
n
ti
l

Pha
s
e

D
b
e
g
i
n
s

b
ec
a
u
s
e

t
h
e

desi
g
n

o
f

t
h
e

pro
je
c
t

i
s

t
o
o

a
d
v
a
n
c
e
d
t
o

i
n
c
o
rp
o
r
a
t
e

r
e
q
ui
r
e
m
e
n
ts

fo
r

t
e
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

o
p
er
a
t
i
o
n
s.
Pha
s
e

D

c
o
n-
c
l
udes

w
i
t
h

a

sy
st
em

t
h
a
t

ha
s

b
e
en

s
h
o
w
n
t
o

b
e

c
a
p
a-
b
le

o
f

acc
o
m
p
l
i
s
hi
n
g

t
h
e

p
u
rp
o
s
e

fo
r

w
hi
c
h
i
t

w
a
s

c
r
e-
a
t
e
d
.

28




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle








P
ur
p
ose

Phase

C:

F
inal

Design

and

F
abri
c
a
tion

T
o

c
omple
t
e

th
e

detaile
d

desi
g
n

o
f

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

(an
d

it
s

associ
a
t
e
d

subs
y
s
t
em
s
,

includin
g

it
s

ope
ra
tion
s

s
y
s
t
ems)
,

fab
r
i-
c
a
t
e

ha
r
d
w
a
r
e
,

an
d

c
od
e

so
ft
w
a
r
e

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



Upd
a
t
e

docume
n
t
s

de
v
elope
d

an
d

baseline
d

i
n

Phas
e

B



Upd
a
t
e

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e

docume
n
ts



Upd
a
t
e

ope
ra
tion
s

pla
n

base
d

o
n

m
a
tu
r
e
d

C
onOps



Update HSI Plan



U
p
d
a
t
e

en
g
inee
r
in
g

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
t
y

plan
s

(
e
.
g
.
,

c
o
n
tamin
a
tio
n

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

p
l
a
n
,

ele
c
t
r
oma
g
neti
c

i
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
/
e
l
e
c
t
r
o
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
c
c
omp
a
tibili
ty

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

r
eliabili
ty

plan
,

quali
ty

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

plan
,

pa
r
t
s

manageme
n
t

plan)



A
u
g
me
n
t

baseline
d

docume
n
t
s

t
o

r
efle
c
t

th
e

g
r
o
win
g

m
a
tu
r
i
ty

o
f

th
e

s
y
s
t
em
,

includin
g

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

a
r
chi
t
e
c
tu
r
e
,

WBS,
an
d

p
r
oje
c
t

plans



Upd
a
t
e

an
d

baselin
e

p
r
odu
c
tio
n

plans



R
efin
e

i
nt
e
gra
tio
n

p
r
o
c
edu
r
es
, and begin training support personnel



Baselin
e

lo
g
istic
s

suppo
r
t

plan



A
d
d

r
emainin
g

l
o
w
e
r

le
v
e
l

desi
g
n

specific
a
tion
s

t
o

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

a
r
chi
t
e
c
tu
r
e



C
omple
t
e

manufa
c
tu
r
in
g

an
d

assembl
y

plan
s

an
d

p
r
o
c
edu
r
es



E
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h

a
n
d

baselin
e

build
-
t
o

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

(ha
r
d
w
a
r
e

a
n
d

s
o
f
t
w
a
r
e
)

a
n
d

d
r
a
w
i
n
g
s
,

v
e
r
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

p
l
a
n
s
,
an
d

i
n
t
e
r
fa
c
e

docume
n
t
s

a
t

al
l

le
v
els



Baselin
e

detaile
d

desi
g
n

r
epo
r
t



M
ai
n
tai
n
r
equi
r
eme
n
t
s

docume
n
ts



M
ai
n
tai
n
v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

plans



M
oni
t
o
r

p
r
oje
c
t

p
r
o
g
r
es
s

agains
t

p
r
oje
c
t

plans



D
e
v
elo
p

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

p
r
o
c
edu
r
es



D
e
v
elo
p

ha
r
d
w
a
r
e

an
d

so
f
t
w
a
r
e

detaile
d

desi
g
ns



D
e
v
elo
p

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

i
nt
e
gra
tio
n

pla
n

an
d

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

ope
ra
tio
n

plan



D
e
v
elo
p

th
e

end
-
t
o
-
en
d

in
f
o
r
m
a
tio
n

s
y
s
t
e
m

desi
g
n



D
e
v
elo
p

spa
r
e
s

planning



D
e
v
elo
p

c
omman
d

an
d

t
elemet
r
y

list



Pr
epa
r
e

launc
h

si
t
e
checkou
t

an
d

ope
ra
tion
s

plans



Pr
epa
r
e

ope
ra
tion
s

an
d

a
c
ti
va
tio
n

plan



Pr
epa
r
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

de
c
ommissioning/disposa
l

plan
,

includin
g

huma
n

capita
l

t
r
ansition
,

f
o
r

us
e

i
n

Phas
e

F



F
inali
z
e

app
r
op
r
i
at
e

le
v
e
l

sa
f
e
ty

d
a
t
a
pac
k
age



D
e
v
elo
p

p
r
elimina
r
y

ope
ra
tion
s

handbook



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

an
d

a
r
chi
v
e

t
r
ad
e

studies



F
ab
r
ic
a
t
e

(o
r

c
ode
)

th
e

p
r
odu
c
t



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

t
estin
g

a
t

th
e

c
ompone
n
t

o
r

subs
y
s
t
e
m

le
v
el



Ide
n
tif
y

oppo
r
tunitie
s

f
o
r

p
r
eplanne
d

p
r
odu
c
t

imp
r
o
v
eme
n
t



Baselin
e

o
r
bita
l

deb
r
i
s

assessme
n
t



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

Phas
e

C

t
echnica
l

a
c
tivitie
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



Satisf
y

Phas
e

C

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
an
c
e/su
cc
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



CDR



PRR



SIR



Sa
f
e
ty

r
eview

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



29

3.7

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Phase

D
:

S
y
s
t
em

Assemb
l
y
,

In
t
eg
r
a
tion

a
nd

T
es
t
,

Launch








P
ur
p
ose

Phase

D:

S
y
s
t
em

A
ssembl
y
,

I
nt
eg
r
a
tion

and

T
es
t
,

L
aunch

T
o

assembl
e

an
d

i
nt
e
grat
e

th
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

an
d

c
r
e
a
t
e

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
,

mea
n
whil
e

de
v
elopin
g

c
on
f
iden
c
e

th
a
t

i
t

wil
l

b
e

abl
e

t
o
mee
t

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

r
equi
r
eme
n
ts
;

c
ondu
c
t

launc
h

an
d

p
r
epa
r
e

f
o
r

ope
ra
tions

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



I
nt
e
grat
e

an
d

v
e
r
if
y

i
t
em
s

a
cc
o
r
din
g

t
o

th
e

i
nt
e
gra
tio
n

an
d

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

plan
s
,

yieldin
g

v
e
r
ifie
d

c
ompone
n
t
s

an
d

(su
b
-
s
y
s
t
ems)



M
oni
t
o
r

p
r
oje
c
t

p
r
o
g
r
es
s

agains
t

p
r
oje
c
t

plans



R
efin
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

p
r
o
c
edu
r
e
s

a
t

al
l

le
v
els



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

s
y
s
t
e
m

qualific
a
tio
n

v
e
r
ific
a
tions



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

s
y
s
t
e
m

a
cc
eptan
c
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tion
s

an
d

v
alid
a
tion(s
)

(
e
.
g
.
,

end
-
t
o
-
en
d

t
est
s

en
c
ompassin
g

al
l
eleme
n
t
s

(i.
e
.,
spa
c
e

eleme
n
t
,

g
r
oun
d

s
y
s
t
em
,

d
a
t
a

p
r
o
c
essin
g

s
y
s
t
em)



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

s
y
s
t
e
m

e
n
vi
r
onme
n
ta
l

t
esting



Asses
s

an
d

app
r
o
v
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

r
esults



R
esol
v
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

disc
r
epancies



A
r
chi
v
e

docume
n
t
a
tio
n

f
o
r

v
e
r
ific
a
tion
s

an
d

v
alid
a
tion
s
pe
r
f
o
r
med



Baselin
e

v
e
r
ific
a
tio
n

an
d

v
alid
a
tio
n

r
epo
r
t



Baselin
e


as
-
buil
t


ha
r
d
w
a
r
e

an
d

so
f
t
w
a
r
e

docume
n
t
a
tion



Upd
a
t
e

lo
g
istic
s

suppo
r
t

plan



D
ocume
n
t

lesson
s

lea
r
ned



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

baselin
e

ope
r
a
t
o
r

s

manuals



Pr
epa
r
e

an
d

baselin
e

mai
n
t
enan
c
e

manuals



App
r
o
v
e

an
d

baselin
e

ope
ra
tion
s

handbook



T
r
ai
n

initia
l

s
y
s
t
e
m

ope
r
a
t
or
s

an
d

mai
n
tainers



T
r
ai
n

o
n

c
o
n
tingen
c
y

planning



F
inali
z
e

an
d

impleme
n
t

spa
r
e
s

planning



C
onfi
r
m

t
elemet
r
y

v
alid
a
tio
n

an
d

g
r
oun
d

d
a
t
a

p
r
o
c
essing



C
onfi
r
m

s
y
s
t
e
m

an
d

suppo
r
t

eleme
n
t
s

a
r
e

r
ead
y

f
o
r

flig
h
t



I
nt
e
grat
e

wit
h

launc
h

v
ehicle(s
)

an
d

launch
,

pe
r
f
o
r
m

o
r
bi
t

inse
r
tion
,

e
tc
.
,

t
o

achie
v
e

a

depl
o
y
e
d

s
y
s
t
em



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

initia
l

ope
ra
tiona
l

v
e
r
ific
a
tion(s
)

an
d

v
alid
a
tion(s)



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

P
has
e

D

t
echnica
l

a
c
tivitie
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
tisf
y

P
has
e

D

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
an
c
e/su
cc
es
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



TR
R
(
a
t

al
l

le
v
els)



SA
R

(huma
n

spa
c
e

flig
h
t

only)



ORR



FRR



S
y
s
t
e
m

fun
c
tiona
l

an
d

p
h
y
sica
l

c
onfigu
ra
tio
n

audits



Sa
f
e
ty

r
eview

30




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle




3.8

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

E:

Op
e
r
a
tions

and

Sustainme
n
t


D
u
r
i
n
g

Pha
se

E
,

a
ct
i
v
i
t
ie
s

a
r
e

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
e
d

t
o

c
o
n
d
u
c
t

t
h
e
p
r
i
m
e

m
i
s
s
i
o
n

to

m
e
e
t

t
h
e

in
i
t
i
al
l
y

ide
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

n
ee
d

a
n
d
to
m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n

s
u
p
p
o
rt

f
o
r

t
h
a
t

n
ee
d
.

T
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

p
h
a
s
e
a
r
e
t
h
e

r
es
u
l
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

m
i
s
s
i
o
n

and performance of
the system
.


Systems
engineering

personnel continue to
play a role
during this phase
since

integration
often

overlap
s

with operations

for complex
sys
tems. Some programs have
repeated oper
a-
tions/flights
which require
configuration

chan
g-
es and new mission objectives with each
o
c-
cu
r
rence
.
And systems with
complex sustai
n-
ment
needs
or human involvement will
likely
require evaluation and adjustments that
may be
beyond the scope of operators to perform.
Specialty engineering disciplines
,

like mai
n-
tai
n
ability and logistics servicing,
will be pe
r-
forming
tasks during this phase as well.

Such

tasks
m
ay require reiteration

and/or recursion

of the common systems engineering processes
.

T
hi
s

p
ha
se

e
n
c
o
m
p
a
s
s
e
s
t
h
e

e
vo
lu
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

o
n
l
y

i
n
s
o
f
a
r

a
s

t
h
a
t

e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
d
o
e
s

n
o
t

i
n
volv
e

m
a
j
o
r

c
h
ang
e
s

t
o

t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

a
r
c
h
i
t
e
c
t
u
r
e
.

C
h
ang
e
s

o
f

t
h
a
t

s
c
o
pe

c
o
n-
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

n
ew


n
ee
ds
,


a
n
d


Phase

E:

Op
e
ra
tions

and

Sustainme
n
t

P
ur
p
ose

T
o
c
ondu
c
t

th
e

missio
n

an
d

mee
t

th
e

initiall
y

ide
n
t
i
fie
d

nee
d

an
d

mai
n
tai
n

suppo
r
t

f
o
r

th
a
t

need

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



C
ondu
c
t

launc
h

v
ehicl
e

pe
r
f
o
r
man
c
e
assessme
n
t



C
ondu
c
t

in
-
o
r
bi
t

spa
c
ec
r
a
f
t

checkout



C
ommissio
n

an
d

a
c
ti
v
a
t
e

scien
c
e

instrume
n
ts



C
ondu
c
t

th
e

i
nt
ende
d

p
r
im
e

mission(s)



C
olle
c
t

en
g
inee
r
in
g

an
d

scien
c
e

d
a
ta



T
r
ai
n

r
epla
c
eme
n
t

ope
r
a
t
or
s

an
d

mai
n
tainers



T
r
ai
n

th
e

f
lig
h
t

t
ea
m

f
o
r

futu
r
e

missio
n

phase
s

(
e
.
g
.
,
planeta
r
y

lande
d

ope
ra
tions)



M
ai
n
tai
n

an
d

app
r
o
v
e

ope
ra
tion
s

an
d

mai
nt
e-
nan
c
e

logs



M
ai
n
tai
n
an
d

up
gr
ad
e

th
e

s
y
s
t
em



A
dd
r
es
s

p
r
oblem/failu
r
e

r
epo
r
ts



P
r
o
c
es
s

an
d

analy
z
e

missio
n

d
a
ta



Appl
y

f
o
r

missio
n

e
x
t
ension
s
,

i
f

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
e
d
,

an
d

c
o
n-
du
c
t

missio
n

a
c
tivitie
s

i
f

a
w
a
r
ded



Pr
epa
r
e

f
o
r

dea
c
ti
va
tion
,

disassembl
y
,

de
c
ommi
s-
sionin
g

a
s

planne
d

(subje
c
t

t
o

missio
n

e
x
t
ension)



C
omple
t
e

pos
t
-
flig
h
t

e
v
alu
a
tio
n

r
epo
r
ts



C
omple
t
e

fina
l

missio
n

r
epo
r
t



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

Phas
e

E

t
e
c
hn
i
c
a
l

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
t
i
s
f
y

P
has
e

E

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e
/
s
u
cc
e
s
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a
f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



PLAR



CERR



P
F
A
R

(huma
n

spa
c
e

flig
h
t

only)



S
y
s
t
e
m

up
gr
ad
e

r
eview



Sa
f
e
ty

r
eview

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



31

3.7

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Phase

D
:

S
y
s
t
em

Assemb
l
y
,

In
t
eg
r
a
tion

a
nd

T
es
t
,

Launch



t
h
e

pro
jec
t

li
f
e

c
yc
l
e

s
t
a
r
t
s

o
v
e
r
.

F
o
r

l
arg
e

f
li
g
h
t

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
s
,
t
he
r
e

m
a
y

be

a
n

ex
t
end
e
d

p
e
r
i
od

o
f

c
r
ui
s
e
,

o
r
bi
t

i
n
s
e
r-
t
i
o
n
,

o
n
-
o
r
bi
t

as
s
e
mbl
y
,

an
d

in
i
t
i
a
l

sh
a
k
e
d
o
w
n

o
p
er
a-
t
i
o
n
s
.

N
e
a
r

t
h
e

e
n
d

o
f

t
h
e

p
r
i
m
e

m
i
s
s
i
o
n
,

t
h
e

p
r
o
j
e
c
t

m
a
y
a
p
pl
y

f
o
r

a

m
i
s
si
o
n

ex
t
e
n
si
o
n

t
o

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

m
i
s
si
o
n

a
c
t
i
v
i-
t
ie
s

o
r

a
tt
e
m
p
t

t
o

p
e
r
f
o
r
m

add
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

m
i
s
si
o
n

o
b
j
e
c
t
i
v
es.



3.9

Pr
oje
c
t

Phase

F
:

C
loseout


D
u
r
i
n
g

Pha
se

F
,

a
ct
i
v
i
t
ie
s

a
r
e

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
e
d

t
o

i
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
t
h
e

sy
s
t
e
m
s

d
e
c
o
mm
i
s
si
o
ni
n
g

dis
p
o
sa
l

p
l
a
nni
n
g

a
n
d

a
n
a
l
y
z
e

a
n
y

r
e
t
u
r
n
e
d

d
a
t
a

a
n
d

s
a
m
p
l
e
s
.

T
h
e

pr
o
d
u
c
t
s

o
f

t
h
e
p
ha
se

a
r
e

t
h
e

r
es
u
l
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

m
i
s
si
o
n.


Pha
se

F

d
ea
l
s

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

fin
a
l

c
lo
s
e
ou
t

o
f

t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

w
h
e
n
i
t

ha
s

c
o
m
p
le
t
e
d

i
t
s

missi
o
n
;

t
h
e

t
im
e

a
t

w
hi
c
h

t
hi
s

o
c-
c
u
r
s

de
p
end
s

o
n

m
a
n
y

fa
c
t
o
r
s
.

F
o
r

a

f
li
g
h
t

sys
t
e
m

t
h
a
t
r
e
t
u
r
n
s

t
o

E
a
r
t
h

w
i
t
h

a

sh
o
rt

m
i
s
si
o
n

d
ur
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
lo
s
e
o
u
t
m
a
y

r
e
q
ui
r
e

l
i
t
t
l
e

m
or
e

t
ha
n

dei
n
t
e
g
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

h
a
r
d-
w
a
r
e

a
n
d

i
t
s

r
e
t
u
r
n

t
o

i
t
s

o
w
n
e
r
.

O
n

f
l
i
g
h
t

pro
jec
t
s

o
f

l
o
n
g
d
ur
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
lo
s
e
ou
t

m
a
y

pr
o
c
ee
d

acc
or
di
n
g

t
o

e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
p
l
an
s

o
r

m
a
y

b
e
g
i
n

a
s

a

r
e
s
u
l
t

o
f

u
n
p
l
a
n
n
e
d

e
v
e
n
ts
,

s
u
c
h
a
s

f
a
i
l
u
r
es
.

Re
f
e
r

t
o

N
P
D

8010.3
,

N
o
t
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

I
n
t
e
n
t

t
o
D
eco
mm
i
ss
i
o
n

o
r

T
e
r
m
i
n
a
t
e

O
p
e
ra
t
in
g

S
p
ac
e

S
y
st
em
s

a
n
d
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
t
e

M
i
ss
i
o
n
s
f
o
r

t
e
r
mi
n
a
t
i
n
g

a
n

o
p
er
a
t
i
n
g

m
i
s-
si
o
n
.

A
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
iv
e
l
y
,

t
e
c
hn
o
lo
g
ic
a
l

a
d
v
a
nce
s

m
a
y

m
a
k
e

i
t
u
n
e
c
o
n
o
mic
a
l

t
o

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

e
i
t
he
r

i
n
i
t
s

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

c
o
nfigur
a
t
i
o
n

o
r

a
n

i
m
pr
o
v
e
d

o
n
e
.



Phase

F
:

C
loseout

P
ur
p
ose

T
o

impleme
n
t

th
e

s
y
s
t
em
s

de
c
ommissioning/dis
posa
l
pla
n

de
v
elope
d

i
n

P
has
e

C

an
d

analy
z
e

a
n
y

r
e
tu
r
ne
d

d
a-
t
a

an
d

samples

T
ypi
c
a
l

A
c
tivitie
s

an
d

T
hei
r

P
r
o
du
c
ts



Dispos
e

o
f

th
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

an
d

suppo
r
tin
g

p
r
o
c
esses



D
ocume
n
t

lesson
s

lea
r
ned



Baselin
e

missio
n

fina
l

r
epo
r
t



A
r
chi
v
e

d
a
ta



B
e
g
i
n

t
r
ansitio
n

o
f

huma
n

capita
l

(i
f

applicable)



P
e
r
f
o
r
m

r
equi
r
e
d

Phas
e

F

t
e
c
hn
i
c
a
l

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
s

f
r
o
m

NP
R

7120.5



S
a
t
i
s
f
y

P
has
e

F

r
evie
w
s


e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e
/
s
u
cc
e
s
s

c
r
i
t
e
r
i
a
f
r
o
m

NP
R

7123.1

R
e
vi
e
w
s



DR

32




NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
b
o
ok

3.0

NASA

P
r
o
g
r
am/
P
r
oje
c
t

Li
f
e
C
y
cle




T
o

lim
it

s
pac
e

de
b
r
is
,

N
P
R

8715.6
,

N
A
S
A

P
r
oc
e
du
r
al

R
e
qui
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

for

L
i
m
i
t
in
g

O
rb
i
tal

D
e
b
r
i
s

p
r
o
vide
s

guid
e
li
n
e
s

for

r
e
m
o
vi
ng

E
a
rt
h
-
o
r
b
i
t
i
n
g

r
o
b
o
t
i
c
s
a
te
l-
l
i
t
e
s

f
r
om

t
h
ei
r

o
p
er
a
ti
o
na
l

o
r
bi
t
s

a
t

t
h
e

e
n
d

o
f
t
h
ei
r

u
s
e
fu
l

li
f
e
.

F
or

L
o
w

E
a
rt
h

Or
bi
t
i
ng

(LEO
)

mi
s
si
on
s
,

t
h
e

s
a
te
ll
i
t
e

i
s

u
s
ual
l
y

de
o
r
bi
t
e
d
.

F
or

smal
l

s
a
t
e
ll
i
t
es
,

t
hi
s

i
s

a
cc
o
m
p
l
i
s
h
e
d

b
y

al
l
o
w
i
ng

t
h
e

o
r
bit

t
o
s
l
o
w
l
y

dec
a
y

u
n
ti
l

t
h
e

s
a
te
ll
i
t
e

e
v
e
n
t
ual
l
y

b
u
r
n
s

up
i
n

t
h
e

E
a
rt
h

s

a
t
m
o
sph
e
r
e
.

L
arg
e
r
,

m
o
r
e

ma
s
s
i
ve

s
a
t
e
ll
i
t
e
s

a
n
d

o
b
s
e
r
v
a
t
o
r
ie
s

m
u
s
t

b
e

desig
n
e
d

t
o

d
e
m
i
s
e
or

d
e-
o
r
bi
t
e
d

i
n

a

c
o
n
t
r
o
lle
d

m
a
n
n
e
r

s
o
t
h
a
t

t
h
e
y

c
a
n
b
e

s
af
el
y

t
arg
e
t
e
d

for

i
m
pa
c
t

i
n

a

r
e
m
o
t
e

a
r
e
a

of

t
h
e
o
c
e
a
n
.

T
h
e

G
eo
s
t
a
ti
o
n
a
r
y

(GEO
)

s
a
te
ll
i
t
e
s

a
t

35
,
79
0
k
m

a
b
o
ve

t
h
e

E
a
rt
h

c
a
n
n
ot

b
e

p
ra
c
tical
l
y

d
e
o
r
b
i
t
e
d
,
s
o

t
h
e
y

a
r
e

bo
o
st
e
d

t
o

a

hi
g
h
e
r

o
r
bit

w
e
l
l

be
yo
n
d

t
h
e
c
ro
w
d
e
d

o
p
er
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

GE
O

o
r
b
i
t.


I
n

add
i
t
i
o
n

t
o

unce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

a
s

t
o

w
h
e
n

t
h
i
s

p
a
rt

o
f

t
h
e
p
ha
se

b
e
g
i
n
s
,

t
h
e

a
ct
i
v
i
t
ie
s

as
so
ci
a
t
e
d

w
i
t
h

s
af
e

c
l
o
s
e
o
u
t
o
f

a

sys
t
e
m

m
a
y

be

l
o
n
g

a
n
d

c
o
m
p
le
x

a
n
d

m
a
y

a
f
f
e
c
t
t
h
e

sys
t
e
m

desi
g
n
.

C
o
n
s
e
q
ue
n
t
l
y
,

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

o
p
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d
s
t
r
a
t
e
g
ie
s

s
h
o
u
l
d

be

c
o
n
side
r
e
d

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

s

e
a
r-
l
i
e
r

p
ha
s
e
s

a
l
o
n
g

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

cost
s

a
n
d

r
isk
s

as
so
ci
a
t
e
d

w
i
t
h
t
h
e

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

o
p
t
i
o
n
s
.

3.10

F
unding:

T
he

Budget

C
y
cle


N
A
SA

o
p
er
a
t
es

w
i
t
h

a
n
n
ua
l

f
u
n
di
n
g

f
ro
m

C
o
n
g
r
e
s
s.
Th
i
s

f
u
n
di
n
g

r
e
s
u
l
ts,

h
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

f
r
o
m

a

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

r
o
l
li
n
g
pr
o
ce
s
s

o
f

b
ud
g
et

f
o
r
m
ul
a
t
i
o
n,

b
ud
g
et

e
n
a
c
t
m
e
n
t,

a
n
d
fi
n
al
l
y
,

b
ud
g
et

e
x
e
c
u
t
i
o
n.

N
A
S
A

s

Fi
n
a
n
c
i
a
l

M
a
n
a
g
e-
m
e
n
t

Re
qui
r
e
m
e
n
ts

(FMR)

V
o
lu
m
e

4

pr
o
v
ides

t
h
e

c
o
n-
ce
p
ts,

t
h
e

g
oa
l
s,

a
n
d

a
n

o
v
e
r
v
i
e
w

o
f

N
A
S
A

s

b
ud
g
et
sy
st
em

o
f

r
e
s
o
u
r
ce

a
li
g
n
m
e
n
t

r
e
f
e
r
r
e
d
t
o

a
s

P
l
a
nni
n
g
,
P
r
o
g
r
a
mmi
n
g
,

B
ud
g
e
t
i
n
g
,

a
n
d

E
x
e
c
u
t
i
o
n

(
PPB
E)

a
n
d
e
s
t
ab
l
ish
es

gui
d
a
n
ce

o
n

t
h
e

pr
o
g
r
a
mmi
n
g

a
n
d

b
ud
g-
e
t
i
n
g

p
ha
s
es

o
f

t
h
e

PPB
E

pr
o
ce
s
s,

w
hi
c
h

ar
e

c
r
i
t
i
ca
l

t
o
b
ud
g
et

f
o
r
m
ul
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

N
A
SA.

V
o
l
u
m
e

4

i
nc
l
udes

s
t
r
a-
t
e
g
ic

b
ud
g
et

p
l
a
nni
n
g

a
n
d

r
e
s
o
u
r
ces

gui
d
a
n
c
e
,

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
r
e
v
i
e
w
,

b
ud
g
et

d
e
v
e
l
op
m
e
n
t,

b
ud
g
et

pr
e
s
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n,

a
n
d
j
us
t
ifi
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

e
s
t
i
m
a
t
es

t
o

t
h
e

Office

o
f

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
a
n
d

B
ud
g
et

(
O
MB)

a
n
d

t
o

C
on
g
r
e
s
s.

I
t

a
l
s
o

p
r
o
v
ides
de
t
a
i
l
e
d

de
s
c
r
ip
t
i
on
s

o
f

t
h
e

ro
les

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
ies
fo
r

k
e
y

p
l
a
y
e
r
s

in

e
a
c
h

st
ep

o
f

t
h
e

pr
o
ce
s
s.

I
t

c
o
n
s
o
l
i-
d
a
t
es

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

leg
a
l
,

r
eg
ul
a
t
o
r
y
,

a
n
d

admin
i
s
t
r
a
t
i
v
e

p
o
l
i-
cies

a
n
d

pr
o
c
e
d
u
r
es

a
pp
li
c
ab
le

t
o

N
A
SA.

A

hi
g
h
l
y

si
m
p
l
i-
fi
e
d

r
e
pr
e
s
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

t
y
p
i
ca
l

N
A
SA

b
ud
g
et

c
y
c
le
i
s

s
h
o
w
n

in

Figu
r
e

3.10
-
1.





PLANNING

PROGRAMMING

BUDGETIN
G

EXECUTION


I
n
t
e
r
na
l/External
Studies

an
d
Analysis

Program

and
Resource
Guidance

Programmati
c
and

Institutional
Guidance

Operating

Plan
an
d
Repr
o-
gramming



NAS
A
Strategic
Plan

Program
Analysis

an
d
Alignment


OMB

Budget

Monthly
Phasing
Plan
s



Annual
Pe
r-
formanc
e
Goals

Institutional
Infrastructure
Analysis


President’
s

Budget

Analysis

of
Performance/
Expenditures




Implementatio
n

Planning

Program
R
e-
view/Issues
Book


Closeout



Strategic
Planning
Guidanc
e

Program
Dec
i-
sion
Mem
o-
randum


Appropriation

Performance

an
d
Accountability
Repor
t


F
igu
r
e

3.10‑
1

T
ypi
c
a
l

N
A
S
A

budge
t

c
y
c
l
e

NASA

Sy
s
t
ems

Engineering

Hand
bo
ok



33

3.9

P
r
o
j
e
c
t

Phase

F
:

Clos
e
out




NASA

typically starts developing its budget each
Fe
b-
ruary

with economic

forecasts and general guidelines
as
ide
nt
i
f
i
ed in the most recent President’s budget. By
late Augus
t
, NA
S
A has
c
om
p
leted the
p
l
a
nni
n
g, pr
o-
gramming, and budgeting phases of the PPBE process
and prepares for submi
t
tal of a prelimin
a
ry NASA
budget to the OMB. A final NASA
b
ud
g
et is submi
t
ted
to the OMB in Se
p
te
m
ber
f
or incorporation

into the
President’s
b
ud
g
et tr
an
smi
t
tal to Co
n
gress, which ge
n-
erally occurs in January. This proposed budget is then
subjected to congressional review and

approval, culm
i-
nating in the passage of bills authorizing

NASA

to obl
i-
gate funds in accordance with congressional stipul
a-
tions and appropriating

those funds.
The congressional
process generally lasts through

the summer. In

recent
years, however, final bills have often been delayed past
the start of the fiscal year on October 1. In those years,
NASA has
o
perated on continui
n
g resolution by Co
n-
gress.



W
i
t
h

a
n
n
u
a
l

f
u
n
di
n
g
,

t
h
e
r
e

i
s

a
n

i
m
p
lic
i
t

f
u
n
di
n
g

c
o
n-
t
r
o
l

g
a
t
e

a
t

t
h
e

b
e
g
i
nn
i
n
g

o
f

e
v
e
r
y

f
i
s
c
a
l

y
e
a
r
.

W
h
i
l
e

t
h
e
s
e
g
a
t
e
s

p
lac
e

p
l
a
nni
n
g

r
e
q
ui
r
eme
n
t
s

o
n

t
h
e

pro
jec
t

a
n
d
c
a
n

m
a
k
e

si
g
ni
f
ic
a
n
t

r
e
p
l
a
nni
n
g

n
e
ces
s
a
r
y
,

t
h
ey

a
r
e

n
o
t
p
a
rt

o
f

a
n

or
der
l
y

sys
t
e
m
s

e
n
g
in
e
e
r
i
n
g

pr
o
cess
.

R
a
t
h
e
r
,
t
h
ey

c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

o
n
e

o
f

t
h
e

s
o
u
r
ce
s

o
f

unce
r
t
a
i
n
t
y

t
h
a
t

a
f
f
ec
t

pro
jec
t

r
isks
,

a
n
d

t
h
ey

a
r
e

es
s
e
n
t
i
a
l

t
o

c
o
n
side
r

i
n
pro
jec
t

p
l
a
nni
n
g
.