Social Networking and Web 2.0

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18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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1

Blending Learning:

Real experiences with virtual worlds

John G Hedberg

School of Education

Macquarie University


Saudi Arabia

February 2011

2

Textbooks and representation

of ideas


3

Digital technologies disrupt!


Disruptive technology


a new technological
innovation that displaces an existing dominant
technology
(Christensen, 2003)

Time

Performance

Low quality use

High quality use

4

Digital technologies disrupt content
delivery

Tutoring Tools
Online courses
Teacher delivered
Increasing Costs

eg

Web 2.0 Social networking

Now

In five years

5

Putting technological, pedagogical,
and content knowledge together

6

Earlier lessons of Blending


Dependence on student
-
driven learning
strategies


Need to understand how teachers and
students communicate between and among


Students need to take the initiative, and to
judge and interpret


How the technologies underpin the learning
activities

Lefoe

& Hedberg (2006)

7

Web 2.0

basic service:

web1.0

web 2.0

characteristics
:

Online advertisement

DoubleClick

Google AdSense

Dynamic advertisement
based on the page content

Photo sharing

Ofoto

Flickr &
MySpace

Personalized templates,
tagging, annotating &
comment

Website

personal
websites

blogging

File sharing

Akamai

BitTorrent

Peer to peer source & each
downloading machine
becomes server

Music sharing

mp3.com

Napster

Online encyclopaedia

Britannica Online

Wikipedia

Open content &
collaboratively written

Online event
organizing

Evite

upcoming.org &
EVDB

Event request & comments
from collective users

Identity

domain name
speculation

search engine
optimization

Marketability

Visitors volume

page views

cost per click

Navigation behaviour

interfacing 2
programs

screen scraping

web services

Merging into 1 platform: The
Web.

Centralized
authorship

Publishing

participation

Democratization of
authorship

Centralized managed
content

content
management

wikis

Open content

Pre
-
defined

directories
(taxonomy)

tagging
("folksonomy")

User
-
defined

Single provider

stickiness

syndication

Federated provider

O'Reilly, 2005

8

Characteristics of Web 2.0


open content (creative commons sharing)


microcontent

focus on small relevant
elements


user generated


collective intelligence


social construction of knowledge

9

ICT in the next 5 years


One Year or Less


Mobile computing including

geo
-
aware applications


Open content


Two to Three Years


Electronic Books


Simple augmented reality

including
mashups


Four to Five Years


Gesture
-
based computing


Visual data analysis

Educause

2010
horizon
report

10

and again


http://www.go2web20.net/

in
Wordle

11

Choice of representation

Teacher/Designer’s
representation

Manipulable
representation

Constructed
representation

12

Shared creation of content

http://voicethread.com
/

13

Dialogic digital content

http:/www.xtranormal.com/

14

Annotation for scaffolding and
personal reflection


Using other content you can overlay a set of
your own resources with your own
folksonomies




Video and dialogue linked

15

Digital representation and engagement

16

Quest Atlantis

3D MUVE


17

Virtual versus Real contexts


Virtual worlds offer unique opportunities for
authentic learning
contexts


Simulated social
phenomena


R
epresented
by dynamic characters


Learners
can explore concepts and ideas in safe
and scaffolded learning
contexts


Experience can transfer to the real world


Possible to explore assessment options


Need to choose a course of action to achieve a
goal


18

Virtual versus Real contexts


Real
worlds
require flexible, non
-
linear
narratives with uncertain outcomes


In the virtual context the verisimilitude of the
context will determine how closely the learner
achieves goals, chooses representations and
interacts with objects

19

Design Characteristics
of the Virtual
world

Representational
opportunities

Strategies for
meaningful
interpretation

Space

Design narrative

Time

Exploratory
narrative

Place

Role play narrative

Avatars



Supportive modifiers



Type of goals



Game elements



Scaffolding



Collaborative options



User contribution



20

3D Worlds


Designing and creating not just playing

21

Multi
-
User Virtual Environments

“electronic environments that visually mimic
complex physical spaces, where people can
interact with each other and with virtual objects,
and where people are

represented by

animated characters”

(Bainbridge, 2007)

22

Situated knowing and learning


People learn and solve problems by:


reflecting on their previous embodied
experiences, and


using the resources that are situated within
their current context.



23

Situative

embodiment


Students need to:


Enter into a situation
narratively

and perceptually


Be goal
-
directed


Have a legitimate role


Perform consequential actions

Barab
,
Zuiker
, Warren, Hickey, Ingram
-
Goble, Kwon, et
al. (2007)


24

The Challenge of Construction

25

Opportunities


Engagement with problems through the
manipulation of spatial artefacts.


A

different set of conceptual tools may be applied
by students to solve these problems.


More flexibility for student
-
generated
narratives.


Opportunities for links to the ‘real’ world and
for collaboration.


26

Challenges


Learning the construction tools.


May require different approaches for students of
different ages.



Aligning the learning outcomes to the
problems/activities.


Need to reconsider the types of activities within
the constraints of the MUVE platform.


27

Project Overview


Explore how using virtual world construction tools
for modeling impacts student design processes
and development of spatial awareness.


Student objective: Create site
-
specific artworks
within the school


The virtual world is a modelling tool for
students to individually model their ideas for
the final artwork.


Final (physical) artworks

are constructed in groups.


28

3D Worlds

A picture of the real
world wall

and the same wall
inside the 3D world

29

Activities 1 & 2

Learning the Construction Tools

30

Activity 4

Modelling the Site
-
Specific
Artwork

31

3D Worlds designed for students to
practice within

and some ideas
for how to build a
sculpture within
them

32

Activity 4

Modelling the Site
-
Specific Artwork

33

Teacher Feedback


"This is truly innovative! The limitations of
working in a real world/site space are now
defunct as the virtual world has negligible
limitations on what you can create. The spin
-
off is
that concepts can be realised quickly allowing for
creative solutions."


"The whole program has been very positive in
building the kids self confidence.

I feel they are more empowered and have
stronger initiative. Wonderful to see."

34

Mobility and meaningful
learning contexts

35

Designing for mobility


Pedagogical decisions
often
include:


positioning field work within the teaching
sequence of the topic being studied,


the content and structure of the day’s activities,


selection of appropriate technologies to support
student activities,


organisation of student groups and student roles
within the group.


36

No
36

Mobility, social learning and
geographical ideas


How do students help each other explore and
navigate unfamiliar environments


What is the nature and quality of non
-
mediated, real
-
time, text
-
based debate between students, and how
they might use multimedia recorded in situ to
augment their views


How students transpose their conceptions of
locations into two
-
dimensional representations, and
how these transpositions can be successfully
communicated to their peers

37

Structured academic controversy


Team A
explores an area,
gathering evidence to
support a given point
-
of
-
view


Team B explores same area,
gathering evidence to
support a different point
-
of
-
view


Engage in a Structured
Academic Controversy
regarding the optimal land
-
use of the given area

38

No
38

Preparing arguments

Time

0037

0010

0300

1557

Here has a lot of clinics provide for people
to use...

1601

We can find many food stalls therefore
people can find a place to eat very easy.
Here we also dry and wet markets.

1605

There is no mrt nearby so it’s very
inconvenient. The streets are very dirty and
dusty because of the heavy traffic. Roads
very congested. Flat construction take very
long. Supported by the photos we send just
now. 3 yrs.

Senior citizen corner provide a place for
elders to gather. Fitness corner and
swimming pool allow residents to exercise
to stay healthy.. Community club allows
different races to build relationship.

1606

There is lots of wet market, bus
stops banks recreation shopping
centre

1608

Lots of markets,bank, shopping
centre,provision shop,coffee shop,
mini mart, a community centre,bus
stop, citizen corner, playground,
upgrading on hdb



39

Results


Structured Academic
Controversy

Phase

This
study

Pilot

Garrision
et al, 2001

Fahy,
2002

exploration

60
%

(
483 out
of 806)

63%

75%

62%

integration

30%
(241)

28%

19%

14%

resolution

10% (82)

9%

6%

20%

40

Outcomes


Structured Academic Controversy in the context of a
field
-
based mobile
-
telephony learning
environment
does result in a worthwhile contribution
to practical
inquiry and increased written output.


High
number of messages sent during the integration
phase can be accounted for by the structure imposed
by the Academic Controversy.


Garrison
et al (2001) suggest integration appears to
be

more challenging than exploration


for learners,


A
s
a consequence,

students will be more
comfortable remaining in a continuous exploration
mode



41

Pedagogies in the networked digital
age


Re
-
creation of narrative


Transduction especially visualization of ideas


Dimensionality


virtual worlds


Re
-
use and re
-
mix of resources


Annotation in a variety of media


Mobility


changing place and time, screen size,
cloud computing


Social construction of knowledge


locus of control
and group participation

42

Contact



John G Hedberg

Professor ICT and Education

School of Education

Macquarie University NSW 2109

Australia



e: john.hedberg@mq.edu.au