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Official Publication of the United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation
September 2010
8, Issue 6
8, Issue 6
F-kmi co
Geospatial Exploitation Tool Kits
Geospatial Exploitation Tool Kits

Industry Roundtable: ISR
ChallengeWide Area Persistent Surveillance
ChallengeWide Area Persistent Surveillance

Unified Incident Command
Unified Incident Command
Lt. Gen.
Lt. Gen.
John C.
John C.
ISR Task Force
ISR Task Force
Merrifield, VA
PERMIT # 620
Letter from
Letter from
In the world of Airborne ISR,
one company sets the standards.
How does an Airborne ISR company win the admiration and respect of the
toughest customers on the planet?

the most remote regions of the world?
It does so by hiring men and women who share a lifelong
commitment to being the best at what they do.
It’s our people.
AirScan® EO/IR / AirScan® GSI / AirScan® HREO / AirScan® ADTS / AirScan® SECURE / AirScan® ISR Academy
Celebrating 21 Years of Service
to the ISR Community
8 • I
/ Q&A
Editor’s Perspective
People/Program Notes
Industry Raster
Calendar, Directory
John Olesak
Vice President
Integrated Intelligence
Northrop Grumman Information Systems
Lieutenant General John C. Koziol
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense,
Joint and Coalition Warfighter Support
Director, DoD ISR Task Force
Letter to Industry Partners
Shortly after becoming director of the National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency, Letitia A. Long addressed an open letter
to industry partners and others about the importance of
government-industry partnership.
Rich Basket of Tool Kits
More than ever, geospatial intelligence is being brought to
bear in support of tactical operations, and this has challenged
providers of geospatial exploitation tool kits to catch up.
By Peter Buxbaum
Facing the ISR Challenge
Geospatial Intelligence Forum recently posed this question
to a number of leading companies: What do you see as
the most important technological advances from a military
perspective currently under way in ISR?
Rebalancing ISR
An area where the ISR community must develop a more
efficient balance concerns the approach to collecting,
archiving and accessing huge volumes of data from hundreds,
perhaps thousands of sensors as analysts increasingly focus
their attention on human targets and activities.
By Pat Biltgen and Robert R. Tomes
Standards Aid Incident Command
Open Geospatial Consortium standards have helped overcome
obstacles to the Department of Homeland Security’s Unified
Incident Command and Decision Support program.
By Steven Ramage
One of the frustrating things about editing a magazine about geospatial
technology is that there is so much exciting going on—just in the government,
what to speak of the private sector—that there is no way to write about it all.
As GEOINT works its way into every nook and cranny of military and
intelligence operations, it’s almost every day that a new program or capability
emerges that could make a real difference in improving efficiency and effec-
tiveness. While acknowledging that I’m neglecting more worthy initiatives
than I’m mentioning, I’d like to draw readers’ attention to:
The latest version of the National Counterterrorism Center’s Worldwide Incidents Tracking •
System (WITS). This database, available to the public at, has compiled
information on terrorist attacks since 2004, but only in text format. The recently launched
WITS NextGen, however, includes mapping capabilities that enable users to locate incidents
on Google Maps or Google Earth. These can then be visualized over time or according to
clusters of attacks, density of attacks by numbers and “heat,” or relative attack activity.
Operational 3-D Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. Recognizing the value—and •
cost in money and time—of having three-dimensional imagery for field use, this
recently launched program seeks to enhance the collection, processing, exploitation and
dissemination of 3-D products. The goal is to provide for faster dissemination of high-
resolution 3-D GEOINT data to warfighters in forward deployed low-bandwidth areas.
GEOINT Visualization Enterprise Services. This National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency •
project brings the agency’s resources together to provide rich geospatial content and
analysis directly to warfighters, intelligence officers and policymakers via Web-based tools.
It offers visualization capabilities, analytic tools
and data services.
“Had we but world enough and time,” as a poet once
wrote in an admittedly different context, each of these would
be worth a story. Until then, I’d like to tip my hat to all
involved in these path-breaking GEOINT projects.

Military Advanced
Military Information
Special Operations
Military Training
Military Logistics
U.S. Coast Guard
Military Medical/
CBRN Technology
Ground Combat
Harrison Donnelly
(301) 670-5700

8, I
6 S
Geospatial Intelligence Forum
ISSN 2150-9468
is published eight times a year by KMI Media Group.
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Offi cial Publication of the United StatesGeospatial
Intelligence Foundation
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BAE Systems delivers real advantage.
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Harris has named Murray
A. Sewell II vice president of
business development for the
intel and civil areas of its IT
services business.
Under a recently announced
corporate reorganization,
Stu Shea has become
grouppresident of SAIC’s
Intelligence, Surveillance
and Reconnaissance Group,
one of three main units
within the company. Shea
also serves as chief executive
offi cer and chairman of the
board of the U.S. Geospatial
Intelligence Foundation.
Other executive shifts at SAIC
include the promotion of
Tony Moraco, who has been
serving as senior vice presi-
dent and general manager of
the Space and Geospatial
Intelligence Business Unit, to
executive vice president for
operations and performance
excellence, responsible for
enterprisewide business
support services and opera-
tional effi ciency and effec-
tiveness initiatives.
Shortly after assuming offi ce
as director of national intelli-
gence, James R. Clapper
selected Robert Cardillo,
deputy director of the Defense
Intelligence Agency, to join
ODNI in the newly created
role of deputy director for
intelligence integration.
David Shedd, deputy
director of national intelli-
gence for policy, plans and
requirements, will become
the next DIA deputy director.
DigitalGlobe has appointed
Jeffrey Goebel as vice
president of geospatial
value added products and
services, and Jack Hild as
vice president of U.S. defense
strategy. Most recently, Goebel
was director of the National
Agency Offi ce of Commercial
Partnerships. Prior to joining
DigitalGlobe, Hild served as
assistant chief information
offi cer at NGA.
Richard M. Hurwitz has
become president and chief
executive offi cer of
Pictometry International,
replacing the retiring
Richard A. Kaplan.
Empire Challenge 10 (EC 10), the annual U.S.
Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM)-led multinational
ISR demonstration, has wrapped up after showcasing
emerging capabilities and providing lessons learned
to improve joint and combined ISR interoperability
for three weeks at Fort Huachuca, Ariz.
The 13 days of live operations in the event
included all the military branches, as well as
combat support agencies, the intelligence commu-
nity, Department of Defense members and coalition
partners, with an emphasis on improving interoper-
ability across the board.
“It’s a very large event,” said Air Force Colonel
George “Skip” Krakie, chief of USJFCOM’s ISR inte-
gration Division and the EC 10 military lead. “We
make sure that the capabilities that belong to the
Marine Corps can talk to the Army system, and that
the Army system can talk to the U.K. system, and that
the U.K. system can talk to the Canadian system.”
This year’s event took a special interest in
information sharing with the coalition and pushing
information out to those who need it most.
“The focus for this year is on multinational
interoperability and data sharing,” Krakie added.
“That is one of the key things that we were tasked
with last year—how do we move data from a
U.S.-only network to a multinational network that
includes 43 nations involved in [the International
Security Assistance Force].
“We are also focused on how to move ISR data
to what we call the tactical edge, to the warfighter
who may have a radio or a laptop or some other
device,” he continued. “How do we get the ISR data
he needs to execute his mission down to him in the
All the participants addressed challenges
provided directly from warfighters on the ground
in theater. Operations in Afghanistan provided the
setting and scenarios for EC 10. Fort Huachuca
hosted event operations because its terrain and envi-
ronment closely resembled that in Afghanistan, said
John Kittle, EC 10 program manager.
“We chose Fort Huachuca based on the require-
ments we identified very early on,” he said. “We
decided that we needed to focus on the fight in
Afghanistan and provide improvements or solutions
to the problems they have over there. We looked
and Fort Huachuca presented the right operating
environment for us. It has a good mix of the kinds
of environment they have in Afghanistan—desert,
mountains, valleys and vegetation.”
Coalition partners from Canada, the United
Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand participated in
the main effort in Arizona, with Canadian and British
teams setting up forward operating bases on Fort
Huachuca’s east range.
Some of the other U.S. elements operating at
Fort Huachuca included USJFCOM’s Joint Battlespace
Awareness ISR Integration Capability and Valiant
Angel, Green Devil, and the Distributed Common
Ground System (DCGS) from both the Army and
Marine Corps.
Other locations participating via a digital network
included USJFCOM’s Joint Intelligence Lab and Joint
Systems Integration Center in Suffolk, Va., service
DCGS and combat support agency labs around the
U.S., coalition sites in the United Kingdom, Canada
and Australia, and the NATO Consultation, Command
and Control Agency.
A number of defense companies also were
involved in the exercise, including Northrop
Grumman, which participated with a variety of
virtual systems that included the Bat family of
affordable, multimission and persistent tactical
unmanned aircraft systems; Global Hawk Block 40
with Multi-Platform Technology Insertion Program
radar capabilities; Global Hawk Block 30 systems;
an operationally responsive space-based ISR system
with all-weather tactical sensor capabilities; E-2D
Hawkeye with advanced sensor capabilities and
potential future UAV control technologies.
Empire Challenge Focuses on ISR in Afghanistan
Photo courtesy of Air Force Staff Sgt. Joe Laws
www.GIF-kmi.com4 | GIF 8.6
from the Desk of the President
Ask 10 people to define
“geospatial intelligence,” and
you are likely to get 10 different
answers. Words you might
hear would include imagery,
photogrammetry, geography,
cartography, geographic
information systems, analysis
and remote sensing—and the
list could go on longer.
According to U.S. Code
Title 10, “the term ‘geospatial
intelligence’ means the
exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information to describe, assess
and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on
the Earth. Geospatial intelligence consists of imagery, imagery intelligence and
geospatial information.”
This legal definition paints with a broad brushstroke an idea of the width and
depth of GEOINT. Geospatial intelligence can’t be defined by a particular program
or product. It encompasses all aspects of imagery, to include capabilities formerly
referred to as advanced geospatial intelligence, and information derived from the
analysis of literal imagery and non-literal analysis of spectral, spatial, temporal,
radiometric, phase history and polarimetric data.
Also included is the ancillary data needed for data processing and exploitation,
and signature information to include development, validation, simulation, data
archival and dissemination. These data types can be collected on stationary or
moving platforms by E/O, IR, SAR or MTI sensors.
Within all of this exists a persistent misperception, however, that GEOINT is
primarily collected from space platforms. That is absolutely not the case. From
hydrographic data collection to surveyors on the ground, and manned and unmanned
aerial systems—and to space—the collection of GEOINT is broadly based.
Airborne-based GEOINT in particular has become increasingly important.
Homeland security officials and battlefield commanders alike have developed a
nearly insatiable appetite for more imagery, motion imagery and full motion video
both overseas and along our borders.
Still, even within the defense, intelligence and homeland security communities,
more often than not, we discuss airborne ISR challenges and capabilities separately
from space platforms. There are deeply entrenched bureaucratic and historical
reasons for this, including diverse acquisition authorities, funding and oversight.
Accordingly, conferences, symposia and meetings have also been organized along
the lines of the divided airborne and space “camps,” further reinforcing the idea that
never shall the two communities meet.
These divides simply are not useful. In fact, I think they are now more than
ever impediments to having meaningful conversations about how we can most
effectively and efficiently serve mission requirements—in a multi-INT sense, not just
with GEOINT.
This year, USGIF plans to take a significant step in the right direction with our
program at the GEOINT 2010 Symposium. In discussions with government and
industry leaders over the last year, we agreed that as a community we needed to do
a better job discussing our common concerns in depth. There are obviously benefits
that we could derive from coordinating solutions to our collective challenges.
Thus, we have decided to devote an entire day of discussion at our annual
symposium to end-to-end airborne ISR issues. The Distributed Common Ground
System (DCGS) was initially our focus, but over time the idea progressed into a
broader theme characterized by the Defense Intelligence Information Enterprise
I am incredibly proud of the past accomplishments of GEOINT Symposia and
the maturation of the event over time. Borrowing from the movie Ghostbusters, being
able to “cross the streams” of the GEOINT community (which would be a good thing
in this case), by bringing together the DCGS/airborne ISR/DI2E “world” with the
“world” of space-based collection and processing, is an important milestone in the
growth of USGIF and the GEOINT Symposium.
The GEOINT community isn’t just about space or airborne or even collection.
It is far more, and with the near-ubiquity of GPS, enabling location-based services,
the “power of place,” in the grandest sense, has never been greater. The emergent
re-imagining of geospatial intelligence is reflected in the content of this year’s
symposium, and articulated by this year’s theme: “Geospatial Intelligence 3.0 … a
new era of GEOINT.” With this we are highlighting the future of the community where
technologies, capabilities and even philosophies surrounding geospatial intelligence
are entering a new and very exciting phase.
Our array of plenary speakers and panelists reflects this broader, evolved view of
GEOINT as both a distinct intelligence discipline as well as the horizontal underpinning
for all intelligence disciplines, and for planning and conducting operations.
Confirmed speakers include the director of national intelligence, DIA director,
NGA director, NRO director, NSA deputy director, and ISR Task Force director. The
Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and State Department will also be represented
at the flag/SES level during GEOINT 2010.
We hope you are as excited about this lineup and the entire GEOINT Symposium
as we are. We encourage you to register early to take advantage of the cost savings
and to book your room in one of the four official GEOINT 2010 hotels.
You can start discussing the symposium, connecting to speakers, meeting
exhibitors and planning your week at, home of the
CrowdVine social networking site created just for the symposium. Also, follow us
on Twitter @geointsymposium and @USGIF. Of course you can always visit the Website for all the latest updates and details on the event.
GEOINT 2010 is going to be another great symposium. I look forward
to exchanging thoughts with you on CrowdVine, and I hope to see you in
New Orleans.
Keith J. Masback
Keith J. Masback, President USGIF
The United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation (USGIF) is the only organization dedicated to promoting the geospatial intelligence tradecraft and building a
stronger community of interest across industry, academia, government, professional organizations and individual stakeholders. To become a member or learn more about
USGIF, please email or call us at 1-888-MY-USGIF. GIF 8.6 | 5
from the Desk of the President
As part of the USGIF Workshop Series, the foun-
dation—in cooperation with the Advanced Technical
Intelligence Association (ATIA) and the Association
of Old Crows (AOC)—invites members and guests to
come hear about CIA’s OXCART program and from
those who worked on the program and flew the A-12
spy plane.
On Monday, September 27, from 3:30 p.m. to 5:30
p.m. at the Hyatt Dulles in Herndon, Va., USGIF will
offer an exclusive opportunity to listen to firsthand
accounts of a vital program in GEOINT history. This
USGIF workshop comes to town with the Road Runners
Internationale and the Blackbird Association, as they
offer a few public and private sessions detailing what
they can on this once tightly guarded secret.
The panel presentation will feature the CIA chief
historian, a Lockheed Skunk Works industrial manager
from the A-12 and U-2 programs, a test pilot from the
A-12, YF-12 and SR-71, a Pratt & Whitney mechanical
engineer, a radar cross-section specialist at Groom
Lake during Blackshield, and a CIA OXCART pilot who
flew from 1963 to1968.
The event is open to the GEOINT community, as
well as members and the families of Road Runners
Internationale and the Blackbird Association.
Seats are limited for this free panel discussion and
reception, and all attendees are required to register
online at
Be Recognized
for Your
Applications and nominations
are still being accepted for this
year’s USGIF Awards Program. The
deadline to submit an application
or nominate your own work to be
recognized by the GEOINT commu-
nity is Friday, September 17, at 5
p.m. EDT. Go to the USGIF awards
Webpage at
nity/usgifawards to apply.
Each year, the USGIF Awards
Program recognizes the accom-
plishments of industry, academia,
government and military with
multiple awards. Award recipients
will be announced and presented
with awards during the GEOINT
2010 Symposium, November 1-4, at
the New Orleans Ernest N. Morial
Convention Center.
Last year’s award winners
were Charles E. Allen, Lifetime
Achievement Award; Andrew
Schaeffer, Academic Achievement
Award; Imagery Exploitation
Course team, National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency, Academic
Research Award; Eagle Express
production team, U.S. Air Force
A2U/NATO C3 Agency Geo Team,
Military Achievement Award;
Integrated Collection Management
program team and geospatial engi-
neers, Government Achievement
Award; and the Google Federal team,
Google Inc., Industry Achievement
George Mason University Graduates First
Students from USGIF Certificate Program
George Mason University’s Department of
Geography and Geoinformation Science gradu-
ated its first cohort of students earning a grad-
uate certificate in geospatial intelligence. USGIF
President Keith J. Masback presented 15 students
with certificates on behalf of George Mason
University’s Geospatial Intelligence Certificate
Program, which is accredited through USGIF.
During the 2010 awards and convocation
luncheon celebration, graduate certificates in
geospatial intelligence were given to Matthew
Botulinski, Ardalan Faraj, Rafael Ferraro, Rachel
Geyster, Joseph Governski, Bobby Harris, Kristi
Marvin, Ryan Milligan, David Phillips, Matthew
Pophin, James Praskievicz, Evan Quinto, Michael
Shaffer, James Speicher and Zachary Tardivo.
Several students achieving academic excellence
were given awards ranging from $250 to $1,000 by
USGIF for the completion of their programs.
The purpose of the USGIF Accreditation
Program is to accredit university geospatial intel-
ligence programs as a response to the increasing
demand for qualified personnel within the GEOINT
community. More information about the USGIF
Geospatial Intelligence Accreditation Program can
be found online at
USGIF Hosts Panel on CIA’s A-12 OXCART
www.GIF-kmi.com6 | GIF 8.6
Compiled by USGIF staff
USGIF Sustaining
Membership Nears 160
The following organizations have joined USGIF,
bringing to 158 the total number of sustaining member
partners: F5 Networks Inc., Glimmerglass Networks Inc.,
Innovative Analytics & Training, EMC Corp., and RT Logic.
USGIF welcomes these companies to the foundation,
and we look forward to their participation. For information
on joining USGIF and the benefits of membership, visit
$86,000 Awarded
in USGIF Scholarship Program
USGIF is pleased to announce the recipients of its 2010 Scholarship Program. This
year, the foundation awarded $86,000 to 19 recipients. These outstanding students
included four doctoral candidates, six students in master’s degree programs, six under-
graduates and three graduating high school seniors. High school winners received $2,000
scholarships, and all others received $5,000 scholarships.
The 2010 Scholarship Program recipients are:
Rick Crowsey, University of Southern Mississippi; Nicholas DiGruttolo, University of
Florida; Sarah Eason, Texas State University-San Marcos; Alexander Gole, Paris Denis-
Diderot VII; Kristin Hopper, Potomac Falls High School; Lauren Kaiser, University of
Maryland; Nalishebo Kaunda, Alabama A&M; Adam Kerr, University of Pittsburgh; Daniel
Bradford Ladd, Lewisburg Area High School; Heather McColgan, Texas A&M-Corpus
Christi; Christy Stefke, University of Michigan-Dearborn; Sterling Raehtz, Michigan
State University; Kenneth Robertson, Central Michigan University; Shadrock Roberts,
University of Georgia; Michael Ryan, SUNY Plattsburgh; Kenneth Simmons, Indiana
University/Purdue University; Jennifer Corinne Veilleux, Oregon State University; Narine
Wandrey, Claudia T. Johnson High School; and Thomas Zumbado, University of Utah.
USGIF congratulates these students and all students involved in educational aspira-
tions related to the geospatial intelligence tradecraft. For more information on the USGIF
Scholarship Program, visit
USGIF’s first-ever GEOINT Community Career Fair
attracted almost 500 attendees to the Hyatt Regency Reston
on Thursday, July 15. Attendees were provided with the
unique opportunity throughout the day to meet with almost
50 prospective employers looking to fill a variety of open
positions across the spectrum of defense, intelligence and
homeland security communities.
“Unlike many other fields, the geospatial intelligence
industry continues to rapidly expand,” said USGIF President
Keith Masback. “In one recent survey of our 157 member
organizations, there were well over 1,000 job openings
related to the GEOINT profession. The GEOINT Community
Career Fair provided the perfect opportunity to match skilled
professionals with the employers that need them.”
For more information on the GEOINT Community Career
Fair, visit
Career Fair Attracts
Large Turnout
USGIF members received a hands-on look at the current capabilities and trends
at the NGA campus in St. Louis, Mo., this summer during the NGA West Showcase.
The three-day event, held June 22-24, provided an opportunity to display company
technologies and capabilities to the St. Louis work force on June 22.
Members were welcomed on June 23 with remarks from Lloyd Rowland, NGA
deputy director, and Bert Beaulieu, who was at that time the NGA West senior execu-
tive. Attendees then spent the remainder of the day on tours throughout the Second
Street facility, receiving classified demonstrations at various analyst workstations
throughout the building.
NGA West concluded with an acquisition industry outreach day held at the
secret level. Presentations in the morning covered GEOINT data topics, and a data
storage summit followed in the afternoon. Sharon Parish, NGA’s senior procurement
executive, sponsored the outreach session to provide an update on potential business
opportunities with NGA.
The event marked the second year in a row that USGIF and NGA have offered this
opportunity for USGIF members to see the unique and important mission of the St.
Louis work force. Both parties look forward to hosting another showcase in 2011.
NGA West Showcase Draws 200
Attendees to St. Louis GIF 8.6 | 7
www.GIF-kmi.com8 | GIF 8.6
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of Tool Kits
The non-stop forward march of technol-
ogy has created new horizons for the collec-
tion, analysis and exploitation of geospatial
intelligence. The availability of full motion
video, persistent surveillance data, satellite
imagery, LiDAR and other new data types
is providing analysts with the potential for
unparalleled richness and accuracy to the
images and information they are dissecting.
But perhaps the most important drivers
to the innovations being fostered in geospatial
exploitation are the needs of warfighters in
current U.S. military areas of operation. More
than ever, geospatial intelligence is being
brought to bear in support of tactical opera-
tions, and this has challenged providers of
geospatial exploitation tool kits to catch up.
From these facts flow the other major
trends to be found in the development of
geospatial exploitation technology. New types
of data to be exploited lead to the desire to fuse
that information by layering one set of data on
top of another accurately and robustly. This
in turn has accelerated the drive toward the
development and adoption of
data standards to make that
happen, as well as the move
toward taking an enterprise, as
opposed to a desktop, approach
to geospatial data and applica-
“I see increasingly that
geospatial exploitation is pro-
viding a foundation for tacti-
cal intelligence,” said Stuart
Blundell, vice president for
geospatial products and solu-
tions at Overwatch Systems, a
unit of Textron. “Users want terrain imagery,
features in two- and three-dimensional qual-
ity, with full motion video data and other
data layered on top of that to support tactical
The exploitation of more and complex
data types has become a major challenge of
providers of geospatial tool kits. Besides video,
which multiplies geometri-
cally the number of images
that need to be processed,
energy-sensing hyperspectral
and multispectral data are also
making their way to analysts’
“These can provide richer
and more detailed analysis,”
said Beau Legeer, director of
product marketing for ITT
Visual Information Solutions.
“One trend in the industry
has been to introduce a work flow approach
that guides the user one step at a time, from
bringing the data in, to processing, analyzing,
extracting and sharing the
data with other applications.”
In addition, LiDAR data
is becoming increasingly
important to analysts as a
result of the aerial surveil-
lance being conducted over
Afghanistan and Iraq. LiDAR,
or light detection and rang-
ing, is a system that uses laser
beams to map terrain eleva-
tion. LiDAR reports elevation
of scanned areas in the form
of point clouds.
“LiDAR involves large volumes of data,”
noted Tom Lobonc, product line director for
defense at ERDAS. “You need different kinds
of tools to work with LiDAR data. There are
also different ways to visualize LiDAR point
Old-school geospatial exploitation had
analysts accessing panchromatic images and
performing measurements
and visual analyses. The avail-
ability of greater numbers of
data sets, together with higher
levels of horsepower provided
by computers, has spawned
the desire to fuse that data
into rich, robust and accurate
visualizations, complete with
features like roads, rooftops
and bodies of water.
“Analysts want to be able to
handle any number of sources
and data sets of any size,” said Legeer. “That is
what geospatial tool kits have to address.”
The information overload engendered by
the explosion of data requires the application
of automation to the analysis process. More
robust algorithms and increases in comput-
ing power allow geospatial exploitation tool
kits to bring half a dozen types of data to the
analyst’s desktop. The ability to fuse multiple
sources of data into a single visualization pro-
vides greater assurance that the end product
is accurate.
“In earlier days, analysts worked with
50 percent probabilities of accuracies,” said
Lobonc. “Applying automation to data fusion
can give them 90 percent confidence that
their analysis is accurate.”
Tom Lobonc
Stuart Blundell
www.GIF-kmi.com10 | GIF 8.6
For industry to keep up with the demand
for new sensor data, the broad adoption of
standards across all data types is essential.
Standards define in detail how systems inter-
pret data, and provide industry with a road-
map for incorporating the processing and
analysis of new data such as video into their
exploitation tool kits.
Standards such as those promulgated by
the Open Geospatial Consortium are increas-
ingly being accepted and adopted by industry
players as well as by the defense and intel-
ligence communities. Some standards, such
as those for full motion video data, are still
being developed.
“Standards set the framework for indus-
try to more rapidly build capabilities,” said
Rob Mott, vice president for military and
intelligence solutions at Intergraph. “One
challenge for industry is to build support into
tool kits for those new sensor formats while
standards are still in flux.”
One model for the adoption of standards
occurs when a proprietary system, such as
ESRI’s ArcGIS, gains widespread support,
noted Sean Love, a business development
manager at Northrop Grumman. “If the devel-
oper is willing to publish its standards, as ESRI
did, the other vendors are able
to create applications for that
environment,” he said.
Lobonc sees broader col-
laboration among commercial
vendors, government agencies
and the standards community.
The next step will be mandated
adherence to given standards.
“We are not at the point
where anyone is saying you
must use this standard,” said
Lobonc. “But we should be
getting to the point where
standards are enforced. Lack of adherence to
standards in some cases leads to the inability
to solve certain problems.”
Geospatial exploitation tool kits tradition-
ally have been delivered as desktop applica-
tions. Increasingly, however, they are evolving
into enterprise applications accessed over
servers. In some cases, hybrid architectures
seeking the best of both worlds have been
Desktop applications provide analysts with
robust computing power. Enterprise applica-
tions better allow for the storage of massive
amounts of data, and by some accounts
reduce costs.
The functionality of tool kit applica-
tions does not necessarily differ depending
on the computing environment. “It is the
same application. It’s just being presented
and managed in a different sort of way,” said
“In our world, analysts have traditionally
used the desktop,” said Mark Sarojak, BAE
Systems’ director of sales and marketing for
SOCET GXP. “It was the best and only envi-
ronment to do heavy number
crunching. Now we see more
enterprise applications where
operations can be handled on
a centralized server while the
analyst sits at a desktop.”
“Now that networks are
getting more bandwidth, it is
more possible to do this at the
enterprise level,” added Love.
Legeer believes that the
enterprise model will be key
to the future of ITT-VIS tools.
“The applications will be
hosted on servers right along-
side of the data,” he said. “We see that as a
very important trend and one that is very
But others, such as Sarojak and Blundell,
don’t foresee ever getting away completely
from desktop applications.
Blundell noted that it is
important to provide custom-
ers with cost-effective options,
especially in today’s budget-
cutting environment.
Lobonc doesn’t see the
desktop-enterprise dichotomy
in quite the same way as his
colleagues. ERDAS’ approach,
he said, is to regard all sources
of computing, applications,
and data, whether local or
network-accessible, as the
Given the multifaceted and dynamic
environment in the GEOINT field, it is no
surprise that industry players are continually
updating their exploitation tool kits to meet
ongoing challenges.
BAE Systems recently introduced GXP
Xplorer, which addresses the first step in
analyzing geospatial intelligence—finding
the data.
“If they can’t find data, analysts can’t do
their jobs,” said Sarojak. “Once they find it
they want to fuse it. Each data type has its
strengths and weaknesses.”
GXP Xplorer enables analysts to search
not only their local catalogs but also other
sources of available data, such as those stored
on enterprise applications or on network-
accessible libraries, by enabling federated
queries across multiple sources.
“Another new feature of BAE System’s
offering is spatially enabled exploitation. This
feature essentially digitizes
and stores analysts’ markups
of imagery by geolocation,
data and time so that they can
be retrieved and exploited at
some future date.
“Spatially enabled exploi-
tation is new in the analysts’
world,” said Sarojak. “It takes
analysis to next level. That is
real knowledge and content
Video exploitation is now
available in SOCET GXP, but
will receive greater emphasis,
together with fusion of multiple data types,
in SOCET GXP’s upcoming v3.2 release.
“Analysts are faced with more and more
data every year,” said Sarojak. “We are work-
ing hard to produce tools that enable them to
find data locally and on other sources to help
them accomplish their jobs.”
ERDAS redesigned its Imagine geospatial
package in its most recent release. The com-
pletely redesigned interface, based on Micro-
soft’s Ribbon-style Office 2007 and Windows
Vista applications, allows users to accomplish
tasks more efficiently. The location of tools
has been reorganized and made more intui-
tive and work flows have been streamlined.
Some tools have been consolidated so that
there are fewer tools to contend with. Very
large files are easier and quicker to open.
An upcoming release scheduled for this
fall will endeavor to improve performance
and provide enhanced analysis and work
flows for newer data sets such as photogram-
metry and remote sensing. It will also feature
a new and improved viewer, which will be
handy in exploiting larger files.
ERDAS introduced its Apollo server
around three years ago in recognition of
the growing interest in a client-server, as
opposed to desktop, architecture for the
access and operation of geospatial exploita-
tion tools. “It is really coming into its own
Mark Sarojak
Rob Mott GIF 8.6 | 11
now,” said Lobonc. “We continue to work on
that as well as desktop exploitation tools.”
ERDAS is in the process of developing a
tool that will manage both desktop and enter-
prise catalogs as one. Under this scheme,
an analyst’s catalog located on the desktop
will act as a subset of the enterprise catalog,
which will be accessed remotely. Data and
documents located in a desktop catalog will
be easily pushed to the enterprise catalog.
“We didn’t want to go with a server-only
or desktop-only architecture,” said Lobonc.
“An integrated approach latter is the best and
most versatile way to go.”
Intergraph’s recent enhancements to its
geospatial exploitation tool kit include capa-
bilities to fuse full motion video, geospatial
elevation data and satellite imagery into a
single view.
“We regard full motion video as another
geospatial data type,” said product manager
Elaine Woodling. “We can connect to mul-
tiple kinds of data sources and
Web services.”
As part of this enhance-
ment, Intergraph has incor-
porated its patented video
enhancement and stabiliza-
tion algorithm to produce
a fully and fused integrated
geospatial view that includes
full motion video. The tool
also catalogs and indexes the
data and captures its telem-
etry so users can find the data
they need, and “importantly,”
Woodling added, “exclude data
they don’t need, so they that they can perform
pattern of life analyses, for example.”
Since full motion video is evolving at a
rapid pace and its emerging standards are
only loosely adhered to, Intergraph sees itself
challenged to keep pace with this rapidly
developing market technology. “We have a
road map for the next few years,” said Woo-
dling, “but we want to be agile enough to
react if new situations develop in the mar-
ITT-VIS is continuing to develop and
market its tool, which uses automation to
extract features from images. The company
has experienced success with the adoption
and acceptance of the tool by users. The soft-
ware saves time over the hand digitization
still practiced by many analysts.
“The technology is getting faster and
more accurate with every release,” said Leg-
eer. ITT-VIS’s soon-to-be-released ENVI 4.8
puts the company’s product into the ESRI
ArcGIS ecosystem. “We already have a strong
partnership with ESRI,” said Legeer. “This
takes it to the next level.”
The move will integrate the ENVI desktop
solution with both the ArcGIS desktop solu-
tion and the Arc Server enterprise solution.
This catapults ITT-VIS’s product to the enter-
prise realm.
“Many of our customers already work
in an ESRI environment for functions like
mapmaking and productization,” said Legeer.
“This integration will streamline work flows
and allow users to access our tools and work
in a single environment.”
At the same time, Intergraph will also be
releasing tools to exploit LiDAR data. “This is
one step in a multi-year process towards true
multi-sensor fusion,” said Legeer. “We already
had tools for multispectral and hyperspectral
sensors, now we can check off
Next year, ITT-VIS will be
introducing ENVI 5.0, which
will feature auto registration.
“We see that as the first key
component in a fusion strat-
egy,” said Legeer. “All modali-
ties will be able to register
themselves. This will take us
one step further toward a
vision of multi-sensor fusion.”
ENVI 5.0 will also include
a powerful display engine that
will enable a view into all of
the types of data that will be brought to bear
in fusion. Modalities such as video and syn-
thetic aperture radar data will be more tightly
Northrop Grumman has expanded its
existing geospatial portfolio to include geo-
spatial data acquisition, collection and pro-
cessing of LiDAR, full motion video and
persistent surveillance data, photogrammet-
ric services, geographic information systems
and analysis.
The company’s offerings support func-
tions such as intelligence gathering and
mission planning, routing and logistics, exe-
cution monitoring, physical asset tracking,
exploration of what-if scenarios, data exploita-
tion and analysis, highly integrated databases
and sensor networks, and secure command
and control systems.
Northrop Grumman sees itself respond-
ing to customer demands when it focuses
less on geospatial intelligence in isolation and
more on multi-INT, said Love.
“The real focus going forward is on taking
geospatial data and pushing it to other intel-
ligence types and ingesting other intelligence
into geospatial,” he added.
The company facilitates the fusion differ-
ent data types through translators supported
by a service oriented architecture. “All this is
transparent to the user,” said Love. “The user
doesn’t care what the application looks like.
He just wants to be getting the right kinds
of information. That is why we focus on get-
ting actionable intelligence to analysts and

Textron’s latest iteration of its ELT/Series
Geospatial Intelligence software includes the
ability to receive and analyze full motion
video collections and incorporate video analy-
sis with other tools.
The ELT/Series software also provides
imagery and geospatial exploitation tools for
a range of applications, including tactical
imagery and national geospatial analysis. The
latest release, version 20.1, leverages a flexible
architecture and provides users with advanced
products, such as GeoCatalog, which enables
analysts to create searchable databases for the
management of geospatial data, and SpotLite,
which enables analysts to produce and ana-
lyze 3-D visualizations from imagery.
New graphic drawing tools have been
provided to improve visualization of blast
assessment and geo-referenced bearing indi-
cation. Grid capabilities have been extended
to support improved definition and specifica-
Textron has also “invested in making
its code base more modular,” said Stuart
Blundell, vice president for geospatial prod-
ucts and solutions. “This allows customers to
choose between a full-scale solution or to pick
and choose the tools and applications they
need for their particular purposes.”

Contact Editor Harrison Donnelly at
For more information related to this subject,
search our archives at
Elaine Woodling
www.GIF-kmi.com12 | GIF 8.6
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It has been two years since Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
announced a new approach to defense planning with the 2008
National Defense Strategy and his widely read Foreign Affairs
article, “A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a
New Age” (January/February 2009). The term “balance” or “rebal-
ance” was evoked some 50 times in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense
Review and remains the guiding principle in current efforts to
revamp defense programming and budgeting. The quest for a
more balanced defense strategy continues.
The defense rebalancing discourse has primarily focused on
major defense programs, striking the right balance in the gov-
ernment/contractor workforce, and finding the right investment
portfolio to address emerging security challenges. Meanwhile, the
ISR community is addressing its own set of balance issues.
Over the past two years, spurred partly by the work of the ISR
Task Force that Gates created in 2008, the ISR community has
addressed a number of issues resulting in a rebalancing of ISR.
For example, the ISR Task Force led and coordinated a compre-
hensive activity to optimize ISR asset availability to support wars
in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Task Force also expedited the pro-
curement and fielding of new capabilities like the MC-12 Liberty
aircraft, new sensor pods for the MQ-9 Reaper UAV, and improved
dissemination systems.
Recently, discussions about a more balanced portfolio of ISR
investments have turned to emerging requirements to dwell or
persist over a target area. Additional investments are being made
in capabilities that can provide both synoptic coverage of an area
and the capability to zoom in on and track or follow multiple
activities or actors, cue and tip other sensors, and build an inte-
grated understanding of an area’s “pattern of life.”
From the perspective of balancing investments, the aim is to
provide additional capacity without adding additional platforms,
each requiring more ground stations, maintenance personnel
and other costs currently factored into a “per orbit” burden on
the overall ISR budget every time a new sensor is added. An area
where the ISR community must develop a more efficient balance
concerns the approach to collecting, archiving and accessing
huge volumes of data from hundreds or thousands of sensors, as
analysts increasingly focus their attention on human activities.
This article addresses ISR rebalancing issues as they apply to a
new approach to wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS). Here,
the balancing act requires increasing the volume, velocity and
variety of data while improving data fusion and correlation pro-
cesses within an efficient architecture that optimizes the output
of limited numbers of screeners and analysts.

Many traditional ISR activities focused on strategic threats:
large state actors with the capability to threaten U.S. interests
with militarily means, including long-range missile or bomber
strikes, armies and other conventional forces. After the attacks
of September 11, 2001, terrorism and irregular warfare were
seen as a strategic threat. ISR support to counterterrorism and
irregular warfare demands persistent, pervasive and timely sur-
veillance instead of scheduled, precise reconnaissance against
known targets. Gathering intelligence on fast, fleeting, hidden
and unpredictable adversaries requires knowledge of everyone,
everywhere, all the time. This is the domain of WAPS.
WAPS is often equated with an increase in loiter times and
area coverage, the additive effect of more platforms in rotation
over a target area, or the notion of an “unblinking eye” that
stares at an area. We define persistent surveillance as the appli-
cation of resources with sufficient coverage, dwell, revisit rate,
responsiveness and quality to characterize intelligence issues in
operationally relevant timelines within the context of an associ-
ated operational or analytic mission.
Providing persistent surveillance requires a delicate balanc-
ing of dwell, revisit rates and other factors, not merely optimiz-
ing a single system in one dimension. What defines success in
terms of monitoring, analyzing, understanding and acting to
achieve mission objectives changes over time as expectations
increase and as intelligence priorities are rebalanced to meet
hybrid and irregular threats.
We have learned much from current, high-resolution, high-
frame rate systems flown on Predator, Reaper and Project Liberty
aircraft, which provide critical capabilities for high-value target
tracking and other missions where a relatively narrow field
of view is acceptable. They were also relatively easy to deploy
because they initially fit within the broad operations, logistics
and training processes that existed for previous systems. Many
current systems are limited by a narrow field of view and a lack of
automated processing and tagging tools. As we learn more about
the ISR needs of a rebalanced force structure, a different mix of
ISR assets is required.
First-generation WAPS systems such as the Army’s Constant
Hawk and the Air Force’s Angel Fire provide a wide field of view,
but are limited to low resolution and low frame rates. Since these
capabilities were originally conceived as laboratory experiments
and fielded as quick reaction capabilities, they are manpower









R. T
14 | GIF 8.6
intensive to operate and exploit, and lack a robust architecture for
processing, exploitation and dissemination (PED). First-generation
systems do not significantly leverage automated processing tools and
primarily provide forensic analysis capabilities days or weeks after a
Recognizing the need for next-generation systems that bal-
ance the attributes of persistent surveillance, the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency’s Information Processing Techniques
Office (IPTO) sponsored a family of advanced remote sensing and
information processing capabilities to enable a different approach
to WAPS, including the Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous
Surveillance-Imaging System (ARGUS-IS).
Combining the advantages of WAPS systems with the precise,
high resolution tracking capabilities of narrow-field full motion video
(FMV) assets like the Predator and Reaper unmanned air systems, the
ARGUS-IS 1.8 gigapixel sensor and associated airborne processing
system provide the ability for autonomous tracking of vehicles and
dismounted individuals over a city-sized area, real-time downlinking
of up to 65 Predator-like video chip outs (video windows) at 12 Hz,
and a “TiVO-like” capability to generate forensic video chip outs while
the aircraft is still on station.
In densely populated urban areas, this system detects and tracks
tens of thousands of objects—more than humans or automated algo-
rithms can reasonably analyze. IPTO’s Wide Area Network Detection
(WAND) program combines ARGUS with new multi-sensor correla-
tion, network modeling and human-machine processing capabilities
to discriminate threats from non-threats and to automate the devel-
opment of signatures, patterns and behaviors needed to create an
analytically and operationally relevant understanding of patterns of
ARGUS also enables more effective and efficient cueing of analysts
or other sensors on where to look, including optimizing available
sensors based on the activity or target of interest. The ability to
surveil the movement of entities over a wide area and to correlate
their activities, interactions and transactions over time is also the key
enabler of activity-based intelligence (ABI).
ABI is an emerging doctrinal paradigm from the undersecretary of
defense for intelligence [USD(I)], the National Geospatial-Intelligence
Agency, and the works of notable intelligence professionals. ABI
concepts are documented in a USD(I) paper, “The Human Domain:
Analyzing the Role of the Human Element in the Operational Envi-
ronment,” which built on the March 2009 Defense Science Board
report, “Understanding Human Dynamics,” and the September 2007
irregular warfare joint operating concept.
ABI requires a fundamental shift in technology, tradecraft, train-
ing, policies and the way we think about intelligence problems.
Implemented correctly, the ABI approach has the potential to vastly
improve our understanding of groups and individuals and their inter-
actions and transactions with one another at an operational level.
Paralleling a larger trend in the intelligence community first
discussed by Gregory Treverton nearly a decade ago in the context of
the types of questions intelligence professionals were analyzing after
the Cold War, ABI is not about solving puzzles, but about unraveling
mysteries. For example, solving a puzzle implies that one has the
right pieces, that the pieces all fit together, and that there is a picture
on the box to go by.
In the ABI paradigm, much of the analysis requires understanding
piles of pieces and looking for something that is interesting or amiss.
Analysts must assemble multiple partial puzzles with no box to guide
them. Hypotheses, hunches, blind alleys, dead-ends and red herrings
abound. Activity-based analysts balance the skills of Sherlock Holmes
and the latest generation of high-tech television detectives.
To realize the potential of ABI collection systems, however, analysts
require new exploitation systems, analytic methods and concepts of
operation that support a more sophisticated integration of intelligence
collection and analysis. A new “mission exploitation” approach is
needed to leverage the full potential of WAPS capabilities within an
all-source analysis and reporting environment.
Next-generation WAPS capabilities provide a critical tool in
enabling the massive data collection and knowledge generation
required to enable ABI. But the collection itself is only one part of a
larger ISR rebalancing process required to achieve an ABI approach.
Some would argue, moreover, that the sensor development and
platform integration challenges are relatively minor compared to the
analytic methods and practices, mission management and sensor cue-
ing challenges required to perform the “exploitation” function. Indeed,
ABI requires a new approach to mission management to fully leverage
emerging WAPS capabilities and to achieve real, operational returns
on sensor and platform investments.
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For example, instead of managing a handful of video “lines” or
streams over a target area, mission managers and analysts can open
dozens or hundreds of video windows over a city-sized area. Tools to
assist with multi-tasking and filtering are needed to keep the workload
manageable. Also, as automated computer-driven cross cueing capa-
bilities are implemented, video windows spawned by human analysts
must be managed with auto-generated alerts, watch boxes and tracks.
Mission managers must balance requests from diverse consumers
above and exploitation analysts below in a frenetic operations tempo
that feels like a multi-player video game. New human interfaces for
managing, filtering and serving out information—much like the
media wall in the 2002 movie “Minority Report” and the touch screen
of an iPad—are needed to cope with the WAPS environment’s diversity
and pace.
Exploiting multi-INT WAPS data with a traditional approach
results in an unaffordable and unsustainable staffing model for analy-
sis, because the number of personnel required increases exponentially
with area coverage and linearly with dwell time. The traditional log-
ging process, in which analysts tag full motion video, is impractical
because many video windows are simply uninteresting or unimport-
ant. Yet they may contain data useful for forensic operations or later
Because WAPS is about much more than FMV, adding a diverse
range of analysts is crucial, including GEOINT analysts, ground mov-
ing target indication analysts, all source analysts and activity analysts,
to today’s FMV analysts or “sensor operators.” Analysts must accept
and adapt to analytic processes in which signatures are not provided by
video or imagery, but are geo-referenced onto video. The ABI paradigm
also requires analysts with deep cultural understanding and the ability
to discern normal activity from abnormal activity.
Today, most analysts spend 50 percent or more of their time
searching for data, conditioning it for analysis, and wrestling with
exploitation tools and file formats. This trend cannot continue, as the
demand for activity-based information requires fusion of data from
multiple sensors in near-real time. Exploitation capabilities must
automate actions that can be performed by machine to focus precious
analytic resources on performing analysis.
Algorithms that automatically highlight starts, stops, meetings,
entrances, exits, tripwires and other events provide alerting of key
events and additional tagging and correlation opportunities for sta-
tistic analysis of activities over time. Tools that automatically discover
statistically impossible correlations across interrelated data sets assist
analysts in understanding events, activities and transactions between
entities. Many of these algorithms already exist, but must be integrated
to support near real-time integration across multiple domains, disci-
plines and agencies.
As the number of WAPS sensors proliferates and activity-based
analysis becomes the dominant thought paradigm in the intelligence
community, end-to-end tasking, collection, processing, exploitation
and dissemination systems must adapt to the increasing volume,
velocity and variety of data sources and completely new ways of think-
ing about knowledge management.
Analysts must cultivate sources to discover and document the
most useable, trusted and current information streams. They must
also filter tremendous amounts of useless and duplicative informa-
tion, sometimes from conflicting and questionable sources. Data
must be integrated using an open, standards-based approach to data
management, geospatial layering, alerting and interactive Web-based
collaboration that breaks down stovepiped systems and eliminates
exquisite customized tools. To enable real-time information sharing
across multiple domains, disciplines and agencies, common metadata
standards, an activity ontology, standard file formats and revolutionary
discovery engines are needed.
The massive size of high-resolution WAPS data outstrips our abil-
ity to transfer it using precious tactical bandwidth. The cloud process-
ing and storage model widely accepted in the commercial domain
enables a paradigm where data is processed, exploited and posted at
forward tactical cloud nodes. Future collection platforms, including
multi-sensor airships like Blue Devil and the long endurance multi-
INT vehicle that loiter for days or weeks become data centers in the sky
and cloud nodes above the clouds. As advanced processing capabilities
advance and move upstream, relevant knowledge is extracted and data
is thinned and discarded. In the WAPS world, it is not affordable to
store collected data forever.
The need to support both strategic and tactical operations in
increasingly tight timelines breaks down the current “first, second
and third phase” sequenced analysis process and requires information
systems that seamlessly integrate real-time and post-mission data for
“phaseless” analysis. The operations tempo and our insatiable demand
for instant information gratification means decision makers will
“peek” at a variety of simple posted products, texts and tweets across a
broad range of issues instead of reading detailed reports.
Answering key intelligence questions in an increasingly irregular
and hybrid world requires precise, persistent and pervasive multi-
source tools and techniques. We support the evolution of capabilities
from traditional collection, analysis and targeting missions to a more
dynamic set of requirements focused on tactical relevance but also
encourage a revolution in end-to-end WAPS PED capabilities for
instantaneous awareness.
In a recent interview with Wired magazine, General David Petra-
eus summarized what we have described above as a key defense rebal-
ancing issue. For Petraeus, the issue of what we call rebalancing ISR is
not about platforms, but about the “so-called PED.” This rebalancing
ISR sentiment has been echoed by Gates, senior ISR officials in the
Pentagon and Congress. It is reflected in the Pentagon’s 2011 budget
request, which seeks $2.7 billion for the ISR Task Force to include
“significant increases in PED capabilities.”
The need for a robust and scalable PED architecture becomes
increasingly critical as emerging WAPS technologies break our legacy
manpower-intensive system and continue to overwhelm analysts with

Dr. Pat Biltgen is a systems engineer for BAE Systems Mission
Solutions and a specialist in capability-based planning for national
security systems. Dr. Robert Tomes is director, strategy and plans for
BAE Systems in the global analysis business area and serves on the
board of directors for the Council for Emerging National Security
Contact Editor Harrison Donnelly at
For more information related to this subject, search our archives at
www.GIF-kmi.com16 | GIF 8.6
DevelopsIRRIS Next
GeoDecisions, an information technology company
specializing in geospatial solutions, has been awarded a
three-year contract from the U.S. Transportation Command
(USTRANSCOM) to provide additional system administration,
configuration management, and architecture and engineering
design in support of IRRIS system management support and
documentation. The contract will focus on the development
of the next generation of IRRIS technology, geospatial data
sharing capability across the Department of Defense enter-
prise, and continued acquisition and integration of geospatial
datasets. IRRIS was originally developed for the U.S. Military
Surface Deployment Distribution Command, a component
command of USTRANSCOM, to track, manage and document
the movement of surface cargo transported throughout the
world. Today, the portal serves a number of federal and state
ERDAS Apollo on the Cloud is a new cloud-based
geospatial data management and delivery solution that
provides a simple entry point into the geospatial server
world. A turnkey solution, it is an all-inclusive monthly
subscription that makes it easy to understand your total
cost of ownership. Organizations can maintain their
entire geospatial serving operation in a highly secure,
scalable environment, eliminating the need for in-house
hardware, IT head count and expertise. The shared infra-
structure costs and low management overhead available
in this offering translate into quantifiable savings for the
customer. The solution is ideal for GIS users that want
a quick server implementation with elasticity, and for
organizations that have limited IT infrastructure and
expertise, yet still want to Web-enable their large volumes
of geospatial data. It is also a good alternative for users
requiring a geospatial server solution on an intermit-
tent basis or for a one-time project. The fully loaded
package includes everything needed to run a solution
on the cloud, including software license, computing
infrastructure, storage and bandwidth. ERDAS Apollo on
the Cloud is available in a secure, off-site environment
that customers can access on demand. Hosting services
are facilitated by Skygone Cloud.
Jason Sims
TacitView 2.0 from 2d3 Inc. is
a new version of a software suite
that leverages years of vision science
experience to create imagery intel-
ligence from aerial motion imagery
and high resolution reconnaissance
photos. The latest update includes a
wealth of new features and scales the
capabilities of TacitView to serve one
user and/or intelligence centers with
hundreds of analysts working collab-
oratively to disseminate intelligence
among many different units. TacitView
leverages vision science to enhance
motion imagery through real-time
stabilization, spectrum optimization
and superior resolution, improving
quality for real-time consumption;
and to exploit the imagery to extract
new pieces of information such as
the 3-D structure of the underlying
terrain, or providing target indica-
tion over time with geo-locations on
ortho-rectified mosaics. TacitView 2.0
brings a full set of new enhancement
and exploitation tools to users.
Jon Damush
Software CreatesImagery
SAIC has announced that it has
been awarded a Total Application
Services for Enterprise Requirements
(TASER) contract by the National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency to
research and implement innova-
tive solutions to emerging critical
geospatial intelligence require-
ments. The multiple award, indef-
contract has a five-year base period
and a total value of $1 billion for all
awardees. Under the TASER contract,
SAIC and other contractors will
compete for work supporting NGA’s
mission in all four of the TASER
functional categories: engineering
and trade studies; pilots and proto-
types; integration and deployment;
and application sustainment. SAIC’s
work on subsequent task orders
will expand the company’s mission
capability integrator role. (See GIF,
April 2010, page 26.)
TASER Contract Research
SeeksInnovative Solutions
Management Solution
Offeredon the Cloud
www.GIF-kmi.com18 | GIF 8.6
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
ITT, developer of ENVI image
processing and analysis software, has
announced the third phase of the strategic
integration of its software technology with
the ArcGIS platform from Esri. Building
on the multi-year integration of the two
platforms, this latest phase will give ArcGIS
users the ability to access ENVI tools for
analyzing geospatial imagery directly
from within the ArcGIS desktop and server
environments. Coupled with Esri’s release
of the new imagery analysis window in
ArcGIS 10, the new ENVI tools will deliver
unprecedented imagery analysis capa-
bilities to GIS professionals worldwide and
further the Esri and ITT commitment to
make imagery a core component of GIS.
The ENVI Toolbox for ArcGIS will provide
trusted and proven ENVI image analysis
capabilities as a set of discreet tools that
will be automatically available from the
ArcGIS Toolbox upon the installation of
ENVI products. The ENVI tools will make
it easier to add important information
from imagery to a wide variety of GIS
applications. Popular functions for image
analysis will be provided in the tool box,
including tools to extract features, clas-
sify land cover, detect anomalies, identify
targets and more. The ENVI tools can
be used independently or easily incorpo-
rated into models to add image analysis
functionality to GIS work flows and to
publish functionality to the Esri ArcGIS
server environment. In addition, these
tools can be extended or customized using
Esri’s Python scripting interface. As a
part of this phase of the integration, ITT
will also release a new version of its
ENVI product for deployment on Esri’s
ArcGIS Server, called ENVI for ArcGIS
Server. This new server-based product will
provide ENVI capabilities to ArcGIS Server
users in both workgroups and enterprise
Lori Thompson
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency has awarded
contracts for the EnhancedView commercial imagery program,
with DigitalGlobe receiving an award for $3.5 billion and GeoEye
an award for $3.8 billion. The period of performance for the
contracts is 10 years if all options are exercised. The contracts
support the EnhancedView Program by providing products and
services that will help meet the increasing geospatial intel-
ligence needs of the intelligence community and Department of
Defense. EnhancedView provides greater access, priority tasking
and improved capability and capacity to government customers
from the next series of U.S. commercial imagery satellites.
According to GeoEye, that company’s award comprises $2.8
billion for commercial satellite imagery purchases over the next
10 years, including an extension of NGA’s current ability to purchase commercial imagery from the company’s
existing satellite constellation under a service level agreement (SLA) for $150 million per year, and an additional
award to purchase commercial imagery, when GeoEye-2 becomes operational in 2013, for approximately $184
million per year for seven years; $337 million in cost sharing for the development and launch of GeoEye-2; and
$700 million for value-added products and services, including the design and procurement of additional infra-
structure to support government operations. The latter amount also includes EyeQ Web mapping services to be
delivered under the SLA. A DigitalGlobe statement indicated that the agreement calls for satellite imagery deliv-
eries from the WorldView satellite constellation under an SLA in a total amount of $2.8 billion. The agreement
also provides for up to $750 million for value-added products, infrastructure enhancements and other services.
Common Imagery Processor ReachesDelivery
PCI Geomatics, a developer of geoimaging
software and systems, has announced the avail-
ability of an upgrade to Geomatica, its remote
sensing and image processing software. Version
10.3.2 is the latest release available, and it includes
additional satellite sensor support in addition to
enhanced functionality. Satellites supported in
this release include HJ-1A/B, the first 2 sensors of
the Chinese Environment and Disaster Monitoring
Microsatellite Constellation. Upgrades to the math
modeling have also improved the overall accuracy
of Radarsat-2 correction using the Toutin model
with no GCPs; an accurate, alternative solution
to the RPC model. Additionally, Geomatica 10.3.2
includes upgrades to PCI Geomatics’ existing
ATCOR, atmospheric correction capabilities. Both
Windows and Linux editions of Geomatica 10.3.2
are available.
Alysia Vetter
[Photo courtesy of DigitalGlobe]
Northrop Grumman recently delivered the
100th common imagery processor (CIP), the
primary sensor processing element of the distrib-
uted common ground/surface system (DCGS), to
the Air Force. The CIP is the Department of Defense
standard imagery processor for all DCGS imagery
ground stations. The CIP also offers the promise
for coalition partners to consolidate redundant and
stovepiped processing systems. Northrop Grumman,
its customer and the end-users are continuing to
explore new capabilities of the CIP for anticipated
future processing, exploitation and disseminations
needs of the warfighter. To address the increased
volume of video collected from multiple sensors,
the company is exploring opportunities to host
advanced post-processing algorithms to the CIP,
allowing the sensors to quickly process imagery and
give the warfighter information sooner.
Alleace Gibbs
Software Upgrade Includes Additional
Satellite Sensor Support
EnhancedView Commercial ImageryAwards Top
$7 Billion
Integration Offers
Easy Access to
Imagery Analysis
Tools GIF 8.6 | 19
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Lieutenant General John C. Koziol is the deputy under secretary
of Defense (intelligence) for joint and coalition warfighter support,
and the director of the Department of Defense Intelligence, Surveil-
lance, and Reconnaissance Task Force. As deputy under secretary,
Koziol serves as the principal adviser to the under secretary of defense
for intelligence on operational issues concerning departmental ISR
programs and related ISR activities supporting the warfighter. Addi-
tionally, his responsibilities include policy, strategy and doctrine;
warfighter requirements and evaluation; information operations and
strategic studies; and special programs. As director of the ISR Task
Force, Koziol leads a departmentwide effort to assess and propose
options for maximizing and optimizing currently deployed ISR collec-
tion, processing, exploitation and dissemination capabilities as well as
the supporting infrastructure and communications architecture. .
Koziol was interviewed by GIF Editor Harrison Donnelly.
Q: What is your mission as deputy under secretary of defense [DUSD]
for joint and coalition warfighter support [J&CWS]?
A: As one of the four DUSDs in the Office of the Under Secretary of
Defense for Intelligence, J&CWS’ mission is to ensure warfighters have
the intelligence support they require to execute military operations in a
changing strategic and tactical environment. This encompasses a broad
set of responsibilities, starting with the improvement and standardiza-
tion of the capabilities within the combatant command [COCOM] Joint
Intelligence Operations Centers. Additionally, we lead the interagency
coordination of sensitive reconnaissance operations missions that
require secretary of defense and presidential-level approval. J&CWS
also provides oversight in the development of cyber and information
operations [IO] policy and enables capabilities for the COCOMs. We are
a warfighter advocate enabling short-term fixes to urgent IO needs. In
order to improve and increase cooperation and interoperability within
the government and our international partners, we are also responsible
for developing the intelligence guidance and policy to improve informa-
tion sharing. J&CWS also leads the inter-agency development and coor-
dination of defense intelligence policies and directives, including those
intelligence equities captured in other DoD policies and directives.
Q: Turning immediately to your other position, what do you do as
director of the DoD Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Task Force?
A: In early 2008, Secretary Gates recognized there was a significant
shortfall of ISR capabilities supporting our combat forces that was
limiting both the scope and pace of their operations. Consequently,
he established the ISR Task Force to accelerate the development and
fielding of additional ISR capabilities for Operation Enduring Free-
dom [OEF] and Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF] in support of Central
Command [CENTCOM] and Special Operations Command [SOCOM].
The ISR Task Force advocates for critical ISR requirements and works
closely with the services and combat support agencies to identify and
accelerate capabilities to support military operations. Based upon CEN-
TCOM and SOCOM’s requirements, the ISR Task Force has focused on
four critical areas to enhance ISR capabilities and capacity for opera-
tions in Afghanistan and Iraq. The four areas are collection; processing,
exploitation and dissemination [PED]; communications and its associ-
ated infrastructure; and intelligence sharing and collaboration. Addi-
tionally, the ISR Task Force assists both CENTCOM and SOCOM in the
development of CONOPs and tactics, techniques and procedures [TTPs]
as new capabilities are transitioned into the theater of operations.
Q: What are some of the key issues the ISR Task Force is working
on right now?
A: The ISR Task Force focuses on three broad priorities. The first pri-
ority is to ensure that critical service and combat support agency ISR
initiatives are rapidly fielded and then sustained in theater. These ini-
tiatives span all intelligence disciplines, and often integrate multi-INT
capabilities on both manned and unmanned platforms. Thus, each ini-
tiative brings its own set of challenges and opportunities that the task
Lieutenant General John C. Koziol
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense,
Joint and Coalition Warfighter Support
Director, DoD ISR Task Force GIF 8.6 | 21
ISR Leader
Ensuring Warfighters Have the Intelligence Support They Require
force addresses in partnership with all stakeholders. The task force also
maintains field support representatives in Afghanistan to help resolve
integration challenges. The second priority is to ensure that adequate
PED exists for the ISR capabilities that we are fielding. The increasing
volume of data, combined with an ever-changing operational environ-
ment, demands innovative PED approaches in order to translate raw
data into intelligence and deliver it to joint and coalition forces rapidly.
The third focus area is to ensure that ISR data, both U.S. and coalition,
can be shared with the joint and coalition forces executing operational
Although less costly than procuring and deploying new ISR plat-
forms, improvements to PED and information sharing capabilities are
much more challenging, because they often require changes in culture,
tactics, techniques and procedures as well as integration with multiple
programs of record. However, improvements in PED and information
sharing are necessary to optimize the flow of critical intelligence infor-
mation to joint and coalition forces so they can successfully conduct
their operations. Fortunately, the ISR Task Force is uniquely positioned
between the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff to
look across service and combat support agency programs to identify
and address gaps, seams and emerging opportunities as these capabili-
ties are integrated in a joint and coalition environment.
Q: How would you assess the current effectiveness of Project Liberty?
A: The ISR Task Force is extremely proud of the entire team that made
this happen. If you recall, Secretary Gates tasked the ISR Task Force
to quickly field increased ISR airborne capabilities to support OEF and
OIF. One of the initiatives was purchasing “C-12” class aircraft and
integrating ISR capabilities on the platform. As the ISR Task Force
team developed options and determined the required budget and
reprogramming actions, we settled on 37 Project Liberty aircraft. In
less than eight months from receipt of funding, the first Liberty air-
craft was delivered to the theater for ISR operations. We now have all
30 Liberty aircraft deployed to the theater and seven trainers back here
in the United States. I would have to qualify this as an unprecedented
success story. The entire team—ISR Task Force, Air Force, Big Safari,
combat support agencies, contractors, the Air National Guard, the
supply network across the United States and the hundreds of workers
who literally hand-built and integrated the ISR systems on each of the
37 Liberty aircraft—did an absolutely remarkable job.
It was an honor to escort Secretary Gates to one of the ISR integra-
tion facilities last year, where he had an opportunity to see this effort
and to address many of the people who were working around the clock
to get this war fighting asset into the AOR. At this point, these plat-
forms have flown more than 5,000 combat sorties and taken more than
22,000 hours of full motion video and more than 40,000 images. It is
a multi-INT platform and it is tailored to support counterinsurgency
and counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Designed to
plug into the theater GEOINT and SIGINT architectures, the sensor
data is available in real time to analysts and ground force operations
centers. We have heard directly from the field—Liberty aircraft have
had a dramatic impact on operations.
But I would be remiss if I did not mention the success of another
MC-12 program. The task force partnered with the Army on the
Medium Altitude Reconnaissance Surveillance System [MARSS] pro-
gram. As mentioned previously, the ISR Task Force is also responsible
for ensuring ISR assets are integrated and synchronized to support
operations. So as we worked through Project Liberty, there was a
parallel effort with the MARSS program. We held weekly integration
meetings for close to six months, bringing together the Air Force
Liberty and Army MARSS teams. These meetings helped in working
through system integration issues and allowed the sharing of lessons
learned in real-time because both programs were working similar
engineering and contract logistics support issues. The Army’s MARSS
program has been extremely successful—providing direct tactical ISR
support to forces in OEF and OIF.
Q: Overall, would you say U.S. and coalition forces have been suc-
cessful in adjusting their ISR strategy and operations to reflect the
different conditions of Afghanistan as opposed to Iraq?
A: Overall, I would say yes. Our forces have adjusted very well and con-
tinue to adjust as operational conditions evolve. Clearly, Afghanistan
On a smarter planet,
answers are hidden
in the data.
posed some tough challenges, including the initial lack of ISR capac-
ity, the infrastructure to distribute it, including bandwidth, and the
ability to use the information in a coalition environment. The forces
forward were required to quickly adapt from a largely urban Iraqi
environment to a more rural Afghanistan. One of the issues we had
to overcome is the lack of indigenous infrastructure that our forces
depend on. We continue to focus on commensurate upgrades to infra-
structure and PED as we increase the required capabilities—it is like
moving from silent pictures to HDTV overnight. The buildup of Army
and Air Force unmanned systems, the Army’s tethered aerostats, the
Liberty and MARSS multi-INT platforms, and significant NSA, NGA
and DIA field elements have significantly built up the ISR capability
in Afghanistan over the last year. To ensure the most efficient build-up
of capabilities in theater, CENTCOM formed a task force to create an
integrated C4ISR architecture across Afghanistan. The International
Security Assistance Force C4ISR for integrated operations-intelligence
reporting has greatly raised the focus and accelerated the sharing of
ISR data across the 44 member coalition by establishing the Afghan
Mission Network. There still remains much to do, and one of the more
enabling capabilities that will deploy in late summer is a wide area,
light detection and ranging [LiDAR] collection system that will begin
the countrywide collection of high resolution terrain elevation data.
Q: You are scheduled to address the GEOINT Symposium 2010 later
this year. What message would you most like to give the GEOINT
community from your perspective as deputy under secretary and task
force director?
A: GEOINT is saving lives every day in Afghanistan and Iraq. Full
motion video [FMV] is providing situational awareness and key intelli-
gence in almost every engagement. It is being broadcast directly to our
forces in combat. Imagery, especially unclassified commercial imagery,
is an essential part of operational planning and coordination with
our coalition forces. Even more ubiquitous are the maps and charts,
especially of urban environments, that our forces depend on. Further-
more, GEOINT analysis, especially in a multi-INT product, is a very
powerful force multiplier. The ability to geospatially display SIGINT,
HUMINT, operational data and significant events allows one to gain a
comprehensive understanding of relationships and trends that would
otherwise be unnoticed. GEOINT analysts deployed across Afghanistan
and Iraq are increasingly providing these geospatially based tailored
products. However, we still require more advanced tools to improve
our analytic community’s agility, effectiveness and responsiveness—
especially in the multi-INT environment.
Q: How would you rate the overall effectiveness of DoD’s use of
GEOINT technology to meet intelligence needs?
A: I give it a solid B. Traditional imagery, charts and full motion video
are widely dispersed across the battlespace and available to most of our
forces. We are at the cusp of making advanced GEOINT available such
as hyperspectral imagery, ground moving target indicator, LiDAR, and
advanced GEOINT tools. We have a myriad of GEOINT capabilities, and
they are making a huge contribution to the success of our operations
in theater. We continue to look at ways we can provide more powerful
analytical tools to support our analysts. For instance, we need to make
the job of FMV analysts easier to perform with automated tipping
and recognition tools, improved metadata standards adherence, and
compression and fielding of high definition capabilities. These same
challenges exist for the other GEOINT sensor types. Finally, the tools
and use of geospatial analysis need to continue to accelerate and inte-
grate across all domains in an enterprise approach. These capabilities
are incredibly powerful and need to become more accessible. GEOINT
technology is making a big impact today. We have more to do, though.
I believe we need to improve our ability to cross reference across all
intelligence disciplines to ensure we are integrating and synchroniz-
ing all the data that is flowing in—in other words, we need to help our
analysts be analysts.
Q: What is your vision of the role of FMV in intelligence and ISR
A: FMV is a critical enabler for our ground forces. The coupling of FMV
with persistent UAVs is transforming the way we fight. The situational
With smarter geospatial data, we can make sense of information in all its forms, through all
its sources—including data gathered from commercial satellites, government satellites
and manned or unmanned Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR).
Through new forms of analytics, we can also see how one piece of information relates to
everything surrounding it.
Smarter data, delivered in real time, allows for greater mission responsiveness to warfi ghters
and national decision makers.
Let’s build a smarter planet. See what others are doing at and join us at
GEOINT 2010, November 1–4, 2010, at booth #737.
IBM, the IBM logo,, Smarter Planet and the planet icon are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names
might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at © International Business Machines Corporation 2010.
awareness that FMV provides, especially when it is reliable and per-
sistent, enables our forces to operate more rapidly, more dispersed
and over more territory. Direct near real-time FMV transmission to
ground forces, their unit commander, the operations centers and the
joint commander provides unprecedented information leveling. FMV
will remain a critical enabler to how we fight more effectively. The
real question is what needs to improve to make FMV more effective
and sustainable. The ready answers are to improve the sensors and the
PED. First, on the sensors, most of our forces are looking at standard-
definition black and white video. High definition [HD] video provides
significant improvement in resolution and color. The HD standard
comes with improved compression and metadata. The Army’s MQ-1C,
MQ-9 Reaper, MC-12W and MARSS platforms will begin transitioning
to HD in FY11.
More challenging is getting the PED right for this large inventory
of FMV-capable platforms. Clearly, FMV provides immediate utility to
our fighting forces, but it also provides additional analytical value to the
trained analyst. We need to move from dedicated analysts for each FMV
feed to a distributed network that permits intelligence exploitation and
processing across the Defense Intelligence Enterprise and with our
joint and coalition partners. Additionally, because it is complementary
to other sources of information, we need to continue investing in
multi-INT sensor cross-cueing capabilities such as SIGINT-FMV cross
cueing. Finally, we need improved FMV analytical software that will
allow our analysts to create tailored and useable products.
Q: Especially with the arrival of massive amounts of video data from
UAVs, the military is frequently said to be “drowning in data.” What
can you do to address the resulting overload of both transmission
and analysis systems?
A: My initial priorities are to ensure that forces in theater have access
to the data they need and that each deployed collection system has suf-
ficient PED to conduct its mission. We are succeeding, but it is stress-
ing the services and combat support agencies, especially in their ability
to deploy trained analysts. Trained analysts, in or out of uniform, are
limited in numbers and may not be effectively distributed across the
theaters and our reach back enterprises. The unprecedented increase
in the Predator, Reaper, ERMP, Shadow, Liberty and MARSS fleets and
their PED support requires that the department look at joint solutions
to efficiently deploy analysts, move the data and support reachback
solutions in CONUS.
For me, the question is what is the right balance between what is
currently dedicated and what is reliably available to provide additional
support. Continued maturation of service distributed common ground/
surface systems is one of the keys, but we also need to look at the archi-
tecture and TTPs to best leverage our personnel and collectors. Over-
all, the PED solutions must revolve around the Defense Intelligence
Information Enterprise [DI2E], which is the department’s strategy for
building a cross-domain, globally connected, agile intelligence infor-
mation enterprise, and architecture that interfaces seamlessly with the
intelligence community architecture and incorporates important new
capabilities. The DI2E must meet the needs of combatant command-
ers, the military services, joint task forces, allies, and coalition partners.
Accordingly, we must maximize access to, and sharing of, all informa-
tion and that includes the valuable information derived from GEOINT.
Q: What are some of the other initiatives you are working on to
improve intelligence support for joint and coalition warfighters?
A: As I referenced earlier, we are working a multitude of other issues.
We are focusing on the immediate coalition information sharing
requirements of OEF by developing and implementing policy and sys-
tems changes that will positively advance future coalition intelligence
sharing for all COCOMs. The ISR Task Force is accelerating the fielding
of improved ISR tactical data links and the introduction of HD video.
We are also fielding improved GEOINT and SIGINT systems that pro-
vide identity resolution in support of counterinsurgency and counter-
terrorist operations. I would capture our focus at this point in time this
way: The task force stood up in April 2008, and we have worked through
the four key areas I mentioned earlier in our interview—collection,
PED, communications/infrastructure, and information sharing and
collaboration. Our present initiatives are now related to working gaps
and seams—primarily in the PED and information sharing areas.
Q: What lessons from your career as an Air Force intelligence officer
have been most important in shaping your approach to your current
A: There are two key lessons and experiences that I reference daily.
After warfighters clearly state their requirements, the incredible team-
work between the services, combat support agencies and industry has
resulted in quick reaction capabilities that aid in finding, fixing, tar-
geting and affecting targets, kinetically or non-kinetically. While this
teamwork is critical, I have learned that the nation’s true crown jewel
is our people—both military and civilian. Some of our ISR sensors are
off the shelf, but the key to U.S. pre-eminence is our people and their
keen analysis, drive, dedication and can-do attitude to accomplish
any mission. So it is incumbent upon leaders to ensure we provide
our intelligence professionals the tools and the training they need to
produce timely and accurate information. The second lesson is that
timely and relevant intelligence is the critical enabler for our operat-
ing forces. The most valuable advocate for intelligence capability is our
joint commanders. It is our job to bring their perspective and priorities
into the Pentagon’s resource decision making forums to ensure they
have the timely and accurate intelligence necessary to drive and sup-
port their operations.
Q: Is there anything else you would like to add?
A: The services and combat support agencies deserve much of the
credit. They are rapidly fielding advanced ISR capabilities and con-
tinue to lean forward to improve their contribution to the fight as
new requirements emerge. Our focus has been to coordinate their
efforts so that we identify and mitigate gaps between their respective
efforts and that we remain interoperable at the data level. The combat
support agencies shoulder this synchronization through their role as
functional managers within their respective Intelligence disciplines. I
strongly encourage industry, the defense components and the greater
intelligence community to follow the lead of the National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency as it continues to provide direct support inte-
gration across the national system for GEOINT through standards
development and joint training.
Finally, I would just like to personally thank all the men and
women who have worked very hard to provide additional ISR capabili-
ties to our forces overseas. You have done a remarkable job—now is
the time to keep the pace up and work aggressively to ensure all the
data that is being produced is value added to our joint forces, allies and
coalition partners.

www.GIF-kmi.com24 | GIF 8.6
Esri Delivers Geospatial
Capability for C4ISR
Copyright © 2010 Esri. All rights reserved. Esri, the Esri globe logo, and are trademarks, registered trademarks,
or service marks of Esri in the United States, the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions.
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Embedded into your C4ISR applications, Esri
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Esri also provides the main software components for
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The Department of Homeland Securi-
ty’s Unified Incident Command and Deci-
sion Support (UICDS) program is advancing
quickly through a series of pilot projects that
are seeding widespread use of the UICDS
open architecture. A key factor in that prog-
ress has been Open Geospatial Consortium
(OGC) standards specified in the architecture,
which have helped overcome interoperability
obstacles to implementation.
UICDS is “a blueprint for managing and
sharing incident information across state
and local jurisdictional lines and with DHS
and other federal agencies,” Acting Under
Secretary Bradley Buswell of the Science
and Technology Directorate told the House
Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland
Security last year.
“This national architecture, a response
to issues identified in the 9/11 Commission
Report, is aimed at establishing a set of
standards to which solution developers for
incident management tools will adhere in
order to ensure that recipients of DHS funds
at the state/local level will procure incident
information management systems that com-
ply with uniform standards in order to solve
the information interoperability problems,”
Buswell said.
An open and freely usable architecture
sponsored by the DHS Science and Technol-
ogy Directorate, UICDS is being executed
through a contract with prime contractor
The UICDS project has successfully
completed two major demonstrations of a
prototype reference implementation of the
architecture, and will soon undertake a much
larger pilot. UICDS has been proven by its ref-
erence implementation to be stable and ready
for pilot deployment in operational settings.
The first demonstration was hosted in
2009 by Virginia Department of Emergency
Management at the Virginia Emergency
Operations Center in Richmond. The UICDS
prototype implementation integrated infor-
mation from 23 commercial, government
and academic technology provider applica-
tions, demonstrating how this information is
shared among applications and the jurisdic-
tions they serve. The demonstration included
six incident vignettes occurring in a simu-
lated East Coast storm, with each scenario
showing information sharing among five to
seven applications used by police, fire, emer-
gency medical, emergency management and
other response organizations.
The second major demonstration was
held in the Federal Emergency Management
Agency’s National Exercise and Simulation
Center in Washington, D.C., this spring. The
demonstration showed information sharing
across four UICDS cores representing federal,
state and local governments. Live traffic-
accident information was part of the demon-
stration, which included more than a dozen
applications selected for their current use by
agencies in the national capital region.
Next, the project will pilot UICDS in 120
locations in 21 states. When the UICDS team
stages a pilot in an area of multiple jurisdic-
tions, one or more UICDS cores are each
attached to roughly a dozen applications.
With 120 pilots, the UICDS team will have
connected 300 to 400 application instances.
A pilot could involve a group of states, a state
with all of its counties, or a city with all its
emergency response teams. By the time this
multi-location pilot is finished, the proj-
ect organizers believe they will have tested
almost every configuration of applications in
use in U.S. jurisdictions today.
Another goal of the pilot is to show that
different types of partners can lead such data-
sharing efforts. SAIC will train a national
laboratory, a university and nonprofit orga-
nization—the All Hazards Consortium—to
deploy UICDS implementations similar to
the reference implementation used in the
Virginia demo. UICDS participants anticipate
that thousands of UICDS cores will go online
in the next few years.
A UICDS core is a Web server hosting a
set of Web services based on open standard
interfaces and payload encodings. Encod-
ings include the OGC Geography Markup
Language and OGC SensorML encoding
standards, as well as the Emergency Data
eXchange Language (EDXL), Common Alert-
ing Protocol and others.
Those services connect applications to
share a portion of their information with
other similarly connected applications. The
one-to-many relationships take place through
the UICDS core. For example, perhaps a
dozen applications in a city connect to a core
in that city.
Separately, a number of county applica-
tions may also reside in or near the city. Most
of the county’s data stays in the county’s core.
But by the terms of an agreement set forth
through simple configuration of an agree-
ment service, bi-directional updates happen
automatically when an incident occurs. The
cores are peer to peer, and the applications
connect to the cores in a star network con-
About a dozen standards are specified
in the UICDS architecture. Several major
OGC geospatial standards (the OGC Web Map
Standards Aid








www.GIF-kmi.com26 | GIF 8.6
Service, Web Feature Service and Web Pro-
cessing Service Interface Standards), along
with the OGC Sensor Observation Service
Interface Standard, make up the geospatial
“The OGC standards are the integral base-
line for everything done on geospatial data
exchange,” explained Jim Morentz, UICDS
outreach director. “As a result of their pres-
ence and pervasiveness, they have saved time
and enabled that critical portion of usage to
be implemented very efficiently.”
OGC standards play a vital role in win-
ning the support of the provider community,
Morentz said. “When we talk to companies,
we find there is very strong interest in UICDS.
We know of more than 130 companies that
have applied to download the software devel-
opment kit. Sixty percent of these compa-
nies use geospatial visualization, and OGC
standards overcome the biggest hurdle the
companies face in implementations.
“When UICDS project managers ask pro-
viders if their interfaces implement OGC
standards, most respond affirmatively, and
they are delighted to learn that that’s all
that’s necessary to enable interoperability,”
he continued. “It’s not an overstatement to
say that OGC standards are the key standards
that have spread acceptance of UICDS among
technology providers, solutions providers and
user agencies.”
For non-geospatial incident and resource
information, UICDS specifies the emergency
management community’s EDXL suite of
message standards, which includes a resource
management component and a distribution
element for message routing. To meet the
needs of the law enforcement community,
UICDS implemented the Law Enforcement
Information Technology Standards Commit-
tee suite of standards and, in some cases, made
them interoperable with EDXL exchanges.
This cross-standard exchange is made possi-
ble by UICDS use of the UCore Digest (https:// to summarize
disparate information in a standard format.
The baseline standard encoding language
used to configure the data is eXtensible
Markup Language (XML), and thus the XML-
based OGC Geography Markup Language
Encoding Standard provides the geospatial
XML data encoding. All the UICDS outputs
are XML work products.
The geospatial feature dictionary used in
UICDS is the National Information Exchange
Model (NIEM). The actual dialect or stan-
dards to configure those words came out of
a set of standards, including OGC standards
and EDXL. Not every data model pertains to
NIEM, and not every data model is composed
of NIEM feature names and relationships. But
EDXL has a migration and convergence proj-
ect for NIEM, so more and more data models
fit together as NIEM becomes more widely
adopted. Where there isn’t a standard, the
UICDS project will build it out of the NIEM
UICDS is a clear and inexpensive answer
for information sharing. But many jurisdic-
tions all around the country have ongoing
information-sharing projects, driven partly
by their own requirements and partly by DHS
mandates. The one-to-many UICDS archi-
tecture enhances these existing projects by
allowing a company or agency with a feder-
ated search, an aggregation of GeoRSS feeds,
or a legacy decision support system built on a
geospatial database to quickly consume new
sources of information that are published on
One attractive feature is that the UICDS
connection isn’t going to overload those
other sources with irrelevant updates. Rather,
the updates will occur only when there is an
incident to which the agency has subscribed.
In this way, UICDS adds a level of intelligence
that makes data sharing easier.
To provide and consume data from UICDS,
an agency can quickly write agreements with
all of its data-sharing partners. Often agen-
cies and their developers are amazed to see
how easily this works, after spending many
months or even years building similar data-
sharing capabilities with just a few partners.
Developers using the UICDS development kit
have been very successful in implementing
adapters into both new and existing data-
sharing programs that significantly multiply
the value of those programs.
“An information-sharing architecture like
UICDS depends on being able to connect to
and interoperate with all kinds of information
systems, sometimes quickly and in an ad hoc
fashion,” Morentz noted. “Sharing geospatial
information among various jurisdictions was
previously one of the biggest obstacles to this
kind of interoperability. But that problem is
now largely solved, thanks to OGC standards
built into UICDS that enable geospatial Web
services to communicate.”

Steven Ramage is executive director,
marketing and communications, for the
Open Geospatial Consortium.
Contact Editor Harrison Donnelly at
For more information related to this subject,
search our archives at GIF 8.6 | 27
Facing the
ISR Challenge
The results of the
more than $2 billion
investment in the ISR
surge are driving the collection of unprec-
edented volumes of data. We will have eyes on
the threat to an extent never before achieved
from multisensor sources in real time and
near real time. Fully exploited, this data
should give our warfighters clear situational
awareness and informed decision-making.
However, in many respects, we are no closer
now to fully exploiting the information across
the full spectrum of warfighters and sharing
it widely to all consumers than we were on
September 11, 2001.
Although data is pouring out of sensors
at a constantly increasing rate, it is being
buried in stovepiped systems or waiting on
the processing floor to be analyzed and lever-
aged. Adding more analysts is an evolutionary
answer to a revolutionary need. Full exploita-
tion is not being achieved on the current path
to enterprise data sharing.
The benefit of the end state is clear: wide-
spread access to raw and processed sensor
data across services and systems, sharing the
load of processing to any and every analyst,
decision-maker and warfighter in the chain.
What is not clear is how to achieve that
end vision. Our frontline warfighters deserve
The first steps have been taken in the
TCPED process across the Distributed Com-
mon Ground System (DCGS) enterprise. Data
has been exposed across programs of record
and coalition partners through the use of the
Data Integration Backbone. Programs are
shifting to an enterprise level of sharing of
information and processes through slow and
incremental steps.
The DCGS enterprise has catalogued and
engineered a total of 157 services that can be
exposed and leveraged across the enterprise,
and in so doing, accomplishing unification of
capability. Yet the adoption of these is lagging
behind their availability.
The technology community has been
banging the drums of the art of the possible.
But technology is only one dimension of the
problem, and is at best an enabler for achiev-
ing the full vision of interoperability.
The entire acquisition culture must be
receptive to a different way of doing business.
The culture must be able to adopt and use
what other programs have built rather than
“roll their own.”
If the technology challenges the bound-
aries of the culture—as it has for years
with service oriented architecture-enabled
interoperability—then either the culture
changes or the technology fails. The stake-
holders need to see themselves as members of
a larger community, with their sensors, data
and analytical tools as common components
that can and should plug and play, versus
“metal benders” that build applications that
wire in and connect.
Currently, the acquisition culture rewards
by adherence to and delivery of requirements
Shifting to the Enterprise Level



















Eli Hertz
Shifting to the Enterprise Level
What do you see as the most important
technological advances from a military
perspective currently under way in ISR?
Following are their responses.
Editor’s Note: In connection with this issue’s Cover Story Question & Answer
interview with Lieutenant General John C. Koziol, deputy under secretary of
defense for joint and coalition warfighter support and director of the Department
of Defense ISR Task Force, Geospatial Intelligence Forum posed this question to a
number of leading companies in the field:
www.GIF-kmi.com28 | GIF 8.6
driven largely by its own set of users. This is
a culture of individual program entities, and
as such challenges the accomplishment of
interoperability. An enabling culture is one
that sees itself within a construct of a citizen
of a community—only successful when raw
and exploited data is widely accessible, and
only successful if redundancy is eliminated.
This culture can be achieved through incen-
tives designed to reward sharing of data and
services and to penalize redundancy or data
Full realization of the scope of the vision
is also dependent on the economics involved.
The economic realities must be responsive to
the “rhythms” of the technology and aligned
with the governance model. Current funding
practices are misaligned with the governance
model for an enterprise level of interoper-
Program-specific funding that is aligned
solely to realization of program-level func-
tionality fails to create incentives at the level
needed. Instead, funding should be a reward
to those who can prove that their data and
data processing services have wide enterprise
reach and a breadth of users, with proven
metrics that are confirmation of enterprise
The technology, economics and culture
needed are harmonious yet incomplete in
accomplishing the end state.
The policies need to be the binding
and integrating force, and be in alignment
with the supporting technology and cul-
ture that embodies them. Policies come in
many forms and have a profound impact
on the funding, design and accreditation of
the enterprise. Updating policy changes can
happen at a glacial pace and can either be
enablers or obstructions.
When out of synchronization with the
drivers of the technology, policy can be
interpreted loosely and met to the minimum
level of compliance. A timely and aligned
policy should clarify enterprise behavior
and enforce net-centric behavior. An archaic
policy left unquestioned is a continual obsta-
cle. An example is the current policy for
accreditation of services. The need to share
is obstructed by a lack of openness to reci-
Finally, the governance model must be
an orchestrator, balancing and tuning each
of these dimensions to ensure that they are
working in harmony. The governance model
must strike the balance of incentives versus
direction, define a clear vision and build
consensus through clear determination and
communication of the value of the enterprise.
The governance model must “dial in” the
accountability at the enterprise and be driven
through the policies.
We are close to a level of situational
awareness of the threat that will keep the
advantage in our asymmetrical battlefield,
where it needs to be, with our warfighters
and decision-makers. The quantity of data
and technology to serve it up are in place. To
enable full realization of the vision requires
the comprehensive orchestration of every

Eli Hertz is a senior associate with Booz
Allen Hamilton.
Ready for what’s next.
From real space to cyberspace, today’s warfi ghter is faced with the most
diverse battle space in history. Booz Allen Hamilton helps our clients meet the enemy head-on by providing
intelligent, innovative solutions that defense forces need to achieve mission success. Whether you’re
managing today’s issues or looking beyond the horizon, count on us to help you be ready for what’s next.
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Effi ciency.
S T R A T E G Y & O R G A N I Z A T I O N I T E C H N O L O G Y I O P E R A T I O N S I A N A L Y T I C S GIF 8.6 | 29
With the exponen-
tial growth of advanced
geospatial intelligence (AGI) tasking at the
onset of Operation Enduring Freedom, the
need to deliver timely, relevant and accu-
rate products and services to the warfighter
became the top priority for the Army’s
national-to-theater (NTT) GEOINT program.
Faced with increasing pressure to cope with
the growth in CENTCOM tasking, managing
first-phase production of national technical
means and airborne collection, and over-
seeing federation AGI production for the
command, the Army G-2 directed the NTT’s
513th Military Intelligence Brigade to begin
development of a production management
tool called the AGI/MASINT Reporting and
Dissemination Service (AMRDS).
Since its inception, AMRDS has revo-
lutionized operations for the Army NTT
program by standardizing requirements and
production management across distributed
exploitation nodes, resulting in increased
production capacity and quality control.
The AMRDS is an innovative, Web-based
application used by nearly 1,000 analysts
at more than 15 DoD and civilian agencies
around the world to produce intelligence
products and distribute them directly to the
warfighter.Developed and maintained for the
Army through a joint effort by Electronic
Warfare Associates/Information & Infrastruc-
ture Technologies, Riverside Research Insti-
tute and L-3 Communications, the AMRDS
was born out of the need for a Web-based tool
to manage requests for information (RFIs),
process analytical work into Web documents
and perform centralized management.
AMRDS enables the Army NTT federation
Revolutionizing National-to-Theater Operations











Joe Fausnight















In my view, the
most significant tech-
nological advance in
airborne ISR is the development of wide area
surveillance systems (WASS).
Gimbal-mounted electro-optical and
infrared sensor systems (EO/IRs) have been
the paradigm of imagery intelligence for the
past 20-plus years. Over that time, EO/IRs
have become more accurate in their ability to
geo-locate ground targets through the use of
inertial measurement units, rangefinders and
moving maps. They also have become more
mission effective by adding laser modules
to illuminate and designate those ground
As the collection altitudes of manned
platforms were increased in recent conflicts
to minimize detection and avoid ground
threats, EO/IRs were equipped with bet-
ter optics, including daytime and night-
time “spotter scopes,” and digital imaging
enhancements. Most recently, EO/IRs have
been engineered to fuse the collections from
each of their sensors to provide the warf-
ighter a more comprehensive “picture” of
ground targets and areas of interest.
Despite these advances, the gimbal-
mounted EO/IR has not been able to over-
come what some perceive as its inherent
limitation: a relatively narrow field-of-view
oftentimes described as “looking at the bat-
tlefield through a soda straw.” This inherent
limitation has been addressed in military
operations in two ways. The first is by employ-
ing multiple platforms to generate multiple
images of the battlefield that are collected
and analyzed by tactical operation centers on
the ground. The other is by the introduction,
on manned platforms, of a new generation
of EO/IR sensor operators, who are perhaps
more accurately described as “airborne imag-
ery analysts.” These operationally focused
and situationally aware crewmembers have
the natural ability, training and experience
to conduct real-time integrated ISR over the
WASS are multiple arrays of sensors
on a single platform designed to give the
warfighter a total picture of the battlefield,
with imagery fusion on-demand to take full
advantage of the multiple sensor arrays and
WASS sensors include high resolution
EO and IR still-imagery cameras, full motion
video (FMV) systems, multi- and hyper-spec-
tral systems, and other targeting sensors,
all with the ability to be georeferenced and
fused. The advantage of a WASS is the ability
to loiter over an area of interest for long peri-
ods, continuously monitoring the situation
while collecting and recording data. These
recorded data sets can then be correlated to
detect minute changes or to provide forensic
data if an incident occurs within the area of
Once a target of interest is detected, the
WASS has the ability to hand off the target to
a more traditional EO/IR FMV system, which
can then focus on the smaller area/target.
Over time, a WASS provides the warfighter
with a complete picture of the battlefield,
both current and historic, from a single air-
borne platform.
WASS will, without question, create a
paradigm shift in imagery intelligence, but it
is not a paradigm shift without major issues.
How much of the collected imagery will we
be able to transmit to the warfighter in real
time, and how much of the collected and
deliverable imagery will constitute useful,
much less actionable, intelligence?
Concurrent advances in microwave, 3G
and 4G cellular, and satellite transmission
systems may soon allow us to deliver the
high volumes of imagery (and metadata)
collected by WASS, but it remains to be seen
how we will separate the “wheat from the
chaff” for the warfighter, in real time.

A former Air Force pilot and special
operations combat controller, Bob Neumann
is president of AirScan.
Bob Neumann
Total Picture of the Battlefield
www.GIF-kmi.com30 | GIF 8.6
to virtually “lift and shift” production
resources based on changes in mission
demands. For example, if a crisis were to
occur on the Korean Peninsula, AMRDS
could be used to virtually transfer a por-
tion of the Army NTT analysts supporting
USEUCOM to a temporary crisis support
sub-organization of the U.S. Forces Korea
NTT production node.
AMRDS provides a central database to
align requirements and collected data against
scheduled and finished reports as managers
build prioritized production logs to meet
intelligence needs. By automatically tracking
and associating requirements and imagery
to the scheduled report, the analyst is freed
from having to fill in much of the metadata
required by intelligence community stan-
dards for shared-space publications.
The AMRDS report builder also captures
geographic data so that accumulated analysis
information can be queried and dynami-
cally repackaged into a variety of formats,
including Google Earth KML, ESRI shape-
files, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, Web-
based maps and summary reports. A recently
added services-oriented architecture (SOA)
component is being used to exchange data
with other National System for Geospatial-
Intelligence elements.
AMRDS customers, who have access
to nearly 400,000 reports, can create “My
GEOINT” accounts on JWICS and SIPRNET
to keep stored queries and preferences. Users
can submit RFIs to any of the participat-
ing exploitation organizations. Customers
can search for reports in a number of ways:
geographically using a navigable map or by
keyword, intelligence topic, target number,
associated requirement number, associated
RFI and analysis technique.
Points of interest within the report are
displayed in the user’s preferred coordinate
system, with links to close-up maps of the
points. GIS data can be downloaded and
used by desktop applications in a variety of
formats, allowing consumers to overlay the
geospatial information with data from other
sources. Customers can subscribe to report
categories or use stored queries to receive
e-mail notification when new reports are
The AMRDS development team is initiat-
ing a major redesign for version 3.0. The new
version implements a full Java enterprise
architecture and employs cloud technology,
giving the system the ability to expand to
meet a rapidly growing number of users.
SOA services will be expanded to better inte-
grate with national databases and require-
ment systems, as well as intelligence sources
which provide situational awareness for the
analyst. Future plans include development
of Java plug-ins for desktop electronic light
tables such as BAE’s SOCET GXP, giving
analysts the ability to directly insert GIS data
into draft AMRDS reports and pull AMRDS
data to overlay in the desktop application.
AMRDS represents a “for operations by
operations” systems engineering strategy in
which developers are intimately familiar with
operations by being embedded with manag-
ers and analysts in a rapid-prototype environ-
ment. Located within the Army’s NTT largest
and busiest GEOINT production node, the
513th MI BDE, AMRDS developers analyze
operational needs/deficiencies and provide
technical solutions, receiving immediate
feedback on capabilities impacting support
to CENTCOM theater operations. AMRDS
development efforts benefit from feedback
obtained by other production nodes as well
as request for system improvement from
forward deployed analysts.
The secret of the AMRDS team’s success
remains the close working relationship of
developer, production user and end customer.
This teamwork has yielded a highly success-
ful federated production environment with
a proud history of supporting the soldier on
the ground, using GEOINT to save lives and
satisfy operational requirements.

Joe Fausnight is AMRDS program
developer lead for the Riverside Research
The Revolution Will Be Televised












The Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency is flight-testing a new airborne sensor
that will gather continuous, high-resolution
video of an area the size of a small city. Dubbed
ARGUS-IS, its 1.8 gigapixel camera will gener-
ate 100 terabytes of streaming video—every
single hour. That’s almost 90,000 times the
current volume of current tactical video feeds.
In other words, tomorrow’s flood of video
data is going to make today’s fire hose look
like a squirt gun.
The coming revolution in ISR video is so
extraordinary, it will fundamentally change
the way we think about video intelligence.
That deluge of data streaming from the clouds
can pinpoint terrorists, expose enemy secrets,
turn the tide of battle and save lives, but only
if we can tap into it effectively. That’s why the
single most important ISR technology under
way today is full motion video management.
Today we have an excellent infrastructure
for collecting and exploiting still imagery. And
we’ve made some steps to adapt that infra-
structure to motion video. But a revolution is
coming, and it will take more than adaptation
to keep up.
The first step in the video management
revolution is to treat video like video, rather
than breaking it up in into one- to six-minute
chunks and treating it like still image files.
Next, we must be able to steam that motion
imagery on-demand to any location across
the enterprise—regardless of where the data
was collected, processed or stored. On top of
that, we must embed IM chat and overlaid
intelligence from other sensors and sources
across the battlefield.
To fully exploit the unique nature of video
intelligence, it is also useful to think about
watching a cable news network. A newscaster
is interviewing a reporter, who appears live
via a separate video stream. At the top of the
screen, stock quotes scroll by, continuously
updated. Time and temperature flash in the
corner. And along the bottom, various head-
lines from the day’s major events run in con-
stant succession. Information from hundreds
of sources comes together simultaneously to
create that one screen, which the viewer can
interpret in real time.
Now take that analogy to video intelligence.
Charlie Morrison
Jon Armstrong
jon.w.armstrong@ GIF 8.6 | 31
Imagine two, three or even more video feeds
streaming live on screen. Along the side, MIRC
chat transcripts from analysts scrolls in real
time, conveying feedback from troops on the
ground. At the top, alerts about new feeds,
reports and events are continuously streaming,
each one inviting the viewer to click for more.
And at the bottom are options to perform
detailed analytics on the incoming streams.
At your fingertips are tools to watch, analyze,
interpret and fuse intelligence as it happens.
We call that concept “evolved FMV,” and
we’ve developed a prototype that we are test-
ing out at exercises like Empire Challenge and
delivering as part of the Valiant Angel program.
We believe that CNN-like view will be a corner-
stone of the video intelligence revolution. With
it, analysts can digest more data, connect more
dots and make more confident decisions.
That leap ahead in intelligence delivery
means driving towards consolidated, feder-
ated search that can reach across multiple
archives and databases to pull rapid, relevant
results. Those critical improvements will be
the price of admission to the video intelligence
of tomorrow.
While the challenge of this coming revo-
lution is daunting, the potential results are
astounding. Imagine the ARGUS eye in the
sky, sweeping an entire city at 15 frames a sec-
ond. With the right tools in hand, small, agile
teams of analysts could follow multiple targets
simultaneously, task sensors, alert fire teams,
and drive operations with speed, precision and

Jon Armstrong works on full motion video
programs, and Charlie Morrison is in business
development, for Lockheed Martin.
The military intel-
ligence community
has taken huge strides
forward in its efforts to achieve persistent
awareness. The proliferation of manned and
unmanned platforms and multi-source intel-
ligence sensors in space, in the air, on the
ground and at sea furnish unprecedented
volumes of data that, when processed and
analyzed in a timely and relevant manner,
provides exceptional insight into planned and
ongoing activities of adversaries and potential
And yet, the military intelligence commu-
nity struggles to fully leverage this “goldmine”
of data and produce actionable intelligence.
Data deluge, the complexity of data and the
volume at which data is presented to analysts
are among the key factors which offset many
of the advantages of new and improved collec-
tion capabilities.
Another key area challenging the com-
munity’s ability to harness the power of new
collection capabilities pertains to the mission
focus and ground concept of operations of
individual unmanned aerial systems. In the
case of a full motion video-capable UAS,
many missions focus exclusively on recon-
naissance, surveillance and target acquisition
(RSTA) requirements while other missions
are focused on ISR requirements. As repre-
sented in the attached graphics, RSTA and
ISR missions come with unique challenges.
RSTA and ISR missions require distinctly dif-
ferent analytical tools and the complexity of
tools is a fundamental concern.
In 2008, Gregory Treverton and C. Bryan
Gabbard of the Rand Corp. published a paper
entitled “Assessing the Tradecraft of Intel-
ligence Analysis,” which identified the “tool
complexity” issue head on. “Too often ana-
lysts regarded the tool-builders as in a world
of their own, building tools that analysts
could not quickly master. As one analyst from
a service intelligence organization put it,
‘Analysts are imprisoned not by organizations
or sources but, rather, by tools,’” Treverton
and Gabbard observed.
Military acquisition organizations and
technology providers should consider this
observation seriously and begin addressing
the challenge by collaborating to devise ways
and means to be more effective in field-
ing analytical tools that can adaptively and
more effectively work in both RSTA and ISR
environments. Improved interoperability, life
cycle cost reductions, improved efficiency,
more relevant and robust analytical products
and reduced analyst stress would be but a few
of the benefits derived from fielding adaptive
and flexible RSTA/ISR analytical tools.
A roundtable discussion on this topic
could begin the process in the community to
bring more effective RSTA/ISR tools and tech-
niques into the field that will benefit the men
and women in our military that so greatly
deserve the benefit of improved intelligence

Jim P. Dolan is senior vice president
of strategic initiatives for Textron Systems













Bringing Effective Analysis to the Field
Jim Dolan
“The ability to col-
lect, communicate,
process and protect
information is the most important factor
defining military power,” writes Brian D.
Berkowitz in The New Face of War: How War
Will Be Fought in the 21st Century. “Infor-
mation technology is so important in war
today that it overwhelms everything else.”
We are at a distinctive tipping point in
the development of high-technology revolu-
tions in ISR. We find ourselves at the inter-
section of the incorporation of navigation
and electronic warfare.
This is happening alongside exponential
Tipping Point in ISR












Leah Wood
www.GIF-kmi.com32 | GIF 8.6
Contact Editor Harrison Donnelly at
For more information related to this subject, search our archives at
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to announce new products
and capabilities and the Show
Daily is the perfect tool to drive
business to your booth.
advances in technologies using remotely
piloted aircraft and sensors that provide, for
all practical purposes, constant observation
and video capture of activities and events of
actors on the ground—without the knowl-
edge they are being observed or their actions
recorded. The electro-optical/infrared sensors
on many UAVs are unparalleled at acquiring
high-quality motion video. These UAVs can
operate at high or low altitudes, where there
is a smaller amount of atmospheric haze, a
smaller focal-length and smaller stabilization
requirements. And sensor technology contin-
ues to improve.
The leapfrog advancements made in
satellite communications and ground con-
trol stations with live communication links
contribute to the explosive growth in the
unmatched effectiveness of unmanned aerial
systems (UAS). The UASs of today include
platforms with continually advancing elec-
tro-optical and infrared sensor capabilities,
capturing multiple motion imagery streams
that enable effective IED searches, better
pattern-of-life analysis, and improved “over
the hill” (mountain) vision.
In extreme cases, when equipped with
munitions, these sensors enable the kill with
greater precision from farther away than ever
conceived before UAVs existed.
While the technology in the ISR industry
is quickly evolving, the mission remains the
same: to provide the fullest possible com-
prehension of adversarial activities to the
commanding officers. The new UAVs have the
range and endurance to provide this unre-
lenting overview of the battlefield and are
flexible enough for dynamic mission tasking.
The elevated costs of these new tech-
nologies for use within ISR missions are
being embraced as our global military and
citizens balance our cultural requirements
of supporting the costs of these new war-
fare tools with tacit expectation of fewer
casualties and quick (or quicker) mission
successes. Militaries and governments bol-
ster our collective reliance on this highest
technology capability with their atten-
tive coalition strategies and coordinated
advocation of advancing requirements for
this new era of remotely piloted aircraft
and the unrelenting, watchful eye of the
onboard sensors that empower successful

Leah Wood is defense and intelligence
industry manager for Intergraph. GIF 8.6 | 33
Regarded throughout the
Department of Defense and
the Intelligence Community
as the industry leader

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Cover &
Special feature in the upcoming October issue of Geospatial Intelligence Forum
Coming in October 2010
September 13-15, 2010
Air and Space Conference
National Harbor, Md.
September 22, 2010
Location Information Geocloud 2010
Washington, D.C.
September 28-30, 2010
Modern Day Marine
Quantico, Va.
September 28-30, 2010
Geospatial Intelligence Summit
Vienna, Austria
October 25-27, 2010
AUSA Annual Meeting and Exposition
Washington, D.C.
November 1-4, 2010
GEOINT Symposium 2010
New Orleans, La.
November 16-17, 2010
Rocket City Geospatial Conference
Huntsville, Ala.
The advertisers index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.
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ITT Visual Information Solutions
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Northrop Grumman
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Q: Can you tell readers about your company
and what it has to offer?
A: Northrop Grumman is a leading ISR com-
pany. For years, we have made and continue to
make strategic investments across the ISR spec-
trum. This includes significant investments in
ISR and GEOINT sensors, collection, process-
ing, exploitation, dissemination and analysis.
With over 30 years of experience and long-
standing customer relationships in the ISR
and GEOINT domains, we believe we truly
understand where these two communities are
headed and the synergistic benefits that can be
derived by integrating proven capabilities from
both. We rely on our experience and customer
relationships to help determine what invest-
ments we need to make to continue to align
ourselves with our customers’ ever-changing
mission requirements.
Northrop Grumman is investing in what
we call GEOINT enterprise-on-demand—a
collection of systems, products and services
designed to demonstrate how our capabilities
can support our customers throughout the
entire tasking, collection, processing, exploi-
tation and dissemination [TCPED] process.
TCPED is no longer a linear process, and the
cyclical nature of the process is being re-defined
every day. Northrop Grumman’s understanding
of our customers’ missions is key to ensuring
that our products and services stay ahead of our
customers’ requirements.
Examples of some of Northrop Grumman’s
specific investments include multi-band syn-
thetic aperture radar [MB-SAR], a premier
software-defined, modular SAR solution that
provides the wide area surveillance, route
reconnaissance, and 3-D imaging that the
warfighter needs now. Another investment is in
our light detection and ranging [LiDAR] capabil-
ities, including our LiDAR center of excellence
that opened in Slidell, La., in November 2009.
We have also invested significant resources in
complete line of photogrammetric services, GIS
services, visualization and analysis.
Q: What makes your company different from
the others?
A: Northrop Grumman is a leading provider
of end-to-end geospatial systems, products
and services. From strategic to tactical, our
capabilities span collection, processing, large-
scale data management, analysis and exploita-
tion, and dissemination and provisioning. This
uniquely positions us to rapidly respond to our
customers’ unique and ever-changing require-
As previously stated, our company has
more than 30 years of experience providing
geospatial products and services to the GEOINT
community. With this experience comes an
unparalleled understanding of our customers’
missions, from strategic to tactical. We have
developed a full spectrum of geospatial prod-
ucts and services that enable us to provide the
right product or service to the right customer
at the right time.
Through the technology investments, mar-
ket assessments and acquisitions we have made
over the years, we have developed the capability
to support the full TCPED spectrum.
Q: What are you doing currently for the mili-
tary/intelligence communities?
A: A significant portion of Northrop Grumman’s
GEOINT business is in the military and intelli-
gence communities. As mentioned earlier, one
example of a GEOINT system we provide to the
military community is MB-SAR. MB-SAR is a
software-defined, multi-band, high resolution
airborne SAR system that offers maximum
mission flexibility and outstanding collection
MB-SAR’s high speed analog-to-digital and
digital-to-analog converters, along with an on-
board processor [HERO OBP] and a field pro-
grammable gate array SAR image formation
processing system, allows for maximum mis-
sion flexibility and near real-time image gen-
eration for a variety of mission applications.
Other examples of support to the military
community include the development, inte-
gration and fielding of the Combat Terrain
Information System for the Army and the Top-
ographic Production Capability for the Marine
Corps. Northrop Grumman is also the prime
contractor for the Army’s Distributed Common
Ground System, one of the Army’s premier ISR
Northrop Grumman also provides sig-
nificant GEOINT support to the National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Examples of
current programs include the NGA Expedition-
ary Architecture, Commercial Joint Mapping
Toolkit, Global Geospatial Intelligence, and
Learning Management Services. We were also
recently awarded the Total Application Ser-
vices for Enterprise Requirements contract, on
which we will continue to provide systems and
services to NGA in the coming years.
We have deep knowledge of both the mili-
tary and intelligence communities, which is
critical to developing and integrating GEOINT
technologies that enable the warfighter to com-
plete their missions. Through our extensive
partnerships with our customers, Northrop
Grumman understands the ever-changing bat-
tlefield and we provide mission-effective tools,
including the most technologically advanced
GEOINT capabilities, to ensure mission suc-
Q: What are you planning to do for the
A: Northrop Grumman continues to invest
in technologies to enhance our GEOINT and
ISR capabilities. These include full motion
video and analytic tools to take advantage of
new sensors that are coming online. We are
also making a significant investment in multi-
INT technology, making the ISR picture truly
Today, GEOINT, multi-INT, and ISR are
synonymous. Northrop Grumman is making
investments throughout the company to fur-
ther our capabilities in these areas, and make
them adaptable to our customers’ evolving
GEOINT provides the foundation for ISR
and it forms the organizing construct for
layered intelligence. Each of the technology
investments that we make enhances the overall
ISR picture.

John Olesak
Vice President
Integrated Intelligence
Northrop Grumman Information Systems
www.GIF-kmi.com36 | GIF 8.6
November 1 - 4, 2010 • Ernest N. Morial Convention Center • New Orleans, Louisiana
Where Our National Security Begins…
Not a Member? Join Today to Save on Registration & Exhibit Space!
John C. (Chris) Inglis
Deputy Director, National Security Agency
Gen. Bruce Carlson, U.S. Air Force (Ret.)
Director, National Reconnaissance Office
LTG Ronald L. Burgess Jr., U.S. Army
Director, Defense Intelligence Agency
The Honorable James R. Clapper Jr.
Director of National Intelligence
Lt. Gen. John C. Koziol, U.S. Air Force
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Intelligence)
for Joint and Coalition Warfighter Support;
Director of the Department of Defense, Intelligence,
Surveillance and Reconnaissance Task Force
Letitia Long
Director, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Kevin P. Meiners
Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense
for Portfolio, Programs & Resources
Cheryl Roby
Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for
Networks and Information Integration;
and DoD Chief Information Officer
Dawn Meyerriecks
Deputy Director of National Intelligence
for Acquisition and Technology
at Generations Hall
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With 30 years of geospatial experience, we’ve done more
than just map the surface.
Northrop Grumman has partnered with our customers
to provide industry-leading geospatial technology,
services, and products for over 30 years. Our experience
has enabled us to develop end-to-end geospatial
offerings enabling rapid response to customers’ unique
and ever-changing requirements. Northrop Grumman
supports the Department of Defense, Intelligence
Community, Department of Homeland Security and
civilian agencies with our innovative technologies
and high-quality services to assure the protection of
our nation’s military, borders, and citizens.

©2010 Northrop Grumman Corporation