BIOINFORMATICS AND DNA SEQUENCINGx - Harlem ...

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2 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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THE BIOINFORMATIC APPROACH TO BREAST CANCER





















By: Donte Bland

INTRODUCTION



Bioinformatics is

a computer application that is used to store, sequence, and analyze


molecular data.
It allows you to
store and analyze millions of bases
. It is a gr
and
innovation in


genomics research. It simplifies the process

of

locating genetic codes, therefore,

resulting in a


quicker understanding of the responsibility of
each one.

It can be used to assign functions to


genes and can lead to the discovery of others.

The primary goal of bioinformatics is

to


increase our understanding of biological
processes.
” while making it easier

in the process.





NCBI





The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a pioneer in bioinformatics


and genomic research.
NCBI creates tools for genome analysis, all in an attempt to gain a


better understanding

of

molecular processes

and its effects on disease.

NCBI’s mission is to


gain a
clearer

understanding of

the

molecular processes that control health
;
with this, scientists

can formulate cures to many diseases that plague
animals

of all kind
s

and prevent them from


developing.

Biotechnological information is collected worldwide, and this information is used


for constructing computer based processing

methods that analyze molecules.




PubMed is a search system used by NCBI in order to locate stored
genetic sequences.


PubMed
contains citations of published work
s

of “biomedical literature”

written and posted by


scientists who conduct medical research.
The results of the research conducted by these


scientists can be reflected on and referred to when NCBI needs to conduct research of their


own.



The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)
enables the search of nucleotide and


protein databases.

It stores amino acid and nucleotide sequences of many living organisms.
It


also

enables you to make a comparison between the sequences of similar genes of different


species
. This method of ge
netic comparison is used in the efforts to cure many diseases.

Diseases are caused by mutations in the genetic code. Now if a human disease

is

caused by

the


mutation of a

specific
gene
, and the exact

same

gene

exists in another species, then that


sp
ecies can be used

to run tests

and controlled experiments on. BLAST simplifies the process of


finding which species of animal are most similar to certain sections of the human genetic
code
.




Online Mendelian Inheritan
ce in Man

(OMIM)

is a database that contains diseases


associated with human genetics and inheritance.
It is in possession of every
Mendelian

(being


of or in relation to genetics) disease known to date,
as it is updated on a daily basi
s. This online


database is used by scientists and physicians interested in conducting research in any genetic


disorder.



NCBI also allows you to create 3D structures of protein folding;

so you not only
find out


what
a protein is

responsible for, you can

also

see w
hat it look
s

like.



BREAST CANCER


Cancer occurs when the body’s natural regulators fail to control cell longevity.

This


results in an unbalancing in cell production and cell death.

Eventually, the uncontrolled cell


growth will
lead to a mass production of tissue and a tumor will form
.

I
f the tumor is b
enign,


then it is not cancerous; but

if it becomes mali
gnant, then that signals that the person has


developed cancer
.

When malignant tumors form in the breast, then breast cancer develops.




THE BRCA GENES


The
Breast Cancer
1

gene (BRCA1) is a gene need
ed

to develop breast cancer.
Its


purpose is to

suppress cell growth, aid in DNA repair,
regulate cell cycles, and

stabilize

genetic



information.

Mutations in this gene can lead to breast, ovarian, prostate and other types of


cancer.

Mutations to this

gene can be caused by natural or medical radiations, environmental


exposures, or while interacting with other c
hromosomes.



The Breast Cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene is also needed to develop breast cancer; breast


cancer only develops with a mutation in both this gene and

the

BRCA1

gene
. This gene basically


have

the same function
s and

effects,
in an event of

a

mutation
,

as BRCA1.


THE HER FAMILY




The Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
-
2 (HER2) protein can lead to the


development of breast cancer. Its purpose is to control cell growth; but over
-
expression of this


protein
can

lead to a rapid growth in cancer cells, and the development of HER
-
2 positive breast


cancer.



The Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
-
4 (HER4) protein is a controversial


subj
ect in the development of breast cancer, as its role
is

inconclusive. Th
ere have been many


studies in HER4’s relation to breast cancer; some studies conclude that it makes it more severe,


and others conclude that
it hinders the effects of the mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.



BLAST


We used the BLAST application on the NCBI website to compare the human BRCA1 and BRCA2


gene
s to those of other species in order to see which ones matched the closest.


Equus Caballus (Horse)








Pan Troglodytes (Chimpanzee)



Bos Taurus (Cattle)



Sus Scrofa (Pig)



This method has been used in the past by scientists in search of a cure for breast cancer. They


succeeded in

curing the

disease in

mice, but when the same procedures were

tested

on


humans they had no effect
.



Conclusion



My partner and I weren’t able to look into curing breast cancer, as we had limited time


to research the subject. Our goal was to gain as much background information as possible

and


familiarize ourselves with the BLAST process for future research. Bio
informatics is a tool that


can be used to greatly expand the
already vast
borders of genomics research. We already


understand more about the molecular activity and its effect on humans and animals alike
,

and


expect to learn much more in the future.


































REFERENCES


gatech.edu

wikipedia.org



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