ES Chapter 4 Questions -


27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Amara Le

APES Chap. 4




The attempt to clean up pollution by enhancing natural processes of bio
degradation by
living organisms


mitigating pollutant concentration in substances to contain contaminates and their
derivatives for the media that contain them


the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation



TABLE nuclei which decay over time into STABLE nuclei that are not radioactive

O^3 a molec
ule with three atoms of oxygen;
absorbs ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere that
is produced by photosynthesis


a range of numbers used to describe how
acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to
14 (most basic)


chains made up of organic compound of repeated molecules; play key roles for building
blocks of life

the process by which bacteria in hydrothermal vents

use the chemical energy of
hydrogen sulfide (H^2S) to transform inorganic carbon into organic compounds


the impression that remains from an animal or plant from past geological ages that have been
preserved in rocks or sediments

Testing your

4. Describe the two major forms of energy, and give examples of each.

The two
major types of energy are kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy is energy in motion.
Potential energy is energy that is not in motion, but in position. For
an example, if a ball is on field then
it has potential energy because it has a position, but it is not moving. When the ball is kicked, it has
kinetic energy because it has motion.

5. State the first law of thermodynamics, and describe some of its implica

The first

law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change
form. The total energy in the universe is conserved therefore meaning that the amount of energy is
Examples include that if we eat food,

then the energy the food gives us will be converted
(chemical energy) through the use of our bodies such as heat or to perform daily tasks.

6. What is the second law of thermodynamics, and how might it affect our interactions with the

The sec
ond law of thermodynamics states the nature of energy will change from a more
ordered state
to a less
ordered state if no force counteracts. It can affect interactions with the environment such as
llowing some of the input energy to escape from the

system because

it cannot be
For an example, when an organism starts to decompose after death, it loses its structure.

7. Describe the two major sources of energy that power Earth’s environmental systems.

Light energy and geothermal energy are t
he two major energy sources for Earth’s systems. Light energy
comes from the sun’s radiation. The energy is mostly reflected, but it can also be absorbed or re
emitted. The energy powers climate
, plant growth, how organisms can plants and later decompose,

and how
energy can decompose in chemical bonds
in fossil fuels.

It also powers photosynthesis.
Geothermal energy is using heat from inside the planet for commercial power.

8. What substances

are produced by photosynthesis?

In photosynthesis, which is the process of turning light energy to chemical energy,
water carbon dioxide
and light energy are produced into sugar and oxygen.

Compare and contrast three competing hypotheses for the origin of life.

The hypothesis o
f heter

explains how inorganic chemicals dissolved in the ocean’s surface
waters. This then formed organic compounds that could replicate themselves.
Contrasting this idea, the
panspermia hypothesis states microbes on meteorites crashed into Earth to prov
ide us living
fundamentals. This is like the heterotrophic hypothesis because they both state fundamentals end up on
Earth. Finally, the chemoautotrophic hypothesis
proposes that life formed in the sulfur
sea hydrothermal vents. These organi
sms are named chemoautotrophs that create their food from
hydrogen sulfide. This hypothesis is very much alike the former because they both relate to organisms
developing in water.

10. Name three things scientists have learned from the fossil record.

The cumulative body of fossils worldwide is the fossil record. Scientists have learned that for most of
life’s history, only microbes were the only life on Earth. Scientists also learned that many organisms in
the past are more simple and smaller than mode
rn organisms, and that there have been several
occurrences of mass extinction.

Seeking Solutions:


When gasoline is burned in a car, only 16% of the energy is released to actually power the car,

the rest of the energy is converted into

heat. An
other example is how light bulbs use about 5%
of their energy toward light, with the remaining for heat.

Finally, a gas turbine
has the energy efficiency
of 40%.

5. If carbon dioxide

is increasing, then there will be more oxygen in the atmosphere because
photosynthesis turns carbon into oxygen. On the other hand, if there is also increasing amounts of
carbon dioxide, then there
might be a decrease of oxygen released into the atmosphere because of
respiration. Respiration is when organisms use the chemical
energy by photosynthesis and use oxygen
to convert glucose into water and carbon. To determine which outcome will occur, you need to know
there are a large amount of organisms that would put respiration into effect.

6. To get the site cleaned up, I wou
ld divide my team into research groups and advocating groups.
Research groups would find out what phytoremediation and bioremediation methods could be used by
engaging with experts and holding further research. Several different experiments could be conduc
within the first three years, then conduct the best method for the remaining years. The advocating
groups would lobby officials to promote the job and receive more money. Economic questions: How will
the money be divided? Can there be more money receiv
ed through publicity/donations? Engineering
options to consider would be how efficient the method would be using plants and how long it would
take to extract contaminates. Also, would the methods need to be placed and have already extracted by
five years?
For the first several years? Or is this a permanent solution?

Interpreting Graphs and Data


Prior to phytoremediation, the levels of zinc were 2,95
0 mg/kg

soil. Cadmium was at a level
19 mg/ kg
soil. After one year, th

level of zinc slightly decreased t
2,750 mg/ kg soil and
cadmium decreased to 11 mg/ kg soil.


Phytoremediation removed approximately 200 mg Zn/kg soil and removed 8 mg Cd/kg soil. To
remove zinc at a rate of 200 mg Zn/kg soil per year it would take 14.8 years. Removing cadmium
at a rate o
f 8 mg Cd/kg soil per year would take 2.4 years.




be the fact that
the metal would be more intermixed with
the plant’s soil and water. If it is intermixed, it will take a lot a longer rate to extract from the soil
and a much
more difficult process.

Calculating Ecological Footprints:


100% P, 0% A= 730,000 C/year

90% P, 10% A= 1,387,000 C/year

50% P, 50 % A=4,015,000 C/year

0% P, 100% A=7,300,000 C/year


A strictly animal diet is 10 times the amount of ecological impact compared

to a strictly
vegetarian diet. There are 1,800 additional calories consumed with a 10% animal diet per day.


My diet is 35% animal and 65% plant.

This means I consume 7,300 more calories (on an
ecological impact case) than a strictly vegetarian diet per da
y and 2,299,500 more calories per


Some challenges include finding the land for agriculture, and since many developing countries
are becoming more protein
diet driven, there is also a challenge for finding the land to raise
animals. This interrelates

because there needs to be land for crops and land for animals, but the
world has already converted half of its land for agricultural purposes.

Case Study:

Yes, the Gulf of Mexico is a greater oil spill than the Exxon Valdez because the efforts made to

clean it
up was simply by intermixing oil and water, making it near impossible to extract.