Eco Writers End-of-Cycle Exam Study Guide March 12, 2012

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1

Name ___________________________
__________________


Period ______________


Eco Writers

End
-
of
-
Cycle Exam

Study Guide

March 12
th
, 2012


1.

Which law regulates air pollution? Which law regulates water pollution?
Which
law protects endangered species?

Water pollution:

The Clean Water Act


regulates pollution that can be
released into bodies of water, requires states to assess water quality, a
nd
come up with management plans for polluted waters



Air pollution?

The clean air act


regulates emssions



Endangered species?

Protects Endangered species from hunting or habaitat
degradation.



2.

Define the following terms related to species interactions.


Competition

-
/
-

Mutualism

+/+

Parasitism

+/
-

Predation

+/
-

Commensalism

0/+


3.

Why are trees important to an ecosystem, even after they have fallen?

Provide a habitat for

wildlife, and decompose, releasing nutrients into the soil.






4.

How does the second law of thermodynamics relate to energy moving up trophic
levels?

The second law of thermodynamics says that potential energy decreases as
energy is transferred between s
ystems. This means that as energy is transferred
from one organism to another (i.e. a primary producer to an herbivore),
potential energy decreases or is lost to respiration and waste.


2








5.

Using the food web above, w
hat directly
results from removing a primary
consumer, such as a deer or moose from the ecosystem?


The wolf population will decrease significantly or collapse.





6.

Fill in the trophic levels for a temperate deciduous forest. Use the following
organisms: Spider,
grasshopper, Deer, Bear, Snake, Hawk, Mouse, Tree, Flower,
Grass, Mountain Lion, small birds
, coyote

Tertiary Consumers

Bear, Mountain Lion, Hawk


Secondary Consumers

Spider, Coyote, Snake


Primary Consumers

Deer, Mouse, small birds


Primary Producers

Grass, Tree, Flower



7.

Which

of the following biome

has the
highest

net primary productivity
?

Tropical Rainforest


8.

In photosynthesis, during light reactions, what do plants take in? What do they
give off?
What do organisms (or plants during dark reactions) give off?


3


Plants take in
_____
CO
2
___ and give off _____
O
2
____ during light reactions of
photosynthesis.

When organisms like humans and bacteria respirate they take in ____
O
2
______
and give off ____
CO
2
_____.

9.

Which
biome has the
lowest
net primary productivity, and therefore would be
most impacted by degradation of primary producers?


Tundra

10.

The net annual primary productivity of a particular
sa
vanna ecosystem is found
to be 5
,000 kcal/m
2

per year. If respiration by the producers is
4,500

kcal/m
2

per year, what is the gross annual primary productivity for this ecosystem, in
kcal/m
2

per year?

Net primary productivity = gross primary productivity
-

respiration

5,000 kcal/m
2

= x
-
4,500 kcal/m
2

+4,5000


+4,500


x=9,500 kcal/m
2



11.

Tropical Rainforests tend to be the most deforested biome in the world. What
are 2 things that will happen to the soil in a rainforest if you remove all the
trees?

1)

soil would be quickly depleted of nutrients



2)

soil erosion



12.

Traveling
from the northpole to the equator, what happens to the mean
temperature? What happens to the mean precipitation? Why?

Temperature

it increases


Precipitation

it increases


13.

Give 3 examples of abiotic components and 3 examples of biotic components
that are affected by abiotic components in an ecosystem?

Abiotic

Biotic

1)

nutrients (C,N,P,S..etc)


2)

water


3)

soil


1)

Plants


2)

Animals


3)

Bacteria, Fungus


4


14.

What is

gross primary
productivity (GPP)
?
What is net primary productivity
(NPP)?
How are they related?

NPP=
the total after the amount of E required for respiration is expended from the
gross primary productivity


GPP=
The total biomass produced from converting l
ight energy into chemical energy
in the form of glucose



Relation:

NPP=GPP
-
Respiration



15.

What is an Ecosystem service? Name 3 examples of ecosystem services?

An Ecosystem service something that is provided by an ecosystem to humans.

1)

bats eating
misquitos



2)

flood control



3)
oxygen provided through photosynthesis by primary producers



16.

What is the primary
cause of

deforestation in the tropical rainforests of the
Amazon

basin
?

Cattle Ranching


17.

How do trees control the flow of water during rainstorms?

They have roots that hold them in place and force the water to move around
them.





18.

A farmer uses nitrogen fertilizer to increase crop yields. Run off from irrigating
crops brings nitrogen to st
reams and rivers.
Eutrophication begins.
What is
likely to happen next?

Algal blooms will form on the surface, preventing sunlight from reaching
bottom plants, and causing them to decompose. The decomposition will
increase the Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) needed by decomposers and
plant respiration and deplete the water of
oxygen.




5

The f
ollowing questions refer to
qualities of water samples. Write the letter for the
correct answer in the blank
s for numbers 19 through 23
. An answer may be used

once,
more than once
, or not at all
.


A.

Acidity

B.

Turbidity

C.

Hardness

D.

Dissolved oxygen

E.

Salinity


19.

Measured on the pH scale

____
A
____


20.

Caused by suspended particulates

___
B
___


21.

Measured by the amount of Ca
2+

and Mg
2+

____
C
____


22.

What are 2 characteristics of a population that would accelerate its extinction?

Limited distribution area and
being the top specialist at the top of a long food
chain.

23.

Logging occurs, polluting the local stream. What is the most likely
result of an
increase in pollution (increase in decomposition) in the stream?


Increased water temperature





24.

Which
of the abov
e park layouts has the least forest fragmentation? How will
this affect the biotic organisms that live in the forest?


B has the least habitat fragmentation and this will increase edge effects and
disturbances like predation and disease.


6

25.

Rank the followi
ng forestry practices in order from most sustainable to least
sustainable: Selective cutting, clear cutting, strip cutting.

Selective Cutting


Most sustainable =1

Clear Cutting

2

Strip Cutting

3


26.

Match the following terms with their definitions.

i.

National parks

ii.

National wildlife refuges

iii.

National forests

iv.

National wilderness preservation areas

v.

National resource lands


A.

Wilderness, scenic view and unusual landforms that have distinct boundaries,
and are preserved for the enjoyment of the US public __
i
_
_

B.

Areas that are set aside for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife, such as the
endangered Marbled Murrelet. ___
ii
__

C.

Publically owned lands usually formed within national forests or rangelands,
which limit human use to preserve the ecosystem, by
prohibiting logging, mining
or construction of roads. __
iv
__

D.

Along with National Rangelands (for grazing) these areas are managed by the
National Forest Service, these are section of land dominated by woody plants
wi
thin Publically owned lands. __
iii
____

E.

T
hese areas of land are managed by the bureau of land, which are set aside
for resources accessed by the public. Publically owned oil rigs are an example
of this type of land. _
v
__


27.

What are 3

major goal of the program begun in 1995 to reintroduce the gray
wolf into Yellowstone National Park
? (related to the endangered species list, the
bison population and ecosystem balance/predator prey relationships)

1)


To remove the gray wolf from the enda
ngered species list



2)

to manage the bison population


3)

To balance the ecosystem, and the food chain by reintroducing an important
predator



28.

List 4
ADVANTAGES
of maintaining the biodiversity of an ecosystem
:


7

1)

It maintains unique ecosystems for recreational or aesthetic purposes


2)

It ensures access to potential new medications in healthy ecosystems

3)

It ensures food security by maintaining a diversity of plant species

4)

It promotes healthy wildlife populations by maintaining genetic diversity




29.

What is an example of wetland mitigation? Why is wetland mitigation
complicated?

An example of wetland mitigation is building an apartment complex on top of
a wetland and then
building a wetland along a highway on unused land.
The
disadvantage to this is that building where there is supposed to be a wetland,
can lead to pest problems and land saturation problems. The problem with
building a wetland where there was never a wetlan
d is that trying to create
an ecosystem where one does not exist originally involves a lot of
components that have to be synthetically implemented, and can be easily
miscalculated.




30.

What is reclamation? What is an example of reclamation of a heavily mined area?


Reclamation is extreme restoration or at least partial restoration efforts by
chemically and/or physically manipulating the land after a site is badly damaged
from mining or
hazardous waste.





31.

Explain how Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate, phosphate could be used to identify whether
a water system is contaminated.

If dissolved oxygen levels are low, that may indicate that BOD is high due to
increased decomposition of sewage or agricultural runoff, or runoff from cattle farms.
If nitrate levels and phosphate levels are high that might also indicate the present of
agr
icultural or sewage run off.

32.

Fill in the chart for what types of
water tests, and what they tell you about the water
quality/why is it important?


Test

What it tells your about the water
quality


8


Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen is necessary for fish
o
r other organisms that respire a live.
High levels of dissolved oxygen is

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)


Fecal Coliform bacteria


Nitrate (NO
3
)


Phosphate (PO
4
)


Temperature


pH


Turbidity


Water Hardness


33.

Explain how water quality changes at
different parts of a stream? Why?

Upstream






Midstream






Downstream