Biophysics examination topics
First law of thermodynamics
Application of Hess law in determination of the energy balance in living systems
. Energetic balance of living organism
Second law of thermodynamics
Biomembranes. Structure, properties.
Fluid mosaic model.
ough the cell
. Simple diffusion.
Fick’s Laws of diffusion
. Endocytosis and
echanisms of pasive and active transport through the membranes
pressure of blood plasma
. Active transport
lectrical properties of biomembranes
Propagation of the active
potential in nerve cells
. Electrical and chemical synapses.Measuring biopotentials: EEG, EMG,
The eye and vision
medical optics. Structure of the eye.
Optical defects and their correction
The ear and hearing
Structure and function of the ear
Transmision and measurement of sound
. Sound intensity, pressure and loudness.
intensity and ear‘s response
Defects of hearing
. Audiograms. Hearing aids.
Doppler Effect and applications
Optic fibers and lasers
. Total internal reflection in optic fiber. Applications
stimulated emission. Lasers in m
Ionizing radiation. Radioactivity. Dosimetry. X
rays production. Basics of classical radiography.
Examples of questions:
The basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Represents the income energy from the food / day.
Represent the maintenance
expenditure of energy i ncluding beating of the heart, breathing, digestion and
BMR i ncrease with age and sex.
Represent the energy l ost by conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation (perspiration).
The penetrati on of a ti ssues wi th respect to
nucl ear radi ati on
a) i s i ndependent on the type of radi ati on.
b) Is greater for beta parti cl es then al pha parti cl es.
c) Penetrati on of gamma rays i s consi derabl y l ess then al pha and beta because of l ow i oni si ng rate.
ration i s rel evant onl y for gamma rays.