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December 2011

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES

ROADMAP STUDY


FOR


THE DEPARTMENT OF INNOVATION,

INDUSTRY, SCIENCE & RESEARCH


FINAL DRAFT








Enabling Technologies Roadmap Study

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TABLE OF
CONTENTS

1.0

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1

1.1.

Key Findings and Considerations

3

2.0

INTRODUCTION

6

3.0

KEY TRENDS AND DRIVE
RS

9

3.1.

Globalisation

9

3.2.

Energy and the Environment

9

3.3.

Resource Efficiency and Waste Management

10

3.4.

Ag
eing Population

10

3.5.

Changing Consumer Needs

11

4.0

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIE
S SUMMARY TABLE

12

5.0

NANOTECHNOLOGY

15

5.1.

Nanotechnology Global Market Overview

16

5.2.

Nanotechnology Analysis

19

5.3.

Drivers

22

5.4.

Opportunities

23

5.5.

Barriers

26

5.6.

Risks

30

5.7.

Disruptive Potential

32

5.8.

Nanotools and Platforms

33

5.9.

Manufactured Nanomaterials and Components

38

5.10.

Nanodevices and Systems

48

6.0

BIOTECHNOLOGY

55

6.1.

Biotechnology Global Market Overview

56

6.2.

Drivers

58

6.3.

Opportunities

59

6.4.

Barriers

60






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6.5.

Risks

61

6.6.

Disruptive Potential

62

6.7.

Emerging Biotechnology Techniques

63

6.8.

Biotechnology Applicat
ions

70

7.0

SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

94

7.1.

Synthetic Biology Global Market Overview

95

7.2.

Drivers

97

7.3.

Opportunities

98

7.4.

Barriers

99

7.5.

Risks

102

7.6.

Disruptive Potential

107

7.7.

Synthetic Biology Applications

108

8.0

CONTRIBUTION TO ADDR
ESSING AUSTRALIA’S M
AJOR NATIONAL CHALLE
NGES

119

8.1.

Mining Boom

119

8.2.

Climate Change

122

8.3.

Increasing Demand for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

125

8.4.

Sustainable Use of Natura
l Resources

133

8.5.

Ageing of the Population and Health

135

8.6.

Food Security

145

8.7.

Biosecurity

149

8.8.

Global Competitiveness and Productivity of Australian Industry

150

8.9.

National D
efence and Security

155

8.10.

Summary

160

9.0

INFLUENCES AFFECTING

THE ADOPTION OF ENAB
LING TECHNOLOGIES

166

9.1.

Challenges in the Uptake of Enabling Technologies in Australia

166

9.2.

Market
-
pull Commercialisation

167

9.3.

Absorptive Capacity

167

9.4.

Government Support for Research and Enabling Technologies

168






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9.5.

Convergence of Technologies

169

9.6.

Collaboration between Research and Industry Sectors

171

9.7.

Incremental, Radical and Tran
sformational Innovation

171

9.8.

Product Innovation versus Market Innovation

172

9.9.

Knowledge of Enabling Technologies

173

9.10.

Regulatory Environment

173

9.11.

Intellectual Property Rights

175

9.12.

Ethical Considerations

180

10.0

LIST OF ACRONYMS

184

11.0

REFERENCE LIST

186




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1.0

EXECUT
IVE SUMMARY

In the next ten to twenty years, the bio
-

and nano
-

enabling technologies, converging with
information technologies and cognitive science, will have a significant impact on society,
industry and the consumer, both in Australia and globally. The

enabling technologies of
nanotechnology, biotechnology and synthetic biology, which is a form of advanced
biotechnology, are the subject of this enabling technologies roadmap (ETRM)

study
. They have
the potential to revolutionise science, health, energy,
resources, the environment, consumer
products and manufacturing processes. Many of the global challenges being faced could
potentially be resolved through harnessing the outputs of these enabling technologies, and
through successful translation and commerc
ialisation of new products, services and systems.
However, enabling technologies also raise specific challenges themselves which must be
identified and addressed as these technologies become more readily available.

The National Enabling Technology Strategy

(NETS) was established in 2009 to
provide a
framework

to support the responsible development of enabling technologies
. Under the
Strategy, an Expert Forum was established with the responsibility to undertake foresighting
activities to identify ways in whi
ch the enabling technologies might contribute to addressing
major global and national challenges, and support the development of appropriate policy and
regulatory frameworks.

This report, carried out under the auspices o
f the Expert Forum, outlines a roadm
ap
that
provides a view into the future of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies and synthetic biology,
including areas of convergence, and provides readers with insights into the development of new
applications that are informing future strategies, products,
markets and investment
opportunities. These three types of enabling technologies have been selected as they are
considered fundamental to a wide range of research and development (R&D) across a wide
number of areas. New applications arising from these enab
ling technologies are expected to
emerge as a result of advancement in these areas.

The technologies and their applications are described in terms of their development at horizon 1
(already being commercialised), horizon 2 (lab bench) and horizon 3 (blue
sky), with an
emphasis on horizon 2 and horizon 3 developments.

Th
e

ETRM is supported by information and data on each of the enabling technology areas
including drivers, opportunities, risks, barriers, challenges and their disruptive potential.
Disruptive
potential refers to impact of the new technologies on existing manufacturing


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processes, systems, industries and markets. The report then proceeds to discuss factors
influencing the adoption of enabling technologies and their potential to address major nati
onal
challenges.

Nanotechnology,

involves the manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale

(1nm to 100nm)
.

The ISO (TS27687
/TS80004
-
2
) defines nanotechnology as ‘the application of scientific
knowledge to manipulate and control matter in the
nanoscale

in
order to make use of size
-

and
structure
-
dependent properties and phenomena, as distinct from those associated with
individual atoms or molecules or with bulk materials.
It is a multidisciplinary field encompassing
biology, chemistry, physics and engineeri
ng. Nanotechnology researchers are focusing on a
range of issues to improve the performance, multi
-
functionality, integration, and sustainability of
a range of nanotechnologies in a variety of emerging and converging applications. This will
result in a sui
te of new manufactured nanomaterials

(
material with any external dimension in the
nanoscale or having internal structure or surface structure in the nanoscale)
, nanodevices and
nanosystems with unprecedented properties and functionality. Research, particul
arly on
manufactured nanomaterials

(
intentionally produced for commercial purposes to have specific
properties or specific composition)

has shown the potential to have a widespread impact in
health, information, energy and many other fields. However, there

are many factors to be
considered and challenges to be overcome in adopting nanotechnologies which are highlighted
in this study.

Biotechnology

is defined as the application of science and technology to living organisms and
products of living organisms,
to produce knowledge, goods and services. In the next decade,
advancements in biotechnology are expected to achieve significant advances in genomic
information and genetic engineering, new developments in therapeutics and personalised
medicine, increased y
ield of plant and animal foods, and the development of a number of
biological based products such as bioplastics, biocatalysts and advanced biofuels. However, the
biotechnology industry faces many barriers to success, most important of which are those that

affect the development of appropriate research and technology transfer capability, including
access to funding, skills and regulatory issues.

Synthetic biology
, an advanced form of biotechnology, is an emerging field of research that
combines elements of

biology, engineering, genetics, chemistry, and computer science.

It
converges with nanotechnology in that it involve
s

molecular engineering at the nanoscale.
Whilst the timeframes are longer than that of nanotechnology and biotechnology, the potential
pro
mise of synthetic biology is immense, including applications in:



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1.

Clean energy and biofuels

2.

Pollution control and remediation

3.

Agriculture and food

4.

Medicine and health

5.

Biosensors

While most of the outputs of synthetic biology remain in early stages of deve
lopment, some
applications are expected to come to market within a few years. However, the pace of
acceleration of synthetic biology is likely to increase dramatically in the years ahead, and is
expected to impact many products and services.


1.1.

Key Findings
and Considerations

For Australia to
have the ability to resolve major national challenges and
remain globally
competitive against advanced and emerging economies in research, scientific know
-
how and
product innovation
that
incorporat
e

enabling technologies
, it will need a clear strategy and policy
agenda to capitalise on its existing comparative advantages in these domains.
Discussions of
opportunities, risks and barriers in this paper indicate that

the development of new enabling
technology applications, t
heir translation into valuable outcomes for industry and society, and
their subsequent adoption and utilisation to address key national challenges will require close
collaboration between government
,

industry

and the broader community
. Australia possesses
world
-
class enabling technology strengths (such as world leading research organisations) with
the prospect to lead future developments and market applications.

1.1.1.

Nanotechnology

Applications derived from nanotechnologies are expected to make a significant co
ntribution to
diverse fields such as:



Water purification and treatment, which will become increasingly important in both urban
areas, agriculture and mining, particularly as a result of the impact of climate change



Health care, involving applications in me
dicine, dentistry, pharmaceuticals and
diagnostics



Energy efficiency and clean energy technologies, including improved battery storage,
improved solar cells, and micropower supplies for personal electronics

This ETRM examines these applications in terms of

tools and platforms; component materials
and reagents; structures, devices and applications; and systems integration and intelligence.



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Through the Health, Safety and Environment Working Party of NETS, in which all th
e major
regulators are involved,

risks
that might be posed by nanotechnologies are being assessed to
see if current regulations are adequate.
Furthermore, the International Organisation for
Standardization (ISO) has created two nanotechnology standards; ISO/TS27687
(Nanotechnologies
-

Terminolo
gy and definitions for nano
-
objects) and ISO/TS80004
(Nanotechnologies
-

Vocabulary).

Although nanoparticles occur naturally, nanotechnology involves engineered nanoparticles to
form manufactured nanomaterials, and may pose risks through inhalation, dermal

penetration or
environmental persistence. Both nano
-
ecotoxicology (toxicity to the environment and ecological
systems) and nano
-
genotoxicology (toxicity to human health) are being developed to evaluate
the global impact of these new technologies.

1.1.2.

Biotechn
ology

Although a more mature technology than nanotechnology, future innovation in biotechnology,
including industrial biotechnology
,

will continue to contribute in a range of fields, including:



Agriculture; genetic modifications of crops and treatments of
diseases and pests



Biofuels



Bioinformatics



Chemical and plastics industry feedstock, replacing petroleum derived products



Diagnostics



Human therapeutics, including stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine



Reagents and other active molecules.

As biotec
hnology is the application of technology to living organisms, it is subject to extensive
regulation which deals with both health and safety and ethical issues. Biotechnology faces
considerable cost barriers for successful commercialisation through clinical

trials in medical
biotechnologies, and comparative cost structures in industrial biotechnology.

Biotechnology and nanotechnology are converging into a new field known as
nanobiotechnology. This field of study includes third generation DNA sequencing that
incorporates nanopores, and the development of bio
-
chips (lab on a chip) involved in monitoring
health.



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1.1.3.

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic

biology is an advanced form of biotechnology that incorporates and extends
nanobiotechnology, involving molecular engineerin
g at the nanoscale.
Potential
applications
include:



Biofuels; including algae
-
based products



Hydrogen fuel



Biohydrometallurgy in mining



Regenerative and personalised medicine; including vaccines



Food additives



Environmental remediation



Biosensors



Genome en
gineering

Synthetic biology raises both ethical and regulatory concerns, such as unanticipated adverse
effects on human health and the environment. Applications using synthetic biology also raise
new concerns about national security and biosecurity, and th
e use of synthetic biology for the
enhancement of human performance.



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2.0

INTRODUCTION

The Australian National Enabling Technologies Strategy (NETS) Expert Forum is focused on
new forms of nanotechnology, biotechnology and synthetic biology. This includes are
as of
technology intersection and those enabled by information and communication technology (ICT)
and cognitive science. These new enabling technologies are also often referred to as NBIC
(nano
-
bio
-
info
-
cogno) or GRIN (genetics, robotics, information, nano
technology) technologies in
literature describing this emerging field.

Although significant overlap and convergence exists between nanotechnology, biotechnology
and synthetic biology, each of these enabling technologies are described, analysed and
discusse
d through three separate perspectives, giving both a global perspective, and relating
this to the particular context of developments in Australia.

This Enabling Technologies Roadmap (ETRM) seeks to identity:

1.

New and enabling technologies, providing a horiz
on scan of what is currently
commercialised (horizon 1)

2.

What is currently under development (lab bench) with expected commercialisation wit
hin
the next decade (horizon 2)

3.

Long
-
term (blue sky
-

greater than 20 years) technologie
s and applications (horizon 3
).

The roadmap aims to outline enabling technology issues that may arise in terms of drivers,
opportunities, barriers, risks, and disruptive potential (the potential to disrupt existing industrial
processes, industries and markets). The roadmap also aims t
o examine the potential for the
enabling technologies to address Australia’s major national challenges including climate
change, energy use, resource efficiency, health and ageing, national security and leveraging the
mining boom. The result of this roadma
p is intended to help guide the development of a portfolio
of priority national investments in these enabling technologies to help sustain Australia’s global
competitiveness in scientific and technological knowledge
,

leading to the successful
commercialisa
tion of value
-
added goods and services.

This report outlines possibilities (especially across horizon 2 and 3) which may or may not be
achieved. Potential benefits will need to be considered against any
risk and concerns, and the
degree to which they can b
e appropriately managed.

The scope of this project includes a desktop review and foresight exercise to assess the
potential development, direction and adoption of new and converging enabling technologies that
are relevant both in Australia and internation
ally.



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Key trends and drivers that influence the development and application of emerging enabling
technologies are outlined in Section
3.0
. These include major international and geopolitical
trends, such as incr
eased competition from emerging economies in the technology sector,
demographic trends such as changing consumer needs and ageing populations, and climate
change. Also addressed is the increased global pressure on natural resources, and the need for
improv
ed and sustainable resource use and waste management. A further trend is increasing
consumer activism around ethics,
the
environment, and health and safety issues associated
with new technologies.

Sections
5.0
,
6.0

and

7.0

provide a scan of enabling technologies, segmented by
nanotechnology, biotechnology and synthetic biology
, respectively
, with focus placed on horizon
2 an
d horizon 3 developments. Major drivers, opportunities, barriers, risks and disruptive
potential are discussed for each segment. Increasing convergence of disciplines was identified
as a common theme among and between all technology areas. The technology s
can is
compiled into a summary table of emerging technologies in Section
4.0
.

Both currently and continuing

into the future, Australia is

and will face

a number of major
national challenges. Many of these challe
nges are global in their nature, but will present unique
problems for

Australia. Addressing these challenges will be vital to ensure the future growth and
prosperity of
the
nation, and will require a response that addresses Australia’s distinct national
ci
rcumstances. Section
8.0

considers how the enabling technologies identified in this roadmap
might make a significant contribution to the major challenges faced by Australia. The discussion
takes into account the opportunities,
risks and barriers specific to these new and emergent
enabling technologies. The major national challenges identified

and considered in Section
8.0

are as follows:



Capturing opportunities from the

mining boom



Im
pacts of
c
limate
c
hange



Increasing
d
emand for
e
nergy



Sustainable
u
se of
n
atural
r
esources



Ageing of the
p
opulation



Food
s
ecurity



Biosecurity



Global
c
ompetitiveness and
p
roductivity of Australian
i
ndustry



National
d
efence

Section
9.0

presents a concluding discussion of the factors that influence the adoption and
utilisation of enabling technologies. It examines the challenges to uptake of enabling


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technologies in Australia including the move from technology
-
push
to market
-
pull
commercialisation and issues of absorptive capacity. The ability for these technologies to
provide new products and services, and address complex societal challenges depends on major
market barriers and drivers. Convergence of technologies a
nd disciplines, and collaboration
between researchers, governments and the private sector are also major themes in the
successful commercialisation and adoption of enabling technologies, and the subject of a range
of government initiatives that will impact

on the uptake of the enabling technologies. Another
major factor is the regulation of the technologies to manage environmental health and safety
issues, which are being addressed by regulators through the Health, Safety and Environment
Working Party of NE
TS, and Australia’s active participation in major international collaboration
on these issues. Finally the ETRM will also examine ethical issues that are likely to arise in
relation to the application of the enabling technologies to human enhancement, as w
ell as to the
treatment of genetic disorders, disabilities, injury and degenerative diseases.



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3.0

KEY TRENDS AND DRIVE
RS

Over the next ten to twenty years a number of key trends and drivers will influence enabling
technologies and their potential to revolutio
nise the way people, industry and society will behave
from an economic, social, cultural and environmental perspective. Many broad societal factors
will interact with enabling technologies. This will significantly influence the development of new
emergent
and converging technologies, products, and services to solve these broad societal
issues and challenges.

3.1.

Globalisation

The global economy, although currently in a state of fluctuation, will continue to grow and
develop through the influence of developing n
ations such as China, India, Russia and parts of
South America. This will be predominantly driven by their increasing demand for a number of
commodities and products, including food, energy, resources, minerals, water and consumer
products. Many companies
have already shifted or will shift their focus towards the needs of
these developing nations. For example, the Chinese economy will continue to expand rapidly in
the next decade and its demand for food, water, energy, iron ore and coal will remain elevated
.

The digital information economy has significantly changed the way
communities

communicate,
conduct business, educate people, track the movement of diseases and monitor changing
environmental conditions. The increased spread and speed of knowledge transfe
r has further
opened global markets and increased competition, thus speeding the process of globalisation.

The effects of globalisation play an important role in the formulation of policies to support
industry sectors such as those discussed in this report
. Globalisation means that Australian
policy strategies cannot be developed in isolation of the global economy.
Insights into

where
Australia fits into the overall enabling technologies value chain
must be gained to better
understand
where Australian indus
try can leverage its expertise to maximise value for the
nation.

3.2.

Energy and the Environment

Existing fossil fuel supplies will diminish significantly over the next twenty years. Therefore,
increased demand for alternative energy sources will emerge in orde
r to power the needs of the
increasing global population and the industries that supply their products and services. Future
alternative energy systems will be characterised as predominantly clean, renewable in nature
and possessing a low or negligible carb
on emission in the whole lifecycle of energy production.



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Environmental responsibility through new regulations and society’s changing attitudes for lower
carbon emissions will have a significant impact on industry. Society and governments will
continue to d
emand increased environmental responsibility from consumers and industry to
reduce the impact of climate change on the planet. Furthermore, protection of the natural
environment, particularly ecosystems that are currently under threat
,

will be a key focus
in future
business and government decision
-
making, whereas in the past, many costs to industry
associated with pollution, environmental degradation and waste were externalised to be
absorbed by the natural environment. These costs are increasingly being fa
ctored into
production systems and human habitats.

3.3.

Resource Efficiency and Waste Management

Organic and inorganic waste continues to grow and is becoming a significant burden on local
government authorities and a number of industries. As a result, new regu
lations are emerging
providing guidelines for managing and treating waste. Future design for manufacture will need
to take into consideration the full lifecycle of new products, including packaging, recycling and
reuse characteristics. Markets are dictatin
g a move towards minimal or no packaging and the
use of biodegradable or recyclable materials for new products. Organic waste has many
beneficial uses if managed and processed appropriately, including
extraction of value
-
added
bioactives,
fertiliser
,

and f
eedstock for energy production, such as biogas. Fast moving
consumer goods and other products and services will require redesign to minimise the waste
elements, maximise recycling and consider re
-
use using a “cradle
-
to
-
cradle” strategy rather than
a “cradl
e
-
to
-
grave” approach. Manufacturing businesses will increasingly become more
responsible for the management of waste emanating from the products they develop.

3.4.

Ageing Population

Australia’s ageing population will shift consumer demands, particularly
towards

healthcare
products and related applications. There is an emerging view that the flow of funds needs to
shift from stand
-
alone aged care facilities to ‘ageing in place’, supporting older Australian
s

to
remain in their own homes and neighbourhoods while re
ceiving heath care and social support.
The uptake of eHealth, telehealth and the ability of new nano devices to monitor health in the
home will support this shift. Increased life expectancy among humans will also influence
healthcare, through the increased

demand for medical products and services, including aged
lifestyle and aged care needs, particularly those associated with the management of chronic


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diseases that increase with ageing. Furthermore, the ageing population is placing increased
pressure on pe
nsion funds, requiring new approaches to funding age
d

care services.
1


3.5.

Changing Consumer Needs

As the global population continues to grow and urbanise over the next ten to twenty years,
consumers will demand new leisure goods, telecommunications, electroni
cs, improved health
products and services, mass transportation, basic commodities, food, energy and water. Buyer
behaviours will continue to influence global markets through the ability of consumers to source
products and services via the internet, resulti
ng in increased market competition and greater
control of the value chain by consumers.

The demands for future food
production stimulated
by a growing
global

population will require
increased agricultural infrastructure
and productivity. While food availa
bility is not expected to
cause too much concern within Australia, globally, food shortages are expected to have a major
impact.
Satisfying the increased
global
demand for food

will require novel practices throughout
the supply chain, particularly in distr
ibution.

Demand for raw materials to develop the products and services of the future will increase,
placing pressure on existing commodity prices. The shortage of rare earth elements and
diminishing essential raw materials will require replacement and sub
stitution that can only be
achieved through revolutionary strategies.




1

Productivity Commission, Caring for Older Australians, June 2011, and DIISR, Report of the Foresight Workshop on the Uptake o
f
Enabling Assistive Technologi
es in Aged Care, August, 2011.



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4.0

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIE
S SUMMARY TABLE

The NETS program was established in 2009 to provide a framework to support the responsible
development and uptake of enabling technologies
. These en
abling technologies

are expected to
impact on and enable
other
technologies and applications in many different industry sectors
including manufacturing, agriculture and food, energy, health, chemicals, plastics and pulp and
paper. NETS’
s

aim has been to im
prove the management and regulation of biotechnology and
nanotechnology in order to maximise community confidence and community benefits from the
use of new technology. As noted in the Strategy, issues related to the development of enabling
technologies st
raddle jurisdictional and portfolio boundaries, requiring national coordination.

As enabling technologies
span

different industry sectors, and because their commercial uptake
is as yet in its infancy, to provide an overview of the enabling technologies a
nd their
applications, the roadmap of the emergent bio
-

and nano
-

enabling technologies has been
identified by conducting a comprehensive review of academic literature, industry research
databases, and publicly available reports from relevant industry bodi
es, rather than through
consultation with industry.

Major drivers, opportunities, barriers, risks, challenges and disruptive potential are discussed for
the three main technology segments: nanotechnologies, biotechnologies and synthetic biology
(which is
a form of advanced biotechnology involving molecular engineering at the nanoscale).
Nanotechnologies, biotechnologies and synthetic biology can enable other areas of science and
technology, converging to produce new research and technology developments for

different and
varied applications.

Drawing on technology scans that focus on horizon 2 (lab bench) and horizon 3 (blue sky), but
also includ
ing

horizon 1 (already being commercialised), a Summary Table of these
technologies and their applications has been

developed to provide a ‘ready reference’ for the
range of developments in this rapidly emerging area of advanced technology. In developing the
ETRM some difficulty was experienced in separating out horizon 2 and 3 technology
developments and therefore a g
rey zone exists between the two horizons resulting in potential
overlap. The results of this roadmap will help to guide the development of a portfolio of priority
national investments in these enabling technologies.

For the purposes of this ETRM, the enabl
ing technologies are defined as having the following
characteristics:



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Show high interdisciplinarity



Are transformative in nature and have the potential to disrupt or create entire industries



Have the potential for significant, systemic and long
-
lasting eco
nomic, social and political
impacts



Have the potential for development of new capabilities that address existing problems



Open up new possibilities and markets



Create new opportunities for responses to global issues.

Although the Roadmap focuses on nanote
chnolog
y
, biotechnology and synthetic biology, the
enabling technologies are also converging with developments in ICT and cognitive technologies
in a range of fields that includes energy, medicine education and human enhancement linked to
strategic defence

applications.

To assist in understanding the interdependent and overlapping nature of the technologies and
their applications, the framework of the enabling technologies roadmap adopts a four
-
stage
development, as outlined in
Figure
1
.

Figure
1
: Enabling Technologies Roadmap Framework

Source: AIC, 2011

Table
1

outlines a summary of the ETRM providing a future outlook, highlighting key horizon 1,
2
and 3 developments and applications globally.



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Table
1
: Developments and Applications in Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and
Synthetic Biology

DEVELOPMENT
AREA

HORIZON 1
-

NOW

HORIZON 2
-

2011 TO
2020

HORIZON 3
-

>2020

Tools and
Pla
tforms



Biological detection and
analysis tools



In silica modelling and
simulation tools



Atomic force microscopy



Nanolithography



Nanofabrication tools



Molecular & genom
ic

engineering



Regenerative medicine



Biomolecular engineering
and design tools



Genom
ic

en
gineering

Components,
Materials and
Reagents



Nanoscale components



Nanomaterials



Nano powders



Nanowires



Thermoelectric devices



Agrosensors



Functional nanomaterials



Biomaterials



Biocatalysts



Nanomotors



Advanced stem cell
technology



Biohydrometallurgy



Engin
eered functional
genomes



Metamaterials



Biocompatible
nanomaterials



Advanced enzymes

Structures, Devices
and Applications



Passive nanoscale
structures



Biological detection
devices



Stem cell therapies



Smart glazing



Nanostructured organic
photovoltaics



Pest
resistance and
herbicide tolerance



Marker assisted selection



Somatic
cell
nuclear
transfer

(livestock)



Synthesis of active
nanostructures



Nanoscaffolds



Smart medical devices



Smart implants



Nanoarrays



Biosensors



Composite structures



Advanced
semiconductors



Holographic memory



Bioremediation



Functional biological
nanostructures



Self
-
powered devices



Nanomachines



Nanorobots



Advanced composite
ceramics



Nano
-
based
semiconductors



Nanotribology



Nanojoining



Nanosensors



Microbial enhanced oil
recovery

Systems Integra
tion
and Intelligence



Bioinformatics



Integrated energy
storage systems



Solid state lighting



Biological electronic
interfaces (RFID)



Pharmocogenomics



Drug delivery systems



Synthetic tissues



Fuel cells



Biofuels



Bioplastics



Cell
-
based therapies



Nanoh
ydrogen
p
roduction and storage



Personalised medicine
and therapeutics



Biomimetic design
processes



Biofabrication templates



Directed self
-
assembly
systems



Tissue engineering
systems



M
etabolic pathway
engineering



Nanoinformatics



Nanocomputing



Geoengineering



Nanobiote
chnology



Cognitive science
integration

Source: Australian Institute for Commercialisation, 2011



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5.0

NANOTECHNOLOGY

There is on
-
going international debate and discussion about the correct definition of
nanotechnology, however, according to the International O
rganization for Standardization (ISO),
nanotechnology is defined as: the application of scientific knowledge to manipulate and control
matter
at

the nanoscale
level
to make use of size and structure dependent properties and
phenomena distinct from those as
sociated with individual atoms or molecules or with bulk
materials.
Further information can be found in
:

ISO/TS27687 (Nanotechnologies
-

Terminology
and definitions for nano
-
objects) and ISO/TS80004 (Nanotechnologies
-

Vocabulary).

The n
anoscale is the siz
e range from approximately 1nm to 100nm.
2

At this size range, the laws
of physics operate in unfamiliar ways, and it is this that determines both the constraints and the
opportunities of nanotechnologies and nanoscience.
3

The potential opportunities associ
ated
with nanotechnologies have led to significant investment by governmental institutions, public
research centres, universities and firms throughout the world.
4

Nanotechnologies encompass
the production and application of physical, chemical, and biologic
al systems. Horizon 3
forecasts promise widespread applications of nanotechnology as an enabling technology in
various industries and converging disciplines.


As highlighted by Roco
et al
(2010),
5

the development of nanotechnology has come to
encompass a r
ich infrastructure of multidisciplinary professional communities, advanced
instrumentation, user facilities, computing resources, formal and informal education assets, and
advocacy for nanotechnology
-
related societal benefit. This infrastructure is critica
l to further
drive R&D to help realise the opportunities embedded within nanoscience.

Nanotechnology exhibits a strong degree of convergence with many other disciplines, such as
the information and communications technologies (ICT) industry. ICT will inte
rface neatly with
biomedicine and nanoscience, with applications in areas such as drug delivery
,

therapeutics,
imaging and diagnostics. The opportunities and products arising from technology convergences
like these are difficult to predict,
and

have great
potential to transform and disrupt everyday



2

Miles, J., (2010)
Nanometrology and Documentary Standards for Nanotechnology
, Nanotechnology Work Health and Safety
Symposium September 2010.

3

Foresight Horizon Scanning Centre, (2010)

Technology Annex, Technology and Inn
ovation Futures
, Department for Business,
Innovation and Skills, London.

4

Salerno, M., (2007)
Designing foresight studies for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (NST) future developments
, Technological
Forecasting & Social Change.

5

Roco, M.C., Mirkin C.A., H
ersam, M.C., (2010)
Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020, Retrospective
and Outlook
, Springer.



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living.
6
,
7

Products and technologies arising from nanoscience have the potential to not only
improve livelihoods, but help address national and global challenges.

The aim of this chapter is to build a roadmap of
emerging nanotechnologies, segmented by the
following areas of application: nanotools and platforms, manufactured nanomaterials and
components, and nanodevices and systems
, which are addressed in Sections
5.8
,
5.9

and
5.10

respectively
. Section
5.1

describes

the global nanotechnology market, followed by an analysis
of drivers, opportunities, barr
iers, risks and the disruptive potential of nanotechnology in Section
5.2
.

5.1.

Nanotechnology Global Market Overview

Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field
with significant

disruptive
potential
.
8

Because of the

substantial opportunities associated with the development of nanotechnologies, governments
worldwide have shown significant interest in nanotechnology research and development. By the
end of 2008, nearly USD $40 billion had been invested by governments in

nanoscience, with a
further USD $9.75 billion invested in 2009. Key governments investing in nanoscience include:
9



European Union (27 members + Seventh Framework Programme)



Russia



United States



Japan



China

Regardless of the large investment from govern
ment, private investment is expected to exceed
public investment. In 2008, Cientifica
10

estimated that corporations across the globe would
spend USD $41 billion on nanotechnology R&D in 2010, focussing on sectors such as
semiconductors, pharmaceutical and h
ealth care, aerospace, defence and foo
d.

Figure
2

highlights the many different applications of nanotechnology and the segmentation of
R&D funding towards each application in 2007, while
Figure
3

highlights the expected
breakdown in 2015.




6

Foresight Horizon Scanning Centre, (2010)

Technology Annex, Technology and Innovation Futures
, Department for Business,
Innovation and

Skills, London.

7

The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering (2004)

Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and
uncertainties.

8

Barton, C. (2007)

NANOTECHNOLOGY: Revolutionizing R&D to develop smarter therapeutics and diagnostics
. Busin
ess Insights.

9

Cientifica Ltd. (2009).
Nanotechnology Takes a Deep Breath... and Prepares to Save the World!

Global Nanotechnology Funding
in 2009. Cientifica Ltd.

10

Cientifica Ltd. (2009).
Nanotechnology Takes a Deep Breath... and Prepares to Save the Wo
rld!

Global Nanotechnology Funding
in 2009. Cientifica Ltd.



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Figure
2
: Applications of Nanotechnology, 2007


Source: Business Insights, 2007

Figure
3
: Applications of Nanotechnology, 2015


Source:
Business Insights, 2007



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BCC Research
11

estimated that the global market for products incorporating nanotechnologies
was approximately USD $15.7 billion in 2010,
with forecasts

to grow to USD $26.7 billion by
2015 (a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11
.1 per cent from 2010 through 2015).
Figure
4

illustrates an estimate o
f

the global value of sales for products incorporating
nanotechnologies. These figures include well
-
established commercial nanomaterials
applic
ations, such as nanocatalyst thin films for catalytic converters, as well as new
technologies, such as nanoparticulate fabric treatments, rocket fuel additives, nanolithographic
tools, and nanoscale electronic memory.
Table
2

segments the global nanotechnology market
by product type, highlighting the dominant market share of nanomaterials, and the expected
rapid growth rates for nanodevices through to 2015.
12


Figure
4
: Global Market for Prod
ucts Incorporating Nanotechnologies, Through to 2015,
(USD $ Million)


Source: BCC Research, 2010

Table
2
: Global Nanotechnology Market by Type, Through to 2015 (USD $ Million)

NANOTECHNOLOGY

2009

2010

2015

CAGR%

2010
-

2015

Nano
materials

9,027.2

9,887.9

19,621.7

14.7

Nanotools

2,613.1

5,797.2

6,812.5

3.3

Nanodevices

31.0

35.4

233.7

45.9

TOTAL

11,671.3

15,720.5

26,667.9

11.1

Source: BCC Research, 2010




11

BCC Research. (2010).
Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment

12

BCC Research. (2010).
Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment



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As highlighted within this section, healthcare and pharmaceutical appli
c
ations for
nanotechnologies
is an area expected to witness rapid growth, with estimated that the industry
will

assume around 17 per cent of the global market for nanotechnologies by 2015.

The three
key areas where industry experts expect nanotechnology to
have the greatest opportunities and
impact within the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry are
:

diagnosis, drug delivery systems
and health monitoring.
13

5.2.

Nanotechnology Analysis

Nanotechnology encompasses many different technologies, each of which have a
broad and
growing number of applications in numerous industries. As nanotechnology further develops, it
will enable the creation and advancement of innovative areas of research such as synthetic
biology, nanobiotechnology, cost
-
effective carbon capture, qu
antum information systems,
geoengineering, and other emerging and converging technologies.
14

The idea that
nanotechnology can enable other areas of science and technology is expressed in the concept
of ‘converging technologies’: the combination of two or mo
re broad areas, such as
biotechnology, ICT, nanotechnology and cognitive science.
15

Converging technologies have
blurred the boundaries between existing industry sectors, and this trend will continue into the
future with further development in technological

fields.

It is the convergence of technologies and
blurring of boundaries that will create opportunities for nanotechnology and maximise its
disruptive potential.

Table
3

highlights some of the basic building block
s of nanotechnology and potential end
-
use
products. This list is by no means exhaustive, and is continually growing, as R&D continues.
The technologies highlighted in this list provide an indication of some of the products that are
expected to be commercia
lised from nanotechnology.




13

Barton, C. (2007)
NANOTECHNOLOGY: Revolutionizing R&D
to develop smarter therapeutics and diagnostics
. Business
Insights.

14

Roco, M.C., Mirkin C.A., Hersam, M.C., (2010) Nanotechnology
Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020, Retrospective
and Outlook
, Springer.

15

Foresight Horizon Scanning Centre, (2
010)

Technology Annex, Technology and Innovation Futures
, Department for Business,
Innovation and Skills, London.



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Table
3
: Building Blocks of Nanotechnology Used, Components and Final End
-
Use
Products

BUILDING BLOCKS

COMPONENTS

END
-
USE PRODUCTS

Metal/Organometallics

Catalysts

Fuels, Chemicals

Metal Oxides

Nano
particle coatings, UV Block
Dispersions, Chemical Mechanical
Polishing (CMP) slurry additives

Sunscreens, Cosmetics, High
performance coating, CMP slurries

Silicon Quantum dots

Films and encapsulation

Solar cells,
i
n

vitro

diagnostics, Gene
expression a
ssay, Medical imaging

Nanowhiskers

Fabric coating

Moisture wicking apparel, Stain
resistant apparel

Carbon Nanotubes

Scanning probe tip, Field emitting
devices, Polymer additives, Carbon
composite fillers, Electrodes,
Transistors

Aerospace, Displays (e
xperimental),
Sporting goods, Electronics, Non
-
volatile memory, Automobiles,
“Super” capacitors, Atomic force
microscope

Inorganic Nanostructure

Coated thin films

Solar cells, Displays

Organic Molecules

Self
-
assembling structures

Molecular memory, Sol
ar cells

Gold core
oligonucleotides

Reagents

Bio
-
defence,
i
n vitro

diagnostics

Nanoscale porous
silicon

Medical implants

Drug delivery,
i
n vivo

diagnostics

Source: Global Industry Analysts, 2010

Nanotechnology techniques, such as the use of silicate
nanoclays, metal oxide nanoparticles,
and carbon nanotubes are emerging as key technologies currently being commercialised into a
number of end user markets. These end user markets include: food and beverage packaging,
catalytic converters, coatings, elec
trostatic body panel painting, fuel cell electrodes, hygiene
products, nanocomposite plastics, photographic films and sunscreens to name a few.
16


Existing and emerging innovative nanotechnologies will be applied to a growing field of
applications. They are

expected to have both an evolutionary and potentially disruptive impact
on existing industries in terms of manufacturing processes, applications and products,
particularly in the areas of health, life sciences, water management and clean technology
.
Emerg
ing nanotechnologies will also have
impacts on government policy and international
trade.
Table
4

outlines emerging end user markets and a timeline for commercialisation of new
technologies.




16

Global Industry Analysts (2010)

Nanobiotechnology



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Table
4
: End Use Application
-

Commercialisation Time Grid (2010)

APPLICATION AREA

APPLICATION /
TECHNIQUE

TIMELINE

0
-
2
years

3
-
6
years

7
-
10
years

10
+

years

Food and Beverage

Edible Wraps

x




Biotechnology

Nanocodes


x



Gallium Nitride Nanot
ubes


x



Biomedical

Prosthetic Legs


x



Energy

Polymers for Fluorescent
Probes


x



Health and Life Sciences

Nanoengineered
Prosthetics



x


General Applications

Nanotubes (Select
Applications)


x



Nanorobots




x

Sensors

Carbon Nanotubes


x



Electronics and
Communications

Nanocomputing




x

Quantum Computers




x

Carbon Nanotubes




x

Bar Coded Beads
(Microbeads)


x



Magnetic Stamps


x



Memory and Display
Systems




x

Semiconductor/Electricity

Nanochips and Biochips



x


El
ectricity

Thermoelectricity


x



Energy

High Efficiency Solar
Energy Cells



x


Fuel Conversion


x



Transportation and Other
Applications

Fuel Cells


x



Source: Global Industry Analysts, 2010

Other disciplines that are expected to emerge from con
vergence with nanotechnology include
spintronics, plasmonics, metamaterials, and molecular nanosystems. The establishment of
nanoinformatics as a new field for communication, design, manufacturing, and medicine in


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nanotechnology will also be important.
17

Th
ese emerging fields are addressed further
throughout this chapter.

Nanotechnology has fostered the convergence of fundamental and applied R&D
and

requires

expert input from the fields of physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. This poses a
number of
challenges for future research structures, technology transfer and intellectual
property expertise, as well as for the future training of researchers, who not only have to remain
experts in their own field, but must also improve their literacy in neighbour
ing fields.
18

Further,
concern has been raised that patent offices will prove unable to appropriately handle requests to
patent nanoscience developments, due to this interdisciplinary nature.
19

5.3.

Drivers

The key driver of research into nanotechnology is the en
hanced properties exhibited by
nanosized particles and materials. These properties have widespread potential
applications
across a variety of industries.
20

Research, particularly on nanomaterials will have a widespread
impact in health, information, energy
and many other fields where there is a major economic
benefit to the commercialisation of new technologies.

Major drivers for the uptake of nanotechnologies

in the energy industry include
the need for

security and sustainability of energy supply, and grow
ing consumer and government awareness
of the implications of climate change. Climate change drivers for nanotechnology R&D
encompass efforts to improve energy storage in green technologies, decoupling energy
production from fossil fuels and
decoupling from

economic growth; carbon pricing and an
increased global market for alternative energy technologies.

Inefficiencies of energy supply through the current power grid also drive technological
innovation. Losses of between six and eight per cent
of power prod
uced
during electricity
transmission and distribution are currently considered normal, with traditional coal plans only
capturing 30
-
35 per cent of the energy in coal as electricity.
21





17

Roco, M.C., Mirkin C.A., Hersam, M.C., (2010)
Nanotechnology Research Directions for Soc
ietal Needs in 2020, Retrospective
and Outlook
, Springer.

18

GENNESYS Whitepaper (2009)
A New European Partnership between nanomaterials science and nanotechnology and
synchrotron radiation and neutron facilities,

Max
-
Planck
-
Institut für Metallforschung, St
uttgart.

19

Sylvester, D.J., Bowman, D.M., (2011)
Navigating the Patent Landscapes for Nanotechnology: English Gardens or Tangled
Grounds?

Methods in Molecular Biology, 1, Volume 726, Biomedical Nanotechnology, Part 2, Pages 359
-
378.

20

Frost & Sullivan, (20
11)
Opportunities for Nanotechnologies in Electronics

Technology Market Penetration and Roadmapping,
Technical Insights.

21

ABB (2007)
Energy Efficiency in the Power Grid.




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Energy industry concerns will continue to drive R&D of nanotechnologies

for applications in
various systems, including energy conversion (hydrogen fuel cells and thin film and organic
photovoltaics), energy storage (batteries, hydrogen storage and supercapacitors), energy
transmission (superconducting systems), and energy use

(insulation, solid state lighting,
reduction of vehicle weight and improved combustion of fossil fuels).
22

Manufactured
nanomaterials will enable the development of new energy generation systems based on
nuclear, solar and renewable sources.

Climate chang
e is also driving nanotechnology applications in the environmental remediation
industry, including the water and wastewater treatment industry. Growing numbers of
communities are living in areas of severe water stress, driving the need to be more sustainab
le
in their use and associated treatment of water. Driven in response to issues like these,
nanotechnologies are beginning to gain greater use in water systems.
23


The rapid ageing of the population will drive the uptake of nanotechnology in the development

of
point of care medical devices and sensors to support ‘ageing in place’, the ability to monitor
many medical conditions in the home through the integration of point of care devices with
telehealth and electronic health records management (eHealth). The
increase in chronic
diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure, etc., combined with the cost of
hospital care, and risk of infections in hospital, will further drive health treatments in the home.
Nanomaterials will also contribute to the deve
lopment of new drugs
,

therapies, and cures for
currently chronic and fatal illnesses. Important areas of focus will be the application of
nanomaterials in tissue engineering and medical imaging. Further, the application of
nanotechnologies has immense capa
bility and promise for advanced diagnostics, improved
public health and new therapeutic treatments.
24

5.4.

Opportunities

Nanotechnology has been described as complementary, not competitive, meaning that by itself,
it is

not

an
industry;

instead nanotechnology co
mplements and enables new and existing
industries by providing new products and processes. Opportunities and new markets enabled by



22

Lu, M., & Tegart, G., (2008)
Energy and Nanotechnologies: Strategy for Australia’s

Future,

Academy of Technological Sciences
and Engineering (ATSE)

23

OECD (2011)
Fostering Nanotechnology to Address Global Challenges: Water.


24

GENNESYS Whitepaper (2009)
A New European Partnership between nanomaterials science and nanotechnology and
sync
hrotron radiation and neutron facilities,

Max
-
Planck
-
Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart



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nanotechnologies are potentially numerous and include opportunities in the health, energy, and
the environmental remediation

markets.
25

Environment

Opportunities for nanotechnologies in the environmental remedial industries are numerous, with
applications in environmental remediation, protection, maintenance and enhancement. From a
global perspective
,

nanotechnology research, se
rvices and products applied to environmental
protection is expected to present the largest opportunities for nanotechnologies, followed by
environmental remediation.
26


Nanotechnologies applied to environmental protection will serve to facilitate and expedi
te
ongoing remediation efforts, via the significant reduction of source pollutants. Strategies for
environmental protection that include nanotechnologies encompass improved prevention and
containment of toxic compound spills into soils, highly effective re
cycling and green
technologies, along with wide
-
ranging and efficient improvements in energy conservation and
generation. A number of environmental protection technologies are included under the clean
technology discussion below.

Nanotechnology
-
based reme
dial applications developed for use in the environment might have
important positive impacts that may directly affect human health. Air quality remediation, water
quality remediation and contaminated soil remediation are areas where nanotechnology
enabled
solutions have numerous opportunities.

Water

Water is a very important resource in Australia, as many important industries contributing to the
Australian economy rely heavily on having access to a secure source of clean water. Agriculture
and mining are j
ust two industries that heavily rely on water access.

However, processed water is able to be used in many applications for these two industries and
many others. In this respect, nanotechnology has the potential to
satisfy the water filtration
needs of ind
ustrial, commercial, residential and personal consumers.
27

The market for nanotechnologies used in water and wastewater applications worldwide reached
USD $1.6 billion in 2007, with filtration applications dominating the market, according to the



25

Brinks, P., (2007)
Nanotechnology & Water: Opportunities and Challenges
, Victorian Water Sustainability Seminar.

26

Boehm, F., (2009)
Nanotechnology in Environmen
tal Applications: The Global Market,
BCC Research.

27

Boehm, F., (2009)
Nanotechnology in Environmental Applications: The Global Market,
BCC Research.



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OECD.
28

Furt
her development of nanotechnologies for water remediation has been identified as
a high priority area as clean water is an essential human development need.
29

The water
industry in Australia already applies nanotechnologies for the detection and treatment o
f
contaminated water.
30

Into the future, nanotechnologies are envisaged to be particularly efficient
for three key water handling purposes: treatment and remediation, sensing and detection, and
pollution prevention.

Managing and securing access to clean wa
ter is a major challenge, not only in Australia but
globally. Both in developed and developing countries, water shortages can have a tremendous
impact, not only on health, but on industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, mining and
power production. O
ver three billion people were living in areas of water stress in 2005, more
than half a billion of those in severe water stress areas, presenting a major opportunity for
nanotechnology to address this issue.
31


Nanotechnologies are expected to also play a r
ole in water resource management, for example
in industries such as mining and agriculture. Agriculture is by far the largest user of water, and is
responsible for
many cases of
water pollution. Precision farming, using wireless nanosensor
technologies wil
l provide users with water management systems featuring good accuracy and
rapid response rates, robustness and small size, as well as potentially combining sensing and
feedback
,

for example in measuring levels of contamination and treating them. Water
mana
gement in agriculture will be significantly improved in the future through the effective
application of emerging nanotechnologies.
32

Agriculture

Nanotechnology is poised to alter the face of the agribusiness sector significantly over the next
decade. Opport
unities for nanotechnologies in the agriculture sector will result through the
convergence and integration of nano enabled innovations stemming from the agrochemical,
agrobiotech, sensor, telecommunications, global positioning, automation, computing, and
m
odelling and display industries.
33





28

OECD (2011)
Fostering Nanotechnology to Address Global Challenges: Water.

29

Hillie T., et al, (2009)
Nan
otechnology, Water, and Development
, Commissioned by Meridian Institute’s Global Dialogue on
Nanotechnology and the Poor : Opportunities and Risks.

30

Brinks, P., (2007)
Nanotechnology & Water: Opportunities and Challenges,
Victorian Water Sustainability Se
minar.

31

OECD (2011)
Fostering Nanotechnology to Address Global Challenges: Water.

32

OECD (2011)
Fostering Nanotechnology to Address Global Challenges: Water.

33

Boehm, F., (2009)
Nanotechnology in Environmental Applications: The Global Market,
BCC Research
.



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Clean Technology

The clean technology field holds numerous opportunities for nanotechnology based energy
harvesting and generation applications. These applications may include batteries for electric
vehicles, clean energ
y storage, solar cells, clean hydrogen generation and storage, fuel
-
cell
catalysis and efficient, inexpensive micropower supplies for personal electronics, and many
more.

Opportunities for nanotechnologies in the clean tech sector are driven by issues lik
e climate
change and peak oil (when the world oil production reaches its maximum and begins its
decline). Many major oil and power companies are investing in nanoscience R&D to enable
energy applications. Environmental concerns tend to be the major driver
for R&D investment in
this area. Also driving these opportunities is increased investment and consumer demand for
"green" and "clean" alternatives,
34

which is supported through various government initiatives.

Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals

An ageing popula
tion with growing healthcare needs represents an enormous opportunity for
nanotechnology products. Nanotechnology will have major applications in medicine, dentistry,
pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. For example, the integration of nanotechnology within ca
ncer
research promises to increase current understanding about how cancer progresses. The
identification of biomarkers will help predict disease susceptibility and precancerous lesions,
while multifunctional nanoscale devices could potentially simultaneous
ly detect and treat
cancer.
35


5.5.

Barriers

There are many challenges and barriers to be considered and overcome to enable the
responsible uptake of nanotechnologies across the different industry sectors where they
promise to make a significant contribution to
productivity and efficiency. Many of these
challenges are interrelated and include:

36
,
37



Development of useful applications for nanoscale phenomena



Regulatory, legal, political and ethical issues




34

Frost & Sullivan, (2007)
Impact of Nanotechnology in the Energy Industry.

35

Barton, C. (2007).
NANOTECHNOLOGY: Revolutionizing R&D to develop smarter therapeutics and diagnostics
. Business
Insights.

36

Ministry of Research, Science and Technology (2006)

Roadmaps for Science : nanoscience + nanotechnologies.

37

Barton, C. (2007).
NANOTECHNOLOGY: Revolutionizing R&D to develop smarter therapeutics and diagnostics
. Business
Insights.



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Competition with established microscale technologies



L
icense
of proof
-
of
-
concept nanotools, delivery systems and products



Intellectual property protection, and skilling of patent and technology transfer offices



Potential
internal r
eluctance to embrace nanotechnologies and nanotools

within
businesses



Undertaking nano
technology R&D in a way that pro
-
actively and meaningfully engages
with society



Large
-
scale production cost challenges



Cost premium over existing products



Need for multidisciplinary infrastructure and researchers



Safety and toxicity and the effective mana
gement of the potential risks of manufactured
nanomaterials



Public and consumer concern about safety and resulting consumer activism that might
inhibit commercial investment in nanotechnology
-
based products.

The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences

and Engineering (ATSE)
38

has described
the nanotechnology value chain as starting with the production of nanomaterials (nanoscale
structures in unprocessed form) which then become nanointermediates (intermediate products
with nanoscale features) and finall
y nano
-
enabled products (finished goods incorporating
nanotechnologies).

Technical challenges to be overcome to encourage the processing and fabrication of
nanomaterials (and therefore other elements in the value chain) include effective monitoring of
mat
erials through development and processing, efficient and sustainable methods for serial and
large scale mass production, as well as rigorous quality assurance and control programs. The
continual integration and ongoing development of new methods of synthes
is and novel and
innovative nano
-
objects into existing production processes will also need to be addressed to
encourage the scale up of nanotech product fabrication into the future.
39

Further development of
material characterisation methods and nanoanalytic
s programs will also be required to ensure
the future development of nanotechnologies.




38

Lu, M., & Tegart, G., (2008)
Energy and Nanotechnologies: Strategy for Au
stralia’s Future,

Academy of Technological Sciences
and Engineering (ATSE).

39

GENNESYS Whitepaper (2009)
A New European Partnership between nanomaterials science and nanotechnology and
synchrotron radiation and neutron facilities,

Max
-
Planck
-
Institut für M
etallforschung, Stuttgart.



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Regulation

Hodge
et al

(2010)
40

suggests there are a number of regulatory challenges that society will
confront with regard to nanotechnology. Some of these include:



Lar
ge gaps in knowledge across various scientific frontiers. Answers are needed to
address questions raised about the safety of nanomaterials, as well as the impact of
engineered nanomaterials across the materials life
-
cycle. Significant multidisciplinary
res
earch will be needed to address this lack of knowledge.



Developing appropriate metrology and standards for nanotechnologies. Effective
methods for measuring air
-

and water
-
borne nanomaterials are needed.
41



Establishing and articulating effectively the exis
tence of regulatory gaps and triggers in
current legislation.



Effectively assessing alternative regulatory regimes that may be in practice,
acknowledging strengths and weaknesses in different approaches.



Balancing governments support for nanotechnology,
as a basis for future innovation and
economic growth, while enabling citizens to influence policy directions and protecting
their health and safety.



Ensuring appropriate transparency and trust continues across all areas of existing and
evolving nanotechnol
ogy regulation frameworks. Due to the nature of nanotechnology,
there are significant public confidence and trust risks facing regulators responsible for
ensuring the safety of these products.

Nanometrology

Nanometrology, the science of measurement at the

nanoscale, has been recognised by
governments, research institutions and the private sector worldwide as vitally important to the
development and commercialisation of nanotechnologies. Nanometrology is important both for
the large scale production of nano
products, as well as for regulation. Further development of
nanotechnologies depends on the development of innovative new measuring instruments and
tools, test methods and the incorporation of nanometrology into the International Measurement
System.
42

The N
ational Measurement Institute (NMI) Australia (Nanometrology Group) is
assisting to address the need for nanometrology instrumentation and standards in Australia.
The group develops measurement infrastructure, expertise and standards for nanotechnology,



40

Hodge, G.A., et al (2010)
Introduction: the regulatory challenges for nanotechnologies,

International Handbook on Regulating
Nanotechnologies
,

Hodge, G.A, Bowman, D.M, Maynard, A.D, (eds) Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc, pp. 3
-
25.


41

Frost & Sullivan, (2009)
Green nanotechnology, the trend of the future.

42

Miles, J., (2010)
Nanotechnology Captured,
International Handbook on Regulating Nanotechnologies
,

Hodge, G.A, Bowman,
D.M, Maynard, A.D, (eds) Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc, pp.
83
-
107.



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wi
th the aim of assisting Australian researchers and industries to capitalise on growth and
commercialisation opportunities, and contribute to effective health, safety and environmental
regulatory frameworks for nanotechnologies. The program is supported by
the National
Enabling Technologies Strategy.
43

Technology Transfer

The diversity of nanotechnologies poses a challenge for technology transfer and intellectual
property expertise. The past decade has seen a rush of nanotechnology patent applications
worldwi
de, which the patent system has struggled to cope with, primarily due to the complex
multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology patents, and the lack of consistent definitions and
terminology within the field. Convergence of nanotechnology with fields like

physics, chemistry,
optics, ICT, biotechnology, and cognitive science leads to high interdisciplinarity within
intellectual property to be examined. Patent offices had struggled with a lack of properly skilled
and trained examiners to cover the numerous t
echnical fields required.
44

Companies exploring the possibilities of nanotechnologies are also exposed to investment risks
in nanotechnology enabled products, unsatisfactory intellectual property protection, and
ineffective marketing and communication of pr
oduct benefits potentially leading to consumer
backla
sh.

Due to the nature of nanotechnology, public acceptance issues involved with some applications
of nanotechnologies may present barriers to effective commercialisation, for example, privacy
concerns ma
y be raised when miniature sensors become ubiquitous. These types of issues can
put further at risk a company’s investment into nanoscience R&D.
45


Social Challenges

In many of the industries in which nanotechnology is applied, a disruptive effect on the cu
rrent
practices used in that industry will be felt (further discussed
in Section
5.7
). The use of
nanotechnologies within certain sectors
could conceivably boost production, yet reduce prices
and save on labour
costs. As with the introduction of any disruptive technology, there is a risk
that traditional labour forces could be
disadvantaged
. Ethical considerations must play an
important role in the development of strategies for the incremental deployment of these

nanotechnologies and there must be sensitivity as to the sustained wellbeing of the workers.
46




43

Australian Nanotechnology Network: National Measurement Institute Nanometrology Group Website, Accessed 27/09/2011.

44

Mandel, G. N.,

(2010)
Regulating nanotechnology through intellectual property rights
,
International Handbook on Regulating
Nano
technologies
,

Hodge, G.A, Bowman, D.M, Maynard, A.D, (eds) Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc, pp.
388
.

45

OECD, Allianz (2005)
Opportunities and risks of Nanotechnologies.

46

Boehm, F., (2009)
Nanotechnology in Environmental Applications: The Global Market,
BCC R
esearch.



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Unsuccessful management of truly disruptive nanotechnologies will result in negative public and
consumer attitudes to nanotechnologies, inhibiting commercial inv
estment in nanotechnology
-
based products.

Nanotechnology convergence, the multiple ways in which nanotechnologies will combine, is
also likely to generate a range of different social and ethical challenges. These types of
challenges may be particularly rel
evant in longer term applications within nanobiotechnology,
involving significant interface of material systems with, or internal modification of, the body.

5.6.

Risks

Nanotechnology will enable many exciting new products and solutions over the next decade.
How
ever, like any new technology, it may pose risks that will need to be managed before wide