SOMA: What is it (and how do you spell it)?

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Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Migrate your Business to SOA

(MB2SOA)

a.k.a. Model your Business to
define your SOA

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA:


its all the rage


but, what methodology can I follow?


how can I use my past IT investments?


how do I get there?





Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA Answers


what methodology can I follow?


Make heavy use of best practices OOAD design
techniques, along with use of design principles
and patterns in specification phase


how can I use my past IT investments?


Existing Asset Analysis in identification phase


how do I get there?


Start with SOMA methodology & customize for
SOA maturity level of org & project budget


Application of the Litmus Test identifies what
provides most bang for the buck (in SOA terms).

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Discussion Topics


Business Process


SOA


SOAD


SOMA


Identification


Specification


Realization




Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Business Process


Pattern of Interaction Between


Employees


Software systems


Business partners


Supports a Business Objective.


Well Choreographed Sequence of Activities


Also Involves


Organizational units (departments)


Clients


Blueprint for Application & Resource Integration.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Business Process Modeling


Problems & needs of business & partners


Identified in business level use cases


Business processes
-

modeled by analysts


Business data types


Business process


Business processes
-

simulated & fine tuned


BPEL documents delivered to development

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Why Model?


Communication with Subject Matter Experts


Formally documenting a process avoids confusion.


Visibility into Enterprise


Identify hidden risks and unforeseen circumstances.


Ideas for eliminating bottlenecks & improving
performance are provided by visual lay out


Decouples business integration logic from apps


Allows monitoring of executing processes for data.


Some flow control logic


migrated to business rules


Deliver complete requirements documentation to IT

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

BPM Best Practices


A business analyst with a good knowledge of the
business should document the business
process.


Writing down the BP can be a complex time
consuming task. Allocate enough time and
prioritize it.


Success of the SOA project heavily depends on
how accurately business process reflects reality.


A business process will invoke operations of
external services to get the job done.


Most of these services may already exist as
legacy applications.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Service Oriented Architecture


A SOA is an enterprise
-
scale IT architecture for
linking resources on demand.


SOA is not a product but a way of (IT) life.


It’s about bridging the gap between business
and IT through a



set of business
-
aligned IT services using a set of


Design principles


Patterns


Techniques



"Gartner predicts that by
2008
, more than
60
percent of
enterprises will use SOA as a ‘guiding principle’ when
creating mission
-
critical applications and processes."

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA


Service Oriented Architecture: an approach to
integrating applications running on heterogeneous
platforms using industry
-
wide acceptable standards.


Applications are exposed as services


Each service provides a certain functionality


Single service may act alone, or multiple services
interacting together to implement a business process.


SOA Participants are:


Consumer


Provider

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

What’s a Service?


A set of functions (or operations) offered by a
software system.


Well
-
defined, self
-
contained & usually
stateless.


Two or more services may pass simple data
to each other or coordinate some activity.


A business process captures the sequence of
such service function (operation) invocation.


Web Services represents the most popular
approach to implementing a SOA.


A plain Java class, Enterprise Java Bean or legacy systems
like CICS can be seen as services.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA and Business


Process Implementation


SOA usually adopted by an org in two stages:


First
-

applications are represented as services. Traditional
programming is used to invoke operations to integrate applications.


Next step
-

integration logic is externalized from the specific
applications into business processes. Facilitates solving more
complex integration scenarios.


Business processes can significantly lower the cost
of integration


Preferred way to code application integration.


Very few alternate technologies exists that can beat a
business process in terms of speed of
implementation and ease of maintenance.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Service Oriented Architecture is…


Thinking of enterprise applications as large scale
objects


Provides ability to build new software by assembling
these large objects or services, perhaps as part of a
workflow process.


Traditional OOAD techniques apply to a single
application development.


SOAD is a methodology for building applications
that ‘strings together’ several services.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Stages of SOAD

Roles in Use

Stage in SOAD


Business Process
Modeling

Service

Identification

Service Design

And Implementation


Business Process


Implementation

Business Analysts

Designers, Programmers

Designers, Programmers, Testers

Architects, Designers









Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Layers of SOA


presentation

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA: A Methodology that…


takes business requirements and goals


produces specifications for a solution that is
SOA compliant


defines the interaction between the Business
and IT


insures a clean hand off from Business to IT


insures a clean hand off from Architecture and
Design to Development and Deployment


promotes reuse, including the reuse of existing
assets


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

What does SOMA do?


Combines elements from well
-
established
practices such as OOAD, EA, and BPM,


Defines enterprise
-
scale
components

needed to
realize and ensure the quality of services
required of a SOA


Builds upon and uses Service
-
Oriented Analysis
and Design (SOAD)


Defines three levels of SOA abstraction


Operations


affect on a data store


Services


grouped operations


Business Process


choreographed operations


Facilitates specifying the design for the three
SOA Design Layers…

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA Design Layers

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

What is Lacking?


Current OOAD methods do not address the
three key elements of a SOA:


Services


Flows


Components

Realizing Services


Explicitly address techniques and processes
required for identification, specification and
realization of services, their flows & composition.


Define enterprise
-
scale components needed to
realize and ensure the QoS required.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA Defines

Additional Architectural Principles


Goal Service Modeling


Service Exposure Determination


Existing Asset Analysis


Component Identification


Realization Decisions


Define and Design Services, Components,
and Classes

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

And Additional Themes

which require explicit attention during
modeling are …


Service Choreography


Service Repositories


S
ervice Bus

middleware pattern


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA Process

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA Input
:

Component Business Model output


Defines Business Area Functions (within
Domains)


Identifies Business Critical Areas


To
-
be Process Maps at level two or three


Use Cases including data elements


Business Goals and Critical Success
Factors (KPIs and Metrics)

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA Output
:

Service Model


Service Portfolio


Service Hierarchy


Service Exposure


Service Dependencies


Service Composition


Service Non
-
Functional Requirements


Service Messages


State Management


Realization Decisions

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

From Business to IT

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Detailed SOMA Process

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Any Questions?


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

WebSphere Business Modeler


A visual tool to model and simulate business
processes


can import VISIO to get started


Used at the beginning of the lifecycle by the
Business Analysts.


Understand your business models and make
informed decisions before deployment


Model resources, roles, organizations, and
business metrics


Collaborative modeling enables team work and
web publication

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Key Features


Visually model business processes.


A process is modeled as a sequence of activities or tasks
connected by connectors. Very similar to a flowchart.


Allows modeling of business items


Format of business data such as order and address


Items are created, passed between tasks and altered by tasks.
They form the main vehicle for data transfer


Simulation


Executes a business process in a virtual
world. Essential for analyzing a process.


Analyze a process


Static


Over thirty different analysis of a model. Example: View
a list of resources involved in a process and their roles.


Dynamic


Depends on the outcome of the simulation runs.
Example: Average cost of execution of a process.


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA Layers 1
-

3


Layer 1: Operational systems layer


Consists of existing custom built applications, otherwise called
legacy

systems.


Layer 2: Enterprise components layer


Layer of enterprise components that are responsible for realizing functionality and
maintaining the QoS of the exposed services.


Components are a managed, governed set of enterprise assets that are funded at the
enterprise or the business unit level.


Responsible for ensuring conformance to SLAs through the application of architectural best
practices.


Typically uses container
-
based technologies such as application servers to implement the
components, workload management, high
-
availability, and load balancing.


Layer 3: Services layer


Business chosen and funded exposed services.


They can be
discovered

or be statically bound and then invoked, or possibly, choreographed
into a composite service.


Provides for the mechanism to take enterprise scale components, business unit specific
components, and in some cases, project
-
specific components, and externalizes a subset of
their interfaces in the form of service descriptions (WSDL’s).


Thus, the enterprise components provide service realization at runtime using the functionality
provided by their interfaces.


They can exist in isolation or as a composite service.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA Layers 4
-

6


Level
4
: Business process composition or choreography layer


Compositions and choreographies of services exposed in Layer
3
are
defined in this layer.


Services are bundled into a flow through orchestration or choreography,
and thus act together as a single application.


These applications support specific use cases and business processes.


Layer
5
: Access or presentation layer


Usually out of scope for discussions around a SOA, it is gradually
becoming more relevant.


Level
6
: Integration (ESB)


Enables the integration of services through the introduction of a reliable
set of capabilities, such as intelligent routing, protocol mediation, and
other transformation mechanisms

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOA Layers
7
-

9


Level 7: QoS


Provides the capabilities required to monitor, manage, and maintain
QoS such as security, performance, and availability.


Background process through sense
-
and
-
respond mechanisms and tools
that monitor the health of SOA applications


Level 8: Data Architecture and Business Intelligence



Defines Business Objects


Identifies relationships between Business Objects


Defines what is Required to Drive the Business including KPI’s


Monitor and Manage Business Processes


Layer 9: Governance


Defines Criteria for Service Exposure


Provides Management of Reusable Services


Defines Architectural and Design Guidelines

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

BPM, EA, and OOAD Positioning

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

SOMA Reinforces Well
-
Established,
Software Architecture Principles

Including:


Encapsulation


Information Hiding


Classes and Instances


Association and Inheritance


Messaging


Polymorphism

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Challenges in

Process Implementation


Participation:

A process may require participation from
several different software systems, and may support
different mechanisms for accessing the business logic and
data.


BPEL standardizes the access method to be only service oriented.
As long as the ESB supports the protocol offered by the software
system, the process should be able to invoke a service in it.


IDEs such as WebSphere further simplify the process by
representing different access protocols


SOAP, JDBC, JMS, JCA
as Controls. This provides a unified development method.


State management:

Some processes run for a long time.
The internal state of the process must be saved in a
durable manner.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Process Challenges
(cont’d)


Compensation:



For long running process transactions it may not be feasible.


Manual or software driven compensation is required to undo
any changes made by the process before the process is
aborted.


Human participation:

Some of the activities in a process
may require human participation. Such activities should be
minimized.


At times they are unavoidable, especially during exception
conditions.


Data transformation:
Just like access protocols, different
applications may require data to be in different formats.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Key Features (cont)


Reporting


You can export or print
various analysis data using predefined
templates.


Resource modeling


Model employees, factory workspace,
machines and vehicles


Organizational model


Model departments, geographical locations,
etc., where tasks are performed

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Service in WBM vs. SOA


In WBM, a Service represents only one operation. It
cannot have a collection of operations.


In SOA, a Service represents a collection of operations.
For example, the CreditBureau service can have many
operations, such as:


getAllCreditHistory


getDelinquencyReport


updateCreditHistory


When a service is exported, the system creates a new
service definition in the WSDL file for every service in the
project.


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

WebSphere Process Server


It is a server product that provides the runtime
for SOA based application.


Based on the WebSphere Application Server product
that is a J2EE application server.


You can develop business processes that follow
the BPEL specification and deploy in WPS v6.


A business process can invoke services.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

WebSphere Integration
Developer (WID)


The development IDE for WebSphere Process Server.


Processes and business items modeled using
WebSphere Business Modeler can be imported into
WID.


The programming model to build SOA applications is
Service Component Architecture (SCA).


What we call services in this course are called Service
Components in SCA.


Service components can be developed as a


plain Java class,
web service, business processes, human tasks and business
rules


Based on Eclipse 3.0 and Rational Application
Developer which is the J2EE development IDE.

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Key Features of WID


You can create new business integration modules


Define business objects


These are just XML schema data types


They can be imported from WebSphere Business Modeler


Define interfaces


Interface operations refer to the business objects to define the
input or output parameters


Implement components that adhere to an interface


Business processes


Can be imported from WebSphere
Business Modeler


Java class


Human tasks


Create data and interface maps


Create the assembly diagram (one per module) where
references are wired to components

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Process Integration Vision and Related Products

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Why Monitor


Leverage real info about our business


Quicker and better decisions


Feedback of business facts from Monitor to
Modeler for analysis, simulation, and diagnosis


Discover true behaviors of processes


Provide operations with feedback on health of
business processes


Improve business process iteratively

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Business Monitoring Goals


State of business performance measured against targets


Share growth and new product revenue


Track Business Process Flow


State of particular insurance claim


Bottleneck due to human tasks


Monitoring metrics in customizable dashboards


Duration, Costs


Detect and alert of anomalous situations


Low Inventory Level


Feed Actual Values back to the Model


Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

WebSphere Business Monitor


Conceptual View

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

WebSphere Business Monitor
Themes


Process Monitoring


Support Open Event Infrastructure (CEI)


Focus on Performance and Throughput


Manage Responses to Business
Situations


Customizable Business Dashboards


Multidimensional Reporting

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

Modeler to Monitor



Closed Loop

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30 January 2007

Relationship of Development
Tools

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30 January 2007

User Roles Applied to an

End
-
to
-
end Task Flow

Migrate your Business to SOA

30 January 2007

References


Service
-
oriented modeling and architecture


Ali Arsanjani, Ph.D.

(
arsanjan@us.ibm.com
), Chief Architect,
SOA and Web services Center of Excellence, IBM


09 Nov 2004


Elements of Service
-
Oriented Analysis and Design


Olaf Zimmermann

(
ozimmer@de.ibm.com
), Senior IT Architect,
IBM

Pal Krogdahl

(
pal.krogdahl@se.ibm.com
), Solution Architect,
IBM

Clive Gee

(
clive@us.ibm.com
), Senior Solution Architect, IBM


02 Jun 2004


SOMA Process Applet


WA1443 Fundamentals of WebSphere Business
Modeler


©
Web Age Solutions Inc. 2006