Hygiene & Sanitation Concerns of the Hospitality Industry


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Hygiene & Sanitation Concerns of the Hospitality Industry


What is

Food Poisoning

Foodborne illness


foodborne disease

and colloquially referred to as

food poisoning



resulting from the consumption of
contaminated food





that contaminate food,

as well as chemical or natural


such as


Foodborne illness usually arises from improper handling, preparation,

food storage


practices before, during, and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting
an illness. There is a consensus in the public health community that regular hand
washing is one of the
most effective defenses against the spread of foodborne illne
ss. The action of monitoring food to ensure
that it will not cause foodborne illness is known as

food safety
. Foodborne disease can also be caused
by a large variety of toxins that a
ffect the environment. For foodborne illness caused by chemicals,

Food contaminants

Foodborne illness can also be caused by




in food and naturally toxic substances

sonous mushrooms


reef fish



is a common cause of foodborne illness. In the

United Kingdom

during 2000 the individual
bacteria inv
olved were as follows:

Campylobacter jejuni



Escherichia coli

1.4%, and all others less than 0.1%.

In the past,
bacterial infections were thought to be more
prevalent because few places had the capability to test for


and no active surveillance was being
done for this particular agent. To
xins for bacterial infections are delayed because the bacteria need time
to multiply. They are usually not seen symptoms until 12

72 hours or more after eating contaminated

Most common

bacterial foodborne pathogens are:

Campylobacter jejuni

which can lead to secondary


Barré syndrome



Clostridium perfringens
, the "cafeteria germ"




S. typ

infection is caused by consumption of eggs or poultry that are
not adequately cooked or by other interactive human
animal pathogens

Escherichia coli O157:H7

enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) which can cause

uremic syndrome



bacterial foodborne

pathogens are:

Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, certain species of



, and some other bacteria,
produce the lethal

, which is present in the


of some living animal species r
ather than
being a product of


Mycotoxins and alimentary mycotoxicoses

The term

alimentary mycotoxicoses

refers to the effect of poisoning by


through food


sometimes have important effects on human and animal health. For example,
an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had

contaminated peanut meal. In the



World War II
, 5,000 people died due to
Alimentary Toxic Aleukia (ALA).

The common foodborne




originated from

Aspergillus parasiticus


Aspergillus flavus
. They are frequently found
in tree nuts, peanuts, maize, sorghum and other oilseeds, including corn and cottonseeds. The
pronounced forms of


are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1
predominantly targets the liver, which will result in


, and


In the US,
the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk,
which should be less than 0.5 μg/kg.

The official document can be found at

's website.


are those of


(AOH), Alternariol methyl ether (AME), Altenuene (ALT),
1 (ATX
1), Tenuazonic acid (TeA) and Radicinin (RAD), originated from


Some of the toxins can be present in sorghum,

, wheat and tomatoes.

Some research has
shown that the toxins can be easily cross
contaminated between
grain commodities, suggesting that
manufacturing and storage of grain commodities is a critical practice.



Cyclopiazonic acid


Ergot alkal






Crop corn can be easily contaminated by the fungi

Fusarium moniliforme
, and

Fumonisin B1

will cause Leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in horses, Pulmonary edema syndrome
(PES) in pigs, liver cancer in rats and

Esophageal cancer

in humans.

For huma
n and animal
health, both the


and the


have regulate
d the content levels of toxins in food and animal

Fusaric acid


What is
Food Poisoning, meaning in context of water and food

Water is the most valuable resource and the most passionately contested. Drought has become an
increasingly extreme problem in many parts of the world, and it is predicted that 60% of the
cities in Europe will run short of water in the next decade. In industrialized countries per
capita water usage continues to rise intractably, despite strenuous efforts by environmentalists
and resource managers to encourage conservation. Conflicts over wa
ter and environmental
degradation from the overuse of resources are intensifying.

Water is not merely a physical resource: in every cultural context it is densely encoded with
social, spiritual, political and environmental meanings, and these have a pow
erful effect upon
patterns of water use and upon the relationships between water users and suppliers. This book
makes an in
depth analysis of the meanings of water and considers how they are experienced and
formed at an individual and societal level. Focus
ing on the River Stour in Dorset, Strang draws
upon a wide range of data: ethnographic research, cultural mapping, local archives and folklore.
She explores the controversies surrounding water ownership and management, and the social and
political question
s raised by water privatization in the UK.

The topical nature of these issues and their global relevance make this book a vital contribution
to contemporary research on water and an essential read for anyone with an interest in getting
under the surface o
f one of the worlds most important social and environmental issues.


Water and food borne diseases

roots of contamination

The vast majority of reported cases of foodborne

illness occur as individual or sporadic cases.
The origin of most sporadic cases is undetermined. In the United States, where people eat outside
the home frequently, most outbreaks (58%) originate from commercial food facilities (2004
FoodNet data). An ou
tbreak is defined as occurring when two or more people experience similar
illness after consuming food from a common source.

Often, a combination of events contributes to an outbreak, for example, food might be left at
room temperature for many hours, allo
wing bacteria to


which is compounded by
inadequate cooking which results in a failure to kill the dangerously elevated bacterial levels.

Outbreaks are usually identifi
ed when those affected know each other. However, more and more,
outbreaks are identified by

public health

staff from unexpected increases in laboratory results for
certain strain
s of bacteria. Outbreak detection and investigation in the United States is primarily
handled by local health jurisdictions and is inconsistent from district to district. It is estimated
that 1

2% of outbreaks are detected.

]Society and culture

Global impact

Many outbreaks of foodborne diseases that were once contained within a small community may
now take place on global dimensions.

Food safety

authorities al
l over the world have
acknowledged that ensuring food safety must not only be tackled at the national level but also
through closer linkages among food safety authorities at the international level. This is important
for exchanging routine information on f
ood safety issues and to have rapid access to information
in case of food safety emergencies."

It is difficult to estimate the global incidence of foodborne disease, but it has been reported that
in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrhoe
al diseases. Many of these cases
have been attributed to contamination of food and drinking water. Additionally,


is a
major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children.

Even in industrialized countries, up to 30% of the population of people have been reported to
suffer from foodborne diseases every year. In the U.S, around 76 million cases of foodborne
diseases, which resulted in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths,

are estimated to occur
each year. Developing countries in particular are worst affected by foodborne illnesses due to the
presence of a wide range of diseases, including those caused by parasites. Foodborne illnesses
can and did inflict serious and extens
ive harm on society. In 1994, an outbreak of salmonellosis
due to contaminated ice cream occurred in the USA, affecting an estimated 224,000 persons. In
1988, an outbreak of hepatitis A, resulting from the consumption of contaminated clams, affected
some 3
00,000 individuals in China.

Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic strain on societies. In the U.S.,
diseases caused by the major pathogens alone are estimated to cost up to US $35 billion annually
(1997) in medical costs and lost prod
uctivity. The re
emergence of cholera in Peru in 1991
resulted in the loss of US $500 million in fish and fishery product exports that year.

United Kingdom

In postwar Aberdeen (1964) a large scale (>400 cases) outbreak of


occurred, this was
caused by contaminated

corned beef

which had been imported from


The corned
beef was placed in cans and because the cooling plant had failed, cold river water from the


was used to cool the cans. One of the cans had a defect and the

meat inside was
contaminated. This meat was then sliced using a meat slicer in a shop in Aberdeen, and a lack of
cleaning the machinery led to spreading the contamination to other meats cut in the slicer. These
meats were then eaten by the people of Aberd
een who then became ill.

In the UK serious outbreaks of food
borne illness since the 1970s prompted key changes in

food safety

law. These included the death of 19 patients in the
Stanley Royd Hospital


and the

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

E, mad cow disease) outbreak
identified in the 1980s. The death of 17 people in the 1996 Wishaw outbreak of E. coli


was a precursor to the establishment of the

Food Standards Agency

which, according

Tony Blair

in the 1998

white paper

A Force for Change

Cm 3830

"would be powerful, open
and dedicated to the interests o
f consumers".

United States

In 1999 an estimated 5,000 deaths, 325,000 hospitalizations and 76 million illnesses were
foodborne in the US.

In 2001, the

Center for Science in the Public Interest

petitioned the

United States Department of

to require meat packers to remove

spinal cords

before processing cattle carcasses for
human consumption, a measure
designed to lessen the risk of infection by variant

Jakob disease
. The petition was supported by the

American Public Health Association

Consumer Federation of America
, the

Government Accountability Project
, the

Consumers League
, and Safe Tables Our Priority. This was opposed by the

National Cattlemen's
Beef Association
, the National Renderers Association, the

National Meat Association
, the Pork
Producers Council, sheep raisers,

milk producers, the Turkey Federation, and eight other
organizations from the animal
derived food industry. This was part of a larger controversy
regarding the United States' violation of

World Health Organization

proscriptions to lessen the
risk of infection by variant Creutzfeldt
Jakob disease.
citation nee

None of the US Department of Health and Human Services targets

regarding incidence of
foodborne infections were reached in 2007.


World Health Organiz
ation Food Safety Department

The WHO provides scientific advice for organizations and the public on issues concerning the
safety of food. It serves as a medium linking the

food safet

systems in countries around the
world. Food safety is currently one of WHO's top ten priorities. Food Safety is one of the major
issues in our world today, and the Organization calls for more systematic and aggressive steps to
be taken to significantly r
educe the risk of foodborne diseases.

The Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases

The Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases is a department under the
WHO. Its mission is to reduce the serious negative impact of foodb
orne diseases worldwide.
According to the WHO website, food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are leading causes of
illness and death in less developed countries, killing approximately 3.8 million people annually,
most of whom are children.

WHO works clos
ely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to
address food safety issues along the entire food production chain
from production to
using new methods of risk analysis. These methods provide efficient, science
sed tools to improve food safety, thereby benefiting both public health and economic


Moulds, Yeasts, Bacteria

Moulds cause spoilage of food and fodder. Some strains produce mycotoxines such as ochratoxin

in coffee and in cocoa which spreads out over the entire chocolate market.

They cause off flavour in food and destroy paper, wood, drugs, cosmetics etc. Moulds can cause
allergies and infections.

Mouldy coffee in Trieste

In August 2006 great amount of Ro
busta coffee were found to be mouldy in Triest warehouse.

The beans in Trieste are thought to have been damaged by excess moisture on transport. Bags of
coffee are dumped if they contain more than five mouldy beans or 10 partially mouldy beans per


Allergies caused by moulds however are not so frequent as they seem to be. The most important
sources of allergies


Dogs,cats and other pets as 70% of all allergy cases.

Get rid of dogs and cats and you have solved 70% of your problems.


dust, furniture, mites

Pollen, grass

Trees and shrubs

Food with chemical preservatives, lactose, albumen, milk, eggs

Odorous substances

Moulds as last item of the list of allergenic sources.

To avoid mould allergy don't get in contact with cheese like Roq

, Camembert

or Brie

Keep perishable food always refrigerated to reduce mould growth.

Don't keep restover of fruits and vegetables in the kitchen. Keep it outside of the house.

Keep away from garbage [

Culture media for moulds and yeasts

Moulds and yeasts spoil foods. It is therefore important to control raw materials and finished. A
useful medium is the Yeast Chloranphenicol

dextrose Agar. Moulds grow as large colonies and
are easily identified. Yeasts grow as small colonies, Both types of microorganism can grow with
beautiful colors.

Moulds can be phytopathogen and can cause serious damage to agriculture.

Moulds have also

a good side. They produce antibiotica like Penicillin, Cephalosporin and
Griseofulvin and many substances in industrial scale such as citric acid, succinic acid, glucuronic
acid, and malic acid. Moulds can also be used in the production of polymer such as

They are used to produce beta
carotene, enzymes such as amylase glucoamylase, Protease,
Lipase, pectinase, cellulase, lactase, catalase some types of cheese, sausages, fermentation of
certain food such as soya, rice and corn. Examples of pathoge
n moulds:

Aspergillus candidus:

It has slow growth. It produces infections. Citrinin

is formed. A. candidus grows down to
a pH of 2.1 and aw 0,75.

Aspergillus fischerianus:

A.fischerianus can survive 100° for over 60 minutes !

Aspergillus flavus:

illus flavus causes broncopulmonary allergy. It grows up to 42 to 45°. It produces

B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and other mycotoxins. The toxins are present
in peanuts and their products, pistachio nuts and Brazil nuts.In cereals from warm r
(corn,wheat rice)

Several brands of dried figs

with origin from Turkey and Greece have high amount of
aflatoxin B1,B2, G1 and G2. The aflatoxins which are found on these samples are located
in the interior of the fruits. As spoiled figs are detect
ed under UV light as they are
packed, only the fruits with mould contamination from inside are not removed and are
often eaten despite a high level up to 900 microgram/Kg of aflatoxin B1. (Only 2
microgram are allowed). Bad hygienic condition during harves
t, drying, transport of figs
and weather conditions such as high humidity and high temperatures are the cause of
rising mould spoilage. Consumer should look inside the figs and discard those which are
dark. [

Detection of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

Detection of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

For the detection of A. flavus
and A parasiticus the use of AFPA (Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus Agar). Incu
at 30° during 42
48 hours (not longer).

Reading of the plate: A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius

grow leaving orange
yellow color under the colony.

Aspergillus niger can produce yellow but not orange color under the colony.


Grows rapidly. It is present in flower pots, compost, garbage and cereals It grows at a
minimum of 10
12o grows best at 37
43° and as maximum 52
55°. Conids may survive
60 minutes at 80° and 10 minutes at 85°.

Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pat
hogen Aspergillus. It may act as secondary
pathogen but also as primary agent.

It does not attack the skin, but it causes severe infections of ear, of synus and the
respiratory tract (lungs)

The temperature optimum of growth is 50°, but it also grows at
50°. Its spores are very
small. It causes allergies an produces fumigatin

Interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and host during lung infection:

fumigatus can be found in hay, soils and compost piles. It may cause invasive
aspergillosis in lung
s of immunosuppressed hosts.

Grahl et al 2011 studied invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in rats adding new
understanding of the interactivity of Aspergillus fumigatus and the host.. The authors
report that Aspergillus fumigatus is exposed to oxygen deplet
ed microenvironments
during infection of the lung tissue by the mould. This reduces the oxygen available to the
invading pathogenic mould which respond changing its energy path to fermentation
producing ethanol. According to the authors the fermentation cy
cle of the mould also
influences the host immune response to the pathogen.[
] Aspergillus glaucus


Its growth is quick,it is worldwide spread in nature.

It is xerotolerant spo
iling food with low water content such as oat flakes and dried fruits,
food with high amount of sugar such as jam, syrups and sweets, meat products with low
water content, such as ham, in cereals ,in breads and pastries.In East Asia Aspergillus
glaucus is
used for the fermentation of soy and fish products. Aspergillus nidulans:

It grows rapidly from 6° to 48° and aw
0,80. It is pathogenic and builds Sterigmatocystin

It is present in cereals, breads and pastries an wet leather. Aspergillus niger


rapid growing colonies is infectious, allergenic and produces the mycotoxin koji


It is present in soil, dust, on cereals and fruits. It is strong lipolytic.

It spoils food such as cereals, breads and pastries, meat products, fats, nuts, raisins an
onions. It can spoil material such as paper, leather,plastics and paint. In biotechnology
Aspergillu niger is used for the production of organic acids and enzymes. Aspergillus

Slow growing, produces ochratoxin A.

It is present in cereal stor
ehouse, bread, pistachio, salami and ham.


Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin which was first described in 1965 starting from
cultures of Aspergillus ochraceus. It stays for long time in blood stream. It is toxic for
kidneys being responsible for kidney

diseases in pigs from Norway. Aspergillus oryzae:

Rapid growing from 7° to 47°. It is used for fermentation of many East Asia foods.
Aspergillus penicilloides:

Very slow growth, pathogenic. It can grow at aw

0.75. It is present in cereal storehouse.

grows on cereals and meat products with low content of water. Aspergillus tamarii:

Rapid growing even at aw 0.78. Aspergillus terreus:

It is infectious and produces citrinin

and patulin.

It is present in cereals and corn,leather and paper. Aspergillus

It is pathogenic and produces Sterigmatocystin

It grows by aw 0.75 and is present on
cereals, corn,nuts, rice and meat products. Aspergillus wentii:

It is present on salami, ham, barley, leather and nuts. Fusarium culmorum


Microsporum gypseum

Penicillium aurantiogriseum:

Grows from
4° to 35° producing patulin,Penicillin and nephotoxic mycotoxins.

It is present on damp or wet cereals.It can create heat up to 64°.

Fusarium bacteria grow at CZID (Czapek Iprodione Dichloran
Agar) Penicillium

Allergenic,growing from 12° to 30° Penicillium camemberti:

Produces mycotoxins cyclopiazon acid, toxic concentrations are not built during the
production of camembert cheese. Penicillium chrysogenum:

Allergenic, produce
s ochratoxin A, patulin

and penicillin.

It grows from
4° up to 33°

it is found in soil and in cereal storehouses, on bread, meat products, very often on
leather, fruit juices, nuts and damp stored books. Penicillium expansum:

Spoils stored fruits such
as apples and decaying plants. It produces citrinin and patulin.In
juices there is a rapid decay of taste due to production of acetoinand diacetyl. Active
enzymes such as proteases,cellulases, lipases, amylases are build, spoiling leather and
other materia

Grows from
6° up to 35° Penicillium glabrum:

It is frequent and produces various toxins Penicillium hirsutum:

Grows on onions and horseradish. Penicillium italicum:

It grows with a pH 1.6 up to 9.8 and from
3° up to 34°. It is very frequent on ci
tric fruits
and all kind of food. Penicillium roquefortii:

Produces roquefortine A and B, patulin, festuclavine,emerofortine, cyclopiazon acid

others. Cultures of P.roquefortii sold for the production of cheese do not form
cancerogenic substances.


is present in refrigerators, on fat, cereals, sliced bread and juices. Penicillium

Produces ochratoxin A, citrinin and penicillin.

It is present on cereals, peanuts and vegetables.

Penicillium verrucosum

grows on DRYS (Dichloran rosebengal
yeast extract sucrose
agar at 20° for 7 to 8 days and produces under the colonies a violet color.

On DRYS there also can grow Penicillium aurantiogriseum

and Penicillium

producing xanthomegnin

and Viomellein


n mentagrophytes

Trichothecium roseum

Extreme xerophylic

Extreme xerophylic moulds like Xeromyces bisporum, moulds of the Eremascus

and Erotium halophilicum grow on Malt extract agar+50% Glucose (MY50G)
incubating at 25° for 1 to 3 weeks. A
small pice of the sample is placed on the medium.

Malt extract agar+70% glucose fructose (MY70GF) The medium contains 35% Glucose
and 35% fructose. Incubation at 25° for 4 weeks. Eroticum spp. shows black conids under
a stereo microscope. Heat
resistant m

resistant moulds which can produce spoilage are Byssochlamys spp, Talaromyces
spp, Neosartorya spp

and Eupenicillium

in fruit juices , concentrated products and jams.

Neosartorya fischeri

has D88°= 1,4 min, z= 5,6°

Culture of heat

Adjust the samples at 35°Brix and pH 3,5

Heat two 50 ml portions of the sample in water bath 30 minutes at 80°, cool down
quickly. Add double concentrated malt extract aga
r to the portions and distribute it in
Petri plates. Incubate at 30° for 30 days. Readings should be made weekly. If bacteria
may be present add 100 mg/l chloramphenicol.


Write down
Brief Introduction

zard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HACCP)


Food Safety

Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HACCP)


HACCP Principles & Application Guidelines


Dairy Grade A Voluntary HACCP




Retail & Food Servi


Seafood HACCP


Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points (HACCP)

HACCP is a management system in which food safety is addressed

through the analysis and
control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement
and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.

Dairy Grade A Voluntary HACCP


estions and Answers About NCIMS Dairy HACCP



Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance

First Edition


Questions &
Answers for the Juice

HACCP Regulation

Retail and Food Service HACCP


Managing Food Safety: HACCP Principles

Seafood HACCP


Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance


FDA's Evaluation of
the Seafood HACCP Program 2004/2005

The first section of this document sets out the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point (HACCP) system adopted by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission. The second
section provides general guidance for the application of the system while recognizing that the
details of application may vary depending on the circumstances of the food operation

The HACCP system, which is science based and systematic, identifies specific hazards and
measures for their control to ensure the safety of food. HACCP is a tool to assess hazards and
establish control systems that fo
cus on prevention rather than relying mainly on end
testing. Any HACCP system is capable of accommodating change, such as advances in
equipment design, processing procedures or technological developments.

HACCP can be applied throughout the food ch
ain from primary production to final consumption
and its implementation should be guided by scientific evidence of risks to human health. As well
as enhancing food safety, implementation of HACCP can provide other significant benefits. In
addition, the app
lication of HACCP systems can aid inspection by regulatory authorities and
promote international trade by increasing confidence in food safety.

The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of
management and the work forc
e. It also requires a multidisciplinary approach; this
multidisciplinary approach should include, when appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary
health, production, microbiology, medicine, public health, food technology, environmental
health, chemistr
y and engineering, according to the particular study. The application of HACCP
is compatible with the implementation of quality management systems, such as the ISO 9000
series, and is the system of choice in the management of food safety within such system

While the application of HACCP to food safety was considered here, the concept can be applied
to other aspects of food quality.


Control (verb

To take all necessary actions to ensure and maintain compliance with criteria
established in the
HACCP plan.

Control (noun):

The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being

Control measure
: Any action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety
hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

ective action:

Any action to be taken when the results of monitoring at the CCP indicate a
loss of control.

Critical Control Point (CCP):

A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent
or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to a
n acceptable level.

Critical limit:

A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.


Failure to meet a critical limit.

Flow diagram:

A systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations used in the
production or manu
facture of a particular food item.


A system which identifies, evaluates, and controls hazards which are significant for
food safety.

HACCP plan:

A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure
control of hazards which are si
gnificant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under


A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to
cause an adverse health effect.

Hazard analysis:

The process of collecting and
evaluating information on hazards and
conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore
should be addressed in the HACCP plan.


The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurement
s of control
parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.


A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food chain including raw materials, from
primary production to final consumption.


Obtaining evidence that the elements of the
HACCP plan are effective.


What is
Proper care and food sanitation


What is
Food handling for kitchen and service staff.