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Biology 20

Unit 1

“Introduction to Biology”

http://greenallbiology20.wikispaces.com/


Key Concepts
:

-

Biology

-

Branches of Biology

o

z
oology

o

b
otany

o

m
icrobiology

o

c
ytology

o

ecology

-

Microscop
es

o

light,
electron

o

m
easuring with the microscope

o

m
agnification
, r
esolution

(resolving power)

o

p
roper care and use (microscopes)

o

p
reparing a wet mount slide

o

f
ield of view

o

p
arts of the microscope

-

Chapter 1


“Biology in the 21
st

Century (sections 1.1
-
1.5, pages 2
-
27)

o

b
iosphere

o

b
iodiversity

o

s
pecies

o

o
rganism

o

c
ell

o

m
etabolism

o

D
NA

o

s
ystem

o

e
cosystem

o

h
omeostasis

o

e
volution

o

a
daptation

o

o
bservation

o

d
ata

o

h
ypothesis

o

e
xperiments

o

i
ndependent, dependant variable

o

m
icroscope

o

g
ene

o

m
olecular genetics

o

b
iotechnology

o

t
ransgenic

-

2 important theories in Biology

o

Alvarez Theory



e
xtinction of the dinosaurs



Chicxulub Crater

o

Theory of Natural Selection (Evolution)



Charles Darwin



“Survival of the Fittest”




Biology 20

Unit 2 Review

“Diversity of Life”



part 1


Key concepts:

Taxonomy

-

taxon (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species)

-

dichotomous key

-

3 domains


Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

-

6 Kingdoms


Bacteria, Archaea, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

-

binomial nomenclature (3 rules)

-

use of Latin in taxonomy

-

Linnaeus (Ca
rl von Linne)

-

prokaryotes / eukaryotes


Viruses



classification, composition, characteristics, viral infections

Prokaryo
te
s



Archaea & Bacteria:

-

obligate anaerobes

-

obligate aerobes

-

facultative aerobes

Archaea: 4 groups:

-

methanogens

-

psychrophiles

-

halophiles

-

thermophiles

Kingdom Protista



3 groups (plant
-
like, fungal
-
like, animal
-
like)

-

Plant
-
like protists


6 phyla


Euglenoids (Euglenophyta), Diatoms
(Bacillariophyta), Dinoflagellates (Dinoflagellata), Green Algae (Chlorophyta),
Brown Algae (Phaeo
phyta), Red Algae (Rhodophyta)

-

Fungal
-
like protists


2 phyla


slime molds (Myxomycota), water molds
(Oomycota)

-

Animal
-
like protists


4 phyla
-

Zooflagellates (Mastigophora), Sarcodines
(Rhizopoda), Ciliates (Ciliophora), Sporozoans (Apicomplexa)




















Biology 20

Unit 2 Review

“Diversity of Life”



part 2

Key concepts:

Kingdom Fungi



chapter 19, section 19.5

-

4 main groups:

o

Primitive fungi (phylum Chytridiomycota)

o

Sac fungi (phylum Ascomycota)

o

Molds (phylum Zygomycota)

o

Club Fungi (phylum
Basidoimycota)

Kingdom Plantae



chapter 20, sections 20.2 & 20.3

-

2 main categories: non
-
vascular & vascular

o

Non
-
vascular plants


liverworts (phylum Hepatophyta) , hornworts
(phylum Anthocerophyta) and mosses (phylum Bryophyta)

o

Vascular plants


can be su
bdivided into: Seedless and seed plants



Seedless plants (spore producers)
-

club mosses (phylum
Lycophyta), whisk ferns, horsetails and ferns (phylum Pterophyta)



Seed plants


two types:



Gymnosperms


(“naked seeds”)
-

cycads, ginkgos and
conifers



Angiospe
rms


(“flowering plants)


two types:

o

Monocots

o

Dicots

Kingdom Animalia



chapters 23, 24, 25

-

Two types: invertebrates & vertebrates

-

Invertebrates:

o

Sponges (Phylum Porifera)

o

Cnidarians (Phylum Coelenterata)

o

Flatworms (Phylum Platyheminthes)

o

Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda)

o

Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida)

o

Mollusks (Phylum Mollusca)

o

Arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda)

o

Echinoderms (Phylum Echindoermata)

One main vertebrate group:

-

Chordates (Phylum Chordata)

o

Sub
-
phylum Vertebrata


7 classes:



Jawless Fi
sh



Cartilaginous Fish



Bony Fish



Amphibians



Reptiles



Birds



Mammals



Biology 20

Unit 3


Ecological Organizations



Chapter 13


“Principles of Ecology”


-

ecology

-

community, ecosystem, biome

-

observation, experimentation, modeling

-

biotic, abiotic

-

biodiversity

-

keystone species

-

producers, autotrophs

-

consumers, heterotrophs

-

chemosynthesis

-

food chain
, food web

-

herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, decomposers

-

specialist, generalist

-

trophic level

-

hydrological cycle, biogeochemical cycle, carbon cycle, nit
rogen cycle (nitrogen
fixation), phosphorus cycle

-

biomass, energy pyramid